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PPAR alpha

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670038/taiwanese-green-propolis-ethanol-extract-delays-the-progression-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-rats-treated-with-streptozotocin-high-fat-diet
#1
Li-Han Chen, Yi-Wen Chien, Mei-Ling Chang, Chia-Chung Hou, Ching-Hung Chan, Hung-Wei Tang, Hui-Yu Huang
Taiwanese green propolis ethanol extract (TGPE) is produced only in Taiwan and has a different composition from other types of propolis. TGPE is known for its anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti-microbial properties, but the effects and mechanisms of TGPE in the modulation of diabetes are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGPE on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a streptozotocin/high-fat-diet (STZ/HFD)-induced T2DM rat model. The results revealed that TGPE delayed the development and progression of T2DM and reduced the severity of β-cell failure...
April 18, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619245/selective-deletion-of-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-in-fibroblasts-causes-dermal-fibrosis-by-attenuated-lrg1-expression
#2
Ming Keat Sng, Jeremy Soon Kiat Chan, Ziqiang Teo, Terri Phua, Eddie Han Pin Tan, Jonathan Wei Kiat Wee, Nikki Jun Ning Koh, Chek Kun Tan, Jia Peng Chen, Mintu Pal, Benny Meng Kiat Tong, Ya Lin Tnay, Xuan Rui Ng, Pengcheng Zhu, Shunsuke Chiba, Xiaomeng Wang, Walter Wahli, Nguan Soon Tan
Connective tissue diseases of the skin are characterized by excessive collagen deposition in the skin and internal organs. Fibroblasts play a pivotal role in the clinical presentation of these conditions. Nuclear receptor peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are therapeutic targets for dermal fibrosis, but the contribution of the different PPAR subtypes are poorly understood. Particularly, the role of fibroblast PPARβ/δ in dermal fibrosis has not been elucidated. Thus, we generated a mouse strain with selective deletion of PPARβ/δ in the fibroblast (FSPCre- Pparb/d -/- ) and interrogated its epidermal and dermal transcriptome profiles...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614883/bergamottin-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-weight-regulation-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#3
Jeong-Hyeon Ko, Dongwoo Nam, Jae-Young Um, Sang Hoon Jung, Kwang Seok Ahn
Obesity is a serious and increasing health problem worldwide, and the inhibition of adipogenesis is considered to be a potential therapeutic target for it. Bergamottin (BGM), a component of grapefruit juice, has been reported to regulate lipolysis. However, the physiological role of BGM in obesity has not been evaluated so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BGM on obesity in 3T3-L1 cells and in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). BGM inhibited adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells along with a significant decrease in the lipid content by downregulating the expression of two critical adipogenic factors, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP[Formula: see text]) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR[Formula: see text])...
April 4, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596898/histamine-deficient-mice-do-not-respond-to-the-antidepressant-like-effects-of-oleoylethanolamide
#4
Alessia Costa, Claudia Cristiano, Tommaso Cassano, Cristina Anna Gallelli, Silvana Gaetani, Carla Ghelardini, Patrizio Blandina, Antonio Calignano, M Beatrice Passani, Gustavo Provensi
It has been suggested that the bioactive lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA), a potent agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) possesses anti-depressant-like effects in several preclinical models. We recently demonstrated that several of OEA's behavioural actions require the integrity of the brain histaminergic system, and that an intact histaminergic neurotransmission is specifically required for selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors to exert their anti-depressant-like effect...
March 26, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580823/gw0742-ppar-beta-agonist-attenuates-hepatic-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-improving-hepatic-energy-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#5
Flavia Maria Silva-Veiga, Tamiris Lima Rachid, Letícia de Oliveira, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatic steatosis are intertwined with insulin resistance. PPARs are at the crossroads of these pathways. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GW0742 (PPAR-beta agonist) on hepatic energy metabolism and ER stress in a murine diet-induced obesity model. HF diet caused overweight, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic inflammation (increased NF-kB, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 protein expression) and favored hepatic lipogenesis, leading to ER stress, with ultrastructural and molecular alterations, ending up in proapoptotic stimulus...
