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Procedural semantic Memory fmri

Thea Zander, Ninja K Horr, Annette Bolte, Kirsten G Volz
INTRODUCTION: Intuition has been defined as the instantaneous, experience-based impression of coherence elicited by cues in the environment. In a context of discovery, intuitive decision-making processes can be conceptualized as occurring within two stages, the first of which comprises an implicit perception of coherence that is not (yet) verbalizable. Through a process of spreading activation, this initially non-conscious perception gradually crosses over a threshold of awareness and thereby becomes explicable...
January 2016: Brain and Behavior
Samy Abdel-Ghaffar, Jack Gallant, Alex Huth, Dustin Stansbury, Alan Cowen, Sonia Bishop
It has been argued that animate emotional stimuli are biologically prepared. That is, as a result of evolutionary significance, they are processed rapidly, tend to capture attention and are better recalled. Here, we tested the prediction that we may have especially distinct representations of these stimuli. We investigated this by performing voxel-wise modeling on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired while participants (n=6) viewed natural images of varying semantic and affective content...
2015: Journal of Vision
Maayan Merhav, Avi Karni, Asaf Gilboa
Memory formation for newly acquired associations typically depends on hippocampal-neocortical interactions. Through the process of system-consolidation, the mnemonic binding role of the hippocampus is subsequently replaced by cortical hubs, such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) or the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). Here, using BOLD-fMRI, we compared retrieval of semantic associations acquired through Fast Mapping (FM), an incidental, exclusion-based learning procedure, to retrieval of similar associations that were intentionally acquired through Explicit Encoding (EE)...
August 15, 2015: NeuroImage
Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Frank Krueger, Matthew P Thornburg, Jordan Henry Grafman
We previously demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that religious belief depends upon three cognitive dimensions, which can be mapped to specific brain regions. In the present study, we considered these co-activated regions as nodes of three networks each one corresponding to a particular dimension, corresponding to each dimension and examined the causal flow within and between these networks to address two important hypotheses that remained untested in our previous work. First, we hypothesized that regions involved in theory of mind (ToM) are located upstream the causal flow and drive non-ToM regions, in line with theories attributing religion to the evolution of ToM...
February 2014: Brain Connectivity
Mary Rudner, Thomas Karlsson, Johan Gunnarsson, Jerker Rönnberg
Neural networks underpinning working memory demonstrate sign language specific components possibly related to differences in temporary storage mechanisms. A processing approach to memory systems suggests that the organisation of memory storage is related to type of memory processing as well. In the present study, we investigated for the first time semantic, phonological and orthographic processing in working memory for sign- and speech-based language. During fMRI we administered a picture-based 2-back working memory task with Semantic, Phonological, Orthographic and Baseline conditions to 11 deaf signers and 20 hearing non-signers...
March 2013: Neuropsychologia
Jason R Taylor, Luciano G Buratto, Richard N Henson
Previous research has found that masked repetition primes, presented immediately prior to the test item in a recognition memory test, increase the likelihood that participants think that the item was present in a previous study phase, even if it was not. This memory illusion is normally associated with a feeling of familiarity, rather than recollection (e.g., as indexed by Remember/Know judgments), and has been explained in terms of an increased fluency of processing the test item, which, in the absence of awareness of the cause of that fluency (i...
June 2013: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Caroline Harand, Françoise Bertran, Renaud La Joie, Brigitte Landeau, Florence Mézenge, Béatrice Desgranges, Philippe Peigneux, Francis Eustache, Géraldine Rauchs
The role of the hippocampus in declarative memory consolidation is a matter of intense debate. We investigated the neural substrates of memory retrieval for recent and remote information using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 18 young, healthy participants learned a series of pictures. Then, during two fMRI recognition sessions, 3 days and 3 months later, they had to determine whether they recognized or not each picture using the "Remember/Know" procedure. Presentation of the same learned images at both delays allowed us to track the evolution of memories and distinguish consistently episodic memories from those that were initially episodic and then became familiar or semantic over time and were retrieved without any contextual detail...
2012: PloS One
Chris B Martin, Ben Bowles, Seyed M Mirsattari, Stefan Köhler
Research has firmly established a link between recognition memory and the functional integrity of the medial temporal lobes (MTL). Dual-process models of MTL organization maintain that there is a division of labour within the MTL, with the hippocampus (HC) supporting recollective processes and perirhinal cortex (PRc) supporting familiarity assessment. An older neuropsychological literature suggested a different type of division of labour within the MTL, with left-sided structures playing a critical role in memory for verbal materials and right-sided structures being differentially involved in memory for material that cannot easily be verbalized...
June 2011: Neuropsychologia
Bülent Köylü, Gerald Walser, Anja Ischebeck, Martin Ortler, Thomas Benke
Medial temporal (MTL) structures have crucial functions in episodic (EM), but also in semantic memory (SM) processing. Preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity within the MTL is increasingly used to predict post-surgical memory capacities. Based on the hypothesis that EM and SM memory functions are both hosted by the MTL the present study wanted to explore the relationship between SM related activations in the MTL as assessed before and the capacity of EM functions after surgery. Patients with chronic unilateral left (n=14) and right (n=12) temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) performed a standard word list learning test pre- and postoperatively, and a fMRI procedure before the operation using a semantic decision task...
August 5, 2008: Brain Research
Melina R Uncapher, Michael D Rugg
Considerable evidence suggests that attentional resources are necessary for the encoding of episodic memories, but the nature of the relationship between attention and neural correlates of encoding is unclear. Here we address this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a divided-attention paradigm in which competition for different types of attentional resources was manipulated. Fifteen volunteers were scanned while making animacy judgments to visually presented words and concurrently performing one of three tasks on auditorily presented words: male/female voice discrimination (control task), 1-back voice comparison (1-back task), or indoor/outdoor judgment (semantic task)...
February 2008: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Peter E Wais, Laura Mickes, John T Wixted
Remembering and knowing are states of awareness that accompany the retrieval of facts, faces, and experiences from our past. Although originally intended to separate episodic from semantic memory, the dominant view today is that recollection-based decisions underlie remember responses, whereas familiarity-based decisions underlie know responses. Many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies as well as lesion studies have relied on the remember/know procedure to identify the neural correlates of recollection and familiarity...
March 2008: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Petter Marklund, Peter Fransson, Roberto Cabeza, Karl M Petersson, Martin Ingvar, Lars Nyberg
Common activations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) during episodic and semantic long-term memory (LTM) tasks have been hypothesized to reflect functional overlap in terms of working memory (WM) and cognitive control. To evaluate a WM account of LTM-general activations, the present study took into consideration that cognitive task performance depends on the dynamic operation of multiple component processes, some of which are stimulus-synchronous and transient in nature; and some that are engaged throughout a task in a sustained fashion...
January 2007: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Bülent Köylü, Eugen Trinka, Anja Ischebeck, Pamela Visani, Thