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Low back pain in athletes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511655/comparison-of-isokinetic-trunk-flexion-and-extension-torques-and-powers-between-athletes-and-nonathletes
#1
Amira Ben Moussa Zouita, Fatma Zohra Ben Salah, Catherine Dziri, Chris Beardsley
This study is aimed to perform and compare maximal concentric isokinetic trunk extension and flexion torques and powers between high-level athletes and a control population. In addition, the ratio of isokinetic trunk extension and flexion torques was measured, and compared between groups. Eighteen high-level male athletes and 15 male nonathletes without low back pain were recruited. Subjects performed isokinetic trunk extension and flexion at 60°/sec, 90°/sec, and 120°/sec through a maximal range of motion in a dynamometer...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430880/frequency-and-anatomical-distribution-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-in-sacroiliac-joints-of-young-athletes-exploring-background-noise-towards-a-data-driven-definition-of-sacroiliitis-in-early-spondyloarthritis
#2
Ulrich Weber, Anne Grethe Jurik, Anna Zejden, Ejnar Larsen, Steen Hylgaard Jørgensen, Kaspar Rufibach, Christian Schioldan, Søren Schmidt-Olsen
OBJECTIVE: Low grade bone marrow edema (BME) was reported in the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) of 25% of healthy individuals and mechanical back pain patients, challenging the imaging discrimination from early spondyloarthritis (SpA). It is unknown whether stress injury in competition sports may trigger BME. We explored frequency and anatomical distribution of SIJ MRI lesions in recreational and elite athletes. METHODS: After pre-test calibration, semicoronal SIJ MRI scans of 20 recreational runners (RR) before/after running and 22 elite ice-hockey players (IP) were assessed by 3 blinded readers for BME and structural lesions using an SIJ quadrant-based module...
February 12, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350556/rehabilitation-of-a-young-athlete-with-extension-based-low-back-pain-addressing-motor-control-impairments-and-central-sensitization
#3
John J Winslow, Mark Jackson, Andrew Getzin, Michael Costello
OBJECTIVE:   To describe the conservative management of a young athlete with extension-based (EB) low back pain (LBP). BACKGROUND:   We present the case of a 15-year-old female high school gymnast with a 4-year history of EB LBP. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a healed spondylolysis and significant atrophy with fatty infiltrate of the lumbar multifidi muscles (LMM). She had several courses of outpatient orthopaedic rehabilitation that focused on core muscle strengthening (improving activation and strength of the LMM and transversus abdominus muscle in a neutral pelvic position) without long-lasting improvement...
February 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276206/utility-of-stir-mri-in-detecting-the-pain-generator-in-asymmetric-bilateral-pars-fracture-a-report-of-5-cases
#4
Kazuta Yamashita, Toshinori Sakai, Yoichiro Takata, Fumio Hayashi, Fumitake Tezuka, Masatoshi Morimoto, Yutaka Kinoshita, Akihiro Nagamachi, Takashi Chikawa, Hiroshi Yonezu, Kosaku Higashino, Tadanori Sakamaki, Koichi Sairyo
Lumbar spondylolysis usually occurs as a stress fracture in the pars interarticularis of the vertebra. It is a prevalent sports-related disorder and a common cause of low back pain. We encountered five athletes (4 males, 1 female) with severe low back pain. Mean age was 14.5 years. All five patients were found to have bilateral pars fracture. In all cases, staging based on the findings from computed tomography scan of the right and left pars fracture was different. On short tau inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (STIR-MRI) of the comparatively newer more recently injured side, high signal intensity changes were obvious and dominant at the intra- and extraosseous area, which would indicate tissue edema and/or bleeding...
February 15, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259814/diagnosis-of-psychosocial-risk-factors-in-prevention-of-low-back-pain-in-athletes-mispex
#5
Pia-Maria Wippert, Anne-Katrin Puschmann, Adamantios Arampatzis, Marcus Schiltenwolf, Frank Mayer
Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common pain syndrome in athletes, responsible for 28% of missed training days/year. Psychosocial factors contribute to chronic pain development. This study aims to investigate the transferability of psychosocial screening tools developed in the general population to athletes and to define athlete-specific thresholds. Methods: Data from a prospective multicentre study on LBP were collected at baseline and 1-year follow-up (n=52 athletes, n=289 recreational athletes and n=246 non-athletes)...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249454/biomechanical-consequences-of-running-with-deep-core-muscle-weakness
#6
Margaret E Raabe, Ajit M W Chaudhari
The deep core muscles are often neglected or improperly trained in athletes. Improper function of this musculature may lead to abnormal spinal loading, muscle strain, or injury to spinal structures, all of which have been associated with increased low back pain (LBP) risk. The purpose of this study was to identify potential strategies used to compensate for weakness of the deep core musculature during running and to identify accompanying changes in compressive and shear spinal loads. Kinematically-driven simulations of overground running were created for eight healthy young adults in OpenSim at increasing levels of deep core muscle weakness...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241047/knee-misalignment-and-exercise-amount-predictive-value-for-chronic-low-back-pain-in-young-competitive-athletes
#7
Andreas Rosenhagen, Daniel Niederer, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer
Sports medical examinations of juvenile athletes provide an opportunity for preventive measures against sports-related diseases. Determining the leg axis deviation as a risk factor for future constraints may offer approaches for such measures. Data were obtained from 789 youth athletes: 166 with coronal plane knee misalignment and 623 without. After a seven-year period, 64 participants (m: 33, f: 31) from both groups were reassessed for the incidence of nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP). To distinguish participants with increased risk for CLBP, contingency tables for comparison of expected and joint frequency distribution testing and receivers operating characteristic (ROC) analyses for the weekly training time were conducted...
February 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234556/transversus-abdominis-activation-and-timing-improves-following-core-stability-training-a-randomized-trial
#8
Noelle M Selkow, Molly R Eck, Stephen Rivas
Background: Patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP) often present with a decrease in transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle activation and delayed onset of contraction with extremity movements, potentially contributing to recurrent LBP. Core stability is required for extremity movement and if the timing of when the TrA contracts is not corrected patients may continue to experience LBP. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a four-week core stability rehabilitation program on TrA activation ratio and when the TrA initiates contraction during upper extremity movements in subjects with and without LBP...
December 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174457/what-does-the-shape-of-our-back-tell-us-correlation-between-sacrum-orientation-and-lumbar-lordosis
#9
Hendrik Schmidt, Maxim Bashkuev, Jeronimo Weerts, Joern Altenscheidt, Christoph Maier, Sandra Reitmaier
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Sacral slope and lumbar lordosis (LL) have been studied extensively in recent years via x-ray examinations and strongly correlate with each other. This raises, first, the question of the reproducibility of this correlation in multiple standing phases and, second, if this correlation can be achieved using non-radiological measurement tools. PURPOSE: This study aimed (1) to determine the extent to which the back-shape measurements correspond to the correlations between the sacral slope and LL found in previous radiological investigations, (2) to identify a possible effect of age and gender on this correlation, and (3) to evaluate the extent to which this correlation is affected by repeated standing phases...
November 22, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158960/a-combined-treatment-approach-emphasizing-impairment-based-manual-therapy-and-exercise-for-hip-related-compensatory-injury-in-elite-athletes-a-case-series
#10
Steve Short, Gretchen Short, Donald Strack, Philip Anloague, Brian Brewster
Background/Purpose: Athletes experiencing hip, groin, and low back pain often exhibit similar clinical characteristics. Individuals with hip, groin and low back pain may have the presence of multiple concurrent pathoanatomical diagnoses. Regardless, similar regional characteristics and dysfunction may contribute to the patient's chief complaint, potentially creating a sub-group of individuals that may be defined by lumbopelvic and hip mobility limitations, motor control impairments, and other shared clinical findings...
November 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140811/prevalence-of-spondylolysis-in-symptomatic-adolescent-athletes-an-assessment-of-sport-risk-in-nonelite-athletes
#11
Mitchell Selhorst, Anastasia Fischer, James MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of spondylolysis by sport in nonelite adolescent athletes with low back pain (LBP). DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Hospital-based sports medicine clinic. PATIENTS: The medical charts of 1025 adolescent athletes with LBP (age 15 ± 1.8 years) were examined; 308 (30%) were diagnosed with a spondylolysis. ASSESSMENT OF RISK: Risk of spondylolysis was assessed in 11 sports for males and 14 sports for females...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097953/a-young-female-athlete-with-acute-low-back-pain-caused-by-stage-iv-breast-cancer
#12
Evan A Kahn
Objective: The purpose of this case report is to describe the case of a young female athlete with low back pain caused by metastatic breast cancer. Clinical Features: A 27-year-old woman presented with low back pain after striking a ball during kickball 3 days earlier. Because of the mechanism of injury and onset, the patient was originally diagnosed with a lumbar spine sprain/strain. Intervention/Outcome: After radiographs were obtained and were read as unremarkable, a 2-week trial of care was initiated that included soft-tissue mobilizations, anti-inflammatory medications from her primary care physician, and therapeutic rehabilitation exercises...
September 2017: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093794/minimally-invasive-versus-conventional-repair-of-spondylolysis-in-athletes-a-review-of-outcomes-and-return-to-play
#13
REVIEW
John Paul G Kolcun, Lee Onn Chieng, Karthik Madhavan, Michael Y Wang
Spondylolysis from pars fracture is a common injury among young athletes, which can limit activity and cause chronic back pain. While current literature has examined the relative benefits of surgical and conservative management of these injuries, no study has yet compared outcomes between conventional direct repair of pars defects and modern minimally invasive procedures. The goals of surgery are pain resolution, return to play at previous levels of activity, and a shorter course of recovery. In this review, the authors have attempted to quantify any differences in outcome between patients treated with conventional or minimally invasive techniques...
October 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028625/difference-in-kick-motion-of-adolescent-soccer-players-in-presence-and-absence-of-low-back-pain
#14
Michio Tojima, Suguru Torii
Many adolescent soccer players experience low back pain (LBP). However, there are no reports studying the kick motion of adolescent soccer players experiencing LBP. This study aimed to clarify the kick motion of adolescent soccer players in the presence and absence of LBP. We recruited 42 adolescent soccer players and divided them into two groups according to the presence of LBP (LBP group, n=22) and absence of LBP (NBP group, n=20). We measured real-time kick motion using a three-dimensional motion analysis system...
January 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993288/the-relationship-between-sacral-slope-and-symptomatic-isthmic-spondylolysis-in-a-cohort-of-high-school-athletes-a-retrospective-analysis
#15
Leigh F Hanke, Yetsa A Tuakli-Wosornu, Julian R Harrison, Peter J Moley
BACKGROUND: Spondylolysis with and without anterolisthesis is the most common cause of structural back pain in children and adolescents, but few predictive factors have been confirmed. An association between abnormal sacropelvic orientation and both spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis has been supported in the literature. Sacral slope and other sacropelvic measurements are easily accessible variables that could aid clinicians in assessing active adolescents with low back pain, particularly when the diagnosis of spondylolysis is suspected...
October 6, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955005/accurate-diagnosis-of-chronic-low-back-pain-in-a-high-level-college-athlete-a-case-report
#16
Kenji Yokoyama, Kazuta Yamashita, Masatoshi Morimoto, Fumitake Tezuka, Fumio Hayashi, Yoichiro Takata, Toshinori Sakai, Kosaku Higashino, Takashi Chikawa, Hiroshi Yonezu, Akihiro Nagamachi, Koichi Sairyo
A 21-year-old woman who was high-level college softball player presented with a 6-month history of low back pain that had been treated unsuccessfully by medication at local clinics. There was tenderness in the left paravertebral muscle at the lower lumbar level. X-ray and computed tomography revealed congenital scoliosis and an L6 hemivertebra. Short tau inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging showed a fluid collection at the left L6-S1 facet joint. We performed a diagnostic facet injection, consisting of 1% lidocaine and steroids, that was infiltrated into the left facet joint at L6-S1...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902756/sacroiliac-joint-dysfunction-in-the-athlete-diagnosis-and-management
#17
REVIEW
Rebecca Peebles, Christopher E Jonas
Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is a common cause of low back pain in the athlete, especially in sports with repetitive, asymmetric loading. Complex anatomy and broad pain referral pattern make diagnosis difficult. Identifying three or more positive physical examination maneuvers for the SIJ improves examination sensitivity and specificity. Imaging is rarely helpful in establishing the diagnosis but is often used to rule out other pathology. Conservative management with activity modification, medication, physical therapy, manipulation and bracing is first line treatment...
September 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817410/fatty-infiltrate-of-the-lumbar-multifidus-muscles-predicts-return-to-play-in-young-athletes-with-extension-based-low-back-pain
#18
John Winslow, Andrew Getzin, Hilary Greenberger, Walter Silbert
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive value of fatty infiltrate of the lumbar multifidus muscles (LMM) for return to play in young athletes with extension-based low back pain (EB LBP). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Hospital-based sports medicine practice. PATIENTS: Sixty-two athletes, 61.3% female, and 38.7% male, mean age 14.8 years, with a primary complaint of EB LBP who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); 46...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795014/evaluation-and-management-of-lower-back-pain-in-young-athletes
#19
REVIEW
Dilip R Patel, Elizabeth Kinsella
Lower back pain in young athletes is a common problem. The prevalence of back pain from different causes in adolescent age group is between 20% and 30%. However, the incidence of low back pain in young athletes varies widely in different sports. Overuse injuries are the most common cause of low back pain in young athletes. In case of overuse injuries, the cause and effect relationship between back pain and specific condition is often difficult to establish. In adolescent athletes, the most common underlying identified cause of low back pain is lumbar spondylolysis...
July 2017: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795010/evaluation-and-management-of-knee-pain-in-young-athletes-overuse-injuries-of-the-knee
#20
REVIEW
Dilip R Patel, Ana Villalobos
Recurrent or chronic activity related knee pain is common in young athletes. Numerous intrinsic conditions affecting the knee can cause such pain. In addition, knee pain can be referred pain from low back, hip or pelvic pathology. The most common cause of knee pain in young athletes is patellofemoral pain syndrome, or more appropriately termed idiopathic anterior knee pain. Although, numerous anatomical and biomechanical factors have been postulated to contribute the knee pain in young athletes, the most common underlying reason is overuse injury...
July 2017: Translational pediatrics
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