March 23, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573196/efatutazone-and-t0901317-exert-synergistically-therapeutic-effects-in-acquired-gefitinib-resistant-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells
#6
Jie Ni, Lei-Lei Zhou, Li Ding, Xue-Qin Zhang, Xia Zhao, Huizi Li, Haixia Cao, Siwen Liu, Zhuo Wang, Rong Ma, Jianzhong Wu, Jifeng Feng
The development of acquired EGFR-TKI therapeutic resistance is still a serious clinical problem in the management of lung adenocarcinoma. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists may exhibit anti-tumor activity by transactivating genes which are closely associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. However, it remains not clear whether efatutazone has similar roles in lung adenocarcinoma cells of gefitinib resistant such as HCC827-GR and PC9-GR. It has been demonstrated by us that efatutazone prominently increased the mRNA and protein expression of PPARγ, liver X receptor alpha (LXRα),as well as ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1)...
March 23, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567865/indomethacin-enhanced-brown-fat-activity
#7
Lei Hao, Jamie Kearns, Sheyenne Scott, Dayong Wu, Sean D Kodani, Christophe Morisseau, Bruce D Hammock, Xiaocun Sun, Shu Wang, Ling Zhao
Indomethacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to induce white adipocyte differentiation; however, its roles in brown adipocyte differentiation, and activation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and obesity are unknown. To address this issue, we treated mouse pre-brown cells with different doses of indomethacin, and delivered indomethacin to interscapular BAT (iBAT) of obese mice using implanted osmotic pumps. Indomethacin dose-dependently increased brown adipocyte differentiation, and upregulated both mRNA and protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma (γ) coactivator 1-alpha...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567540/silencing-zap70-prevents-hsp65-induced-reverse-cholesterol-transport-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-t-cells
#8
Jing Hu, Tiantian Luo, Dan Xi, Kai Guo, Lu Hu, Jinzhen Zhao, Si Chen, Zhigang Guo
T cell activation by antigens binding to the T cell receptor (TCR) must be properly regulated to ensure normal T cell development. The ζ chain-associated 70-kDa protein (ZAP70) is sequentially activated in response to TCR engagement and serves as a critical component of the TCR signaling pathway, which is essential for T cell activation. However, some roles of ZAP70 have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of ZAP70 on the cholesterol efflux rate, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and cell proliferation in T cells...
March 19, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567093/n-oleoyl-glycine-reduces-nicotine-reward-and-withdrawal-in-mice
#9
Giulia Donvito, Fabiana Piscitelli, Pretal Muldoon, Asti Jackson, Rosa Maria Vitale, Enrico D'Aniello, Catia Giordano, Bogna M Ignatowska-Jankowska, Mohammed A Mustafa, Francesca Guida, Gavin N Petrie, Linda Parker, Reem Smoum, Laura Sim-Selley, Sabatino Maione, Aron H Lichtman, M Imad Damaj, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Raphael Mechoulam
Cigarette smokers with brain damage involving the insular cortex display cessation of tobacco smoking, suggesting that this region may contribute to nicotine addiction. In the present study, we speculated that molecules in the insular cortex that are sensitive to experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice might provide leads to ameliorate nicotine addiction. Using targeted lipidomics, we found that TBI elicited substantial increases of a largely uncharacterized lipid, N-acyl-glycine, N-oleoyl-glycine (OlGly), in the insular cortex of mice...
March 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557214/current-understanding-and-future-perspectives-of-the-roles-of-sirtuins-in-the-reprogramming-and-differentiation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
Yi-Chao Hsu, Yu-Ting Wu, Chia-Ling Tsai, Yau-Huei Wei
In mammalian cells, there are seven members of the sirtuin protein family (SIRT1-7). SIRT1, SIRT6, and SIRT7 catalyze posttranslational modification of proteins in the nucleus, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are in the mitochondria and SIRT2 is in the cytosol. SIRT1 can deacetylate the transcription factor SOX2 and regulate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogramming through the miR-34a-SIRT1-p53 axis. SIRT2 can regulate the function of pluripotent stem cells through GSK3β. SIRT3 can positively regulate PPAR gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) expression during the differentiation of stem cells...
March 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524400/ampk-activation-by-pterostilbene-contributes-to-suppression-of-hepatic-gluconeogenic-gene-expression-and-glucose-production-in-h4iie-cells
#11
Guang Ren, Agnes M Rimando, Suresh T Mathews
Pterostilbene, a bioactive component of blueberries and grapes, shows structural similarity to resveratrol, and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, and cholesterol lowering effects. Recent evidence indicates that pterostilbene is an agonist of the nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α). Since PPAR-α agonists induce peroxisomal proliferation and fatty acid oxidation, we examined gene expression of acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1)...
April 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510153/the-influence-of-arachidonic-acid-metabolites-on-ppar-and-rxr-expression-in-bovine-uterine-cells
#12
A A Szczepańska, M Łupicka, B M Socha, A J Korzekwa
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the superfamily of nuclear receptors. Three isoforms have been described: alpha (PPARα), delta (PPARδ), and gamma (PPARγ). PPARs heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors (RXRs: RXRα, RXRβ and RXRγ). PPAR activity can be modulated by several ligands, including arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites. The aims of the study were to determine the effect of AA metabolites (prostaglandin [PG]E2 , PGF2α , leukotriene [LT]B4 , and LTC4 ) on mRNA (real-time PCR) and protein expression (Western blotting) of PPARα, PPARδ, and PPARγ, and on mRNA expression of RXRα, RXRβ, and RXRγ, in bovine epithelial, stromal, and myometrial primary uterine cells and in bovine stromal cells with silenced PPAR genes (N=10)...
March 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502862/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-coactivator-1-alpha-as-a-novel-target-for-bipolar-disorder-and-other-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Andrew A Nierenberg, Sharmin A Ghaznavi, Isadora Sande Mathias, Kristen K Ellard, Jessica A Janos, Louisa G Sylvia
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha) is a protein that regulates metabolism and inflammation by activating nuclear receptors, especially the family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). PGC-1 alpha and PPARs also regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, cellular energy production, thermogenesis, and lipid metabolism. Brain energy metabolism may also be regulated in part by the interaction between PGC-1 alpha and PPARs. Because neurodegenerative diseases (Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and bipolar disorder have been associated with dysregulated mitochondrial and brain energy metabolism, PGC-1 alpha may represent a potential drug target for these conditions...
January 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455954/the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-is-dispensable-for-cold-induced-adipose-tissue-browning-in-mice
#14
Merel Defour, Wieneke Dijk, Philip Ruppert, Emmani B M Nascimento, Patrick Schrauwen, Sander Kersten
OBJECTIVE: Chronic cold exposure causes white adipose tissue (WAT) to adopt features of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a process known as browning. Previous studies have hinted at a possible role for the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) in cold-induced browning. Here we aimed to investigate the importance of PPARα in driving transcriptional changes during cold-induced browning in mice. METHODS: Male wildtype and PPARα-/- mice were housed at thermoneutrality (28 °C) or cold (5 °C) for 10 days...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433142/ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-improves-hyperglycemia-induced-oxidative-stress-in-pancreatic-cells-by-potentiating-antioxidant-defense-system
#15
Habib Yaribeygi, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
BACKGROUND: Diabetes-induced oxidative stress has an essential role in pancreatic cells dysfunction. The present study aimed to evaluate whether peroxisome proliferator activated receptor- alpha (PPAR-α) induction by fenofibrate counterbalances oxidative stress in pancreatic cells. METHODS: In this in vivo study, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal, normal treated, diabetic and diabetic treated groups (n=6 in each group). Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg)...
