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PPAR alpha

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031784/isobarictags-for-relative-and-absolute-quantitation-itraq-based-proteomics-for-the-investigation-of-the-effect-of-huganqingzhi-on-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats
#1
Fan Xia, Xiaorui Yao, Waijiao Tang, Chunxin Xiao, Miaoting Yang, Benjie Zhou
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hugan Qingzhi tablet (HQT), a traditional Chinese medicine formula has been adopted for preventing and treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). AIM: In order to explore the anti-NAFLD mechanisms of HQT, iTRAQ-based proteomics was employed to investigate the expression profiles of proteins in NAFLD rats induced by high-fat diet after HQT treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The NAFLD rat model was administration of high-fat diet (HFD) for 12weeks and administering HQT in a daily basis to the HFD groups...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989932/mutations-in-liver-x-receptor-alpha-that-impair-dimerization-and-ligand-dependent-transactivation
#2
Shimpi Bedi, Heather A Hostetler, Stanley Dean Rider
Liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) is crucial for the maintenance of lipid and cholesterol homeostasis. Ligand binding and dimerization with retinoid X receptor (RXR) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is required for forming active DNA binding complexes leading to gene regulation. Structure based prediction and solvent accessibility of LXRα LBD shows that residues H383, E387, H390, L414, and R415 which are located in helices 9 and 10 may be critical for mediating protein-protein interactions...
2017: Nuclear Receptor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952199/beetroot-and-sodium-nitrate-ameliorate-cardiometabolic-changes-in-diet-induced-obese-hypertensive-rats
#3
Maharshi Bhaswant, Lindsay Brown, Andrew J McAinch, Michael L Mathai
SCOPE: Dietary intake of beetroot by humans reduces blood pressure but whether this is caused by nitrate or betanin is not well-defined; neither are effects on other signs of metabolic syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, altered cardiovascular and liver structure and function, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to rats fed a corn starch diet (C). H rats treated with ∼16 mg/kg/day of nitrate either from beetroot juice (H+B) or sodium nitrate (H+N) for the last 8 weeks reduced systolic blood pressure by ∼25 mmHg, improved cardiac structure and function, plasma lipid profile and plasma markers of liver function, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in heart and liver and decreased left ventricular fibrosis...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949260/the-effects-of-coenzyme-q10-supplementation-on-gene-expression-related-to-insulin-lipid-and-inflammation-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
Elham Rahmani, Mehri Jamilian, Mansooreh Samimi, Maryam Zarezade Mehrizi, Esmat Aghadavod, Elmira Akbari, Omid Reza Tamtaji, Zatollah Asemi
OBJECTIVE: This research was conducted to assess the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) intake on gene expression related to insulin, lipid and inflammation in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 40 subjects diagnosed with PCOS. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups to intake either 100 mg CoQ10 (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) per day for 12 weeks. Gene expression related to insulin, lipid and inflammation were quantified in blood samples of PCOS women with RT-PCR method...
September 26, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934691/the-role-of-ppar-alpha-in-perfluorooctanoic-acid-induced-developmental-cardiotoxicity-and-l-carnitine-mediated-protection-results-of-in-ovo-gene-silencing
#5
Meng Zhao, Qixiao Jiang, Min Geng, Li Zhu, Yunqiu Xia, Aashish Khanal, Chunbo Wang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent organic pollutant. This study established an in ovo peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) silencing model in chicken embryo heart, and investigated the role of PPAR alpha in PFOA induced developmental cardiotoxicity. The in ovo silencing was achieved by introducing lentivirus expressing PPAR alpha siRNA into ED2 chicken embryo via microinjection (0.05ul/g egg weight). Transfection efficacy was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy and western blotting...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922099/the-effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-gene-expression-related-to-inflammation-insulin-and-lipids-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Omid Reza Tamtaji, Ebrahim Kouchaki, Mahmoud Salami, Esmat Aghadavod, Elmira Akbari, Maryam Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available assessing the effects of probiotic supplementation on gene expression related to inflammation, insulin, and lipids in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: The current study was conducted to assess the effects of probiotic supplementation on gene expression related to inflammation, insulin, and lipids in patients with MS. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 40 patients with MS...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916975/flaxseed-oil-supplementation-improve-gene-expression-levels-of-ppar-%C3%AE-lp-a-il-1-and-tnf-%C3%AE-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#7
Ali Akbar Hashemzadeh, Nikoo Nasoohi, Fariba Raygan, Esmat Aghadavod, Elmira Akbari, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh, Zatollah Asemi
This study was carried out to determine the effects of flaxseed oil administration on gene expression levels related to insulin, lipid and inflammation in overweight diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 60 diabetic patients with CHD. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups to intake either 1000 mg n-3 fatty acid from flaxseed oil containing 400 mg α-Linolenic acid [ALA (18:3n-3)] (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) twice a day for 12 weeks...
September 15, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916286/toxicology-studies-of-primycin-sulphate-using-a-three-dimensional-3d-in-vitro-human-liver-aggregate-model
#8
Ágota Pénzes, Elhusseiny Mohamed Mahmud Abdelwahab, Judit Rapp, Zsanett A Péteri, Judit Bovári-Biri, Csaba Fekete, György Miskei, Krisztián Kvell, Judit E Pongrácz
Primycin-sulphate is a highly effective compound against Gram (G) positive bacteria. It has a potentially synergistic effect with vancomycin and statins which makes primycin-sulphate a potentially very effective preparation. Primycin-sulphate is currently used exclusively in topical preparations. In vitro animal hepatocyte and neuromuscular junction studies (in mice, rats, snakes, frogs) as well as in in vitro human red blood cell experiments were used to test toxicity. During these studies, the use of primycin-sulphate resulted in reduced cellular membrane integrity and modified ion channel activity...
September 13, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899779/eupatilin-with-ppar%C3%AE-agonistic-effects-inhibits-tnf%C3%AE-induced-mmp-signaling-in-hacat-cells
#9
Yujung Jung, Jin-Chul Kim, Yongsoo Choi, Sullim Lee, Ki Sung Kang, Yong Kee Kim, Su-Nam Kim
Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone) is a flavonoid compound exhibiting several beneficial biological activities, including neuroprotection, anti-cancer, antinociception, chondroprotection, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Our previous study demonstrated that eupatilin specifically activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) through direct binding. The PPAR subfamily includes ligand-dependent transcription factors that consist of three isotypes: PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888048/involvement-of-nutrients-and-nutritional-mediators-in-mitochondrial-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa-synthase-gene-expression
#10
Tania Rescigno, Anna Capasso, Mario Felice Tecce
Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase (HMGCS2) catalyses the first step of ketogenesis and is critical in various metabolic conditions. Several nutrient molecules were able to differentially modulate HMGCS2 expression levels. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3), arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4, n-6) and glucose increased HMGCS2 mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 hepatoma cells, while fructose decreased them. The effect of n-6 AA resulted significantly higher than that of n-3 PUFA, but when combined all these molecules were far less efficient...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855656/ppar%C3%AE-dependent-insig2a-overexpression-inhibits-srebp-1c-processing-during-fasting
#11
Jae-Ho Lee, Hye Suk Kang, Hyeon Young Park, Young-Ah Moon, Yu Na Kang, Byung-Chul Oh, Dae-Kyu Song, Jae-Hoon Bae, Seung-Soon Im
Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) play a role in regulating cellular fatty acid and cholesterol homeostasis via fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis. The control of SREBP processing is regulated by the insulin induced gene (INSIG)2a protein, which binds SREBP to prevent SREBP translocation to the Golgi apparatus during nutrient starvation in the liver. However, the regulation of SREBP-1c processing by INSIGs during fasting and the regulatory mechanisms of the mouse Insig2a gene expression have not been clearly addressed...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839361/ethanolic-fraction-of-terminalia-tomentosa-attenuates-biochemical-and-physiological-derangements-in-diet-induced-obese-rat-model-by-regulating-key-lipid-metabolizing-enzymes-and-adipokines
#12
Balaji Meriga, Parim Brahma Naidu, Ganjayi Muniswamy, Gen Hanuma Kumar, Ramavat Ravindar Naik, Suresh Pothani
The prevalence of overweight-obesity and associated comorbidities have reached alarming levels necessitating the need to explore effective therapeutics. In the present work, we demonstrated the promising antiobesity activity of ethanolic fraction of Terminalia tomentosa bark (EFTT) in diet induced obese rat model. High Fat Diet (HFD)-fed obese rats were orally administered with EFTT (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight). Changes in body weight, body composition, bone mineral concentration, bone mineral density, plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, circulatory and tissue lipid profiles, and the activities of liver antioxidant enzymes, key lipid metabolic enzymes and mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), leptin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were assessed in experimental rats in the presence and absence of EFTT...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827681/sirt1-reduction-is-associated-with-sex-specific-dysregulation-of-renal-lipid-metabolism-and-stress-responses-in-offspring-by-maternal-high-fat-diet
#13
Long The Nguyen, Hui Chen, Carol Pollock, Sonia Saad
Rodent models of maternal obesity have been associated with kidney damage and dysfunction in offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. In this study, female rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks prior to mating, throughout gestation and lactation; both male and female offspring were examined at weaning. Our results demonstrate that renal lipid deposition was increased in male offspring only, which is associated with reduced protein expression of Sirtuin (SIRT) 1, an essential regulator of lipid metabolism and stress response...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822960/loss-of-perilipin-2-in-cultured-myotubes-enhances-lipolysis-and-redirects-the-metabolic-energy-balance-from-glucose-oxidation-towards-fatty-acid-oxidation
#14
Yuan Z Feng, Jenny Lund, Yuchuan Li, Irlin K Knabenes, Siril S Bakke, Eili Tranheim Kase, Yun K Lee, Alan R Kimmel, G Hege Thoresen, Arild Christian Rustan, Knut Tomas Dalen