February 12, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424317/novel-hypolipidaemic-drugs-mechanisms-of-action-and-main-metabolic-effects
#16
Theodosios D Filippatos, Angelos Liontos, Eliza C Christopoulou, Moses S Elisaf
Over the last 3 decades, hypolipidaemic treatment has significantly reduced both cardiovascular (CV) risk and events, with statins being the cornerstone of this achievement. Nevertheless, residual CV risk and unmet goals in hypolipidaemic treatment make novel options necessary. Recently marketed monoclonal antibodies against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have shown the way towards innovation, while other ways of PCSK9 inhibition like small interfering RNA (Inclisiran) are already being tested...
February 8, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422939/associations-between-fatty-acid-oxidation-hepatic-mitochondrial-function-and-plasma-acylcarnitine-levels-in-mice
#17
Bodil Bjørndal, Eva Katrine Alterås, Carine Lindquist, Asbjørn Svardal, Jon Skorve, Rolf K Berge
Background: The 4-thia fatty acid tetradecylthiopropionic acid (TTP) is known to inhibit mitochondrial β-oxidation, and can be used as chemically induced hepatic steatosis-model in rodents, while 3-thia fatty acid tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) stimulates fatty acid oxidation through activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα). We wished to determine how these two compounds affected in vivo respiration and mitochondrial efficiency, with an additional goal to elucidate whether mitochondrial function is reflected in plasma acylcarnitine levels...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416636/pathway-focused-pcr-array-profiling-of-cal-27-cell-with-over-expressed-znf750
#18
Li Pan, Hongli Yang, Wenqiang Tang, Cong Xu, Shuangfeng Chen, Zhen Meng, Keyi Li, Haiying Chen
Zinc-finger protein 750 (ZNF750) is the potential anti-cancer gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study was to investigate the expression changes of ZNF750 in OSCC tissue and to reveal the induction of altered mRNA expression profiles caused by over-expressed ZNF750 in CAL-27 cell. The expression level of ZNF750 in tissue specimens from OSCC patients was detected by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression profiling was performed using Human Signal Transduction PathwayFinder RT 2 Profiler™ PCR Array...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409330/bifidobacteria-and-its-rice-fermented-products-on-diet-induced-obese-mice-analysis-of-physical-status-serum-profile-and-gene-expressions
#19
M Ray, P K Hor, D Ojha, J P Soren, S N Singh, K C Mondal
Obesity is highly correlated with the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota, and bifidobacteria are one of the soft targets of this metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Bifidobacterium sp. MKK4 and rice-based fermented foods on physical, haematological, gut microbiota and lypogenic-lypolytic marker genes in diet-induced obese mice. Adult male mice (21±0.7 g) were randomly divided into four groups (n=10) according to the type of diet: normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with Bifidobacterium sp...
February 7, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404484/the-selective-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-delta-agonist-seladelpar-reverses-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-pathology-by-abrogating-lipotoxicity-in-diabetic-obese-mice
#20
Fahrettin Haczeyni, Hans Wang, Vanessa Barn, Auvro R Mridha, Matthew M Yeh, W Geoffrey Haigh, George N Ioannou, Yun-Jung Choi, Charles A McWherter, Narcissus C-H Teoh, Geoffrey C Farrell
Lipotoxicity associated with insulin resistance is central to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) pathogenesis. To date, only weight loss fully reverses NASH pathology, but mixed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha/delta (PPAR-α/δ) agonists show some efficacy. Seladelpar (MBX-8025), a selective PPAR-δ agonist, improves atherogenic dyslipidemia. We therefore used this agent to test whether selective PPAR-δ activation can reverse hepatic lipotoxicity and NASH in an obese, dyslipidemic, and diabetic mouse model...
September 2017: Hepatology Communications
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