Lipid droplet (LD) coating proteins are essential for the formation and stability of intracellular LDs. Plin2 is an abundant LD coating protein in skeletal muscle, but its importance for muscle function is unclear. We show that myotubes established from Plin2-/- mice contain reduced content of LDs and accumulate less oleic acid in triacylglycerol (TAG), due to elevated LD hydrolysis compared to Plin2+/+ myotubes. The reduced ability to store TAG in LDs in Plin2-/- myotubes is accompanied by a shift in energy metabolism...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804442/mesozeaxanthin-protects-the-liver-and-reduces-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-in-an-insulin-resistant-rodent-model
#15
Kazim Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Fatih Akdemir, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Ismet Yilmaz, Shakir Ali, Jayant Deshpande, Vijaya Juturu
Background: Mesozeaxanthin (MZ) is a macular carotenoid which has been reported to have a number of pharmacological properties, including the antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic property, and has been stated to decrease the hepatocyte lipid content. Objective: In this study, we investigated the effect of MZ on cardio-metabolic health risk (CMHR) and its probable mechanisms of action in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Design: Rats were randomly divided into four groups consisting of (i) Control, (ii) MZ, (iii) HFD, and (iv) HFD+MZ...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799756/caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-propolis-extract-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-by-inhibiting-jnk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inflammatory-pathways-in-diabetic-mice-and-hepg2-cells-models
#16
Jia-Rui Nie, Ya-Ning Chang, Yujia Li, Yingjun Zhou, Jiawen Qin, Zhen Sun, Haibin Li
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), extracted from propolis, was evaluated the ameliorative effects on insulin resistance and identified the mechanisms, using noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model mice and insulin resistance (IR) model cells. After 5-week of CAPE supplementation, insulin sensitivity, hyperlipidemia, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) levels were improved in mice. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and the expressions of tumour necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) mRNA in tissues were markedly down-regulated from CAPE-treated mice...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771799/modulation-of-nfkb1-p50-by-ros-leads-to-impaired-atp-production-during-mi-compared-to-cardiac-hypertrophy
#17
Arkadeep Mitra, Ritwik Datta, Santanu Rana, Sagartirtha Sarkar
Pathological hypertrophy and myocardial infarction (MI) are two etiologically different cardiac disorders having differential molecular mechanisms of disease manifestation. However, no study has been conducted so far to analyze and compare the differential status of energy metabolism in these two disease forms. It was shown recently by our group that production of ATP is significantly impaired during MI along with inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-β (PDHE1 B) by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760335/microrna-21-regulates-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-a-molecular-mechanism-of-cardiac-pathology-in-cardiorenal-syndrome-type-4
#18
Sandra Chuppa, Mingyu Liang, Pengyuan Liu, Yong Liu, Marc C Casati, Allen W Cowley, Leah Patullo, Alison J Kriegel
Cardiovascular events are the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), although the pathological mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we longitudinally characterized left ventricle pathology in a 5/6 nephrectomy rat model of CKD and identify novel molecular mediators. Next-generation sequencing of left ventricle mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) was performed at physiologically distinct points in disease progression, identifying alterations in genes in numerous immune, lipid metabolism, and inflammatory pathways, as well as several miRNAs...
July 28, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711683/anti-obesogenic-effects-of-wy14643-ppar-alpha-agonist-hepatic-mitochondrial-enhancement-and-suppressed-lipogenic-pathway-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#19
Flavia Maria Silva Veiga, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Tamiris Lima Rachid, Aline Barcellos Barreto, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents with growing prevalence worldwide, though its pharmacological treatment remains to be established. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a PPAR-alpha agonist on liver tissue structure, ultrastructure, and metabolism, focusing on gene and protein expression of de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis pathways, in diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (three months old) received a control diet (C, 10% of lipids, n = 10) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 50% of lipids, n = 10) for ten weeks...
September 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694661/relevance-of-proteolysis-and-proteasome-activation-in-fatty-liver-graft-preservation-an-institut-georges-lopez-1-vs-university-of-wisconsin-appraisal
#20
Mohamed Amine Zaouali, Arnau Panisello-Roselló, Alexandre Lopez, Carlos Castro Benítez, Emma Folch-Puy, Agustín García-Gil, Teresa Carbonell, René Adam, Joan Roselló-Catafau
AIM: To compare liver proteolysis and proteasome activation in steatotic liver grafts conserved in University of Wisconsin (UW) and Institut Georges Lopez-1 (IGL-1) solutions. METHODS: Fatty liver grafts from male obese Zücker rats were conserved in UW and IGL-1 solutions for 24 h at 4 °Cand subjected to "ex vivo" normo-thermic perfusion (2 h; 37 °C). Liver proteolysis in tissue specimens and perfusate was measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography...
June 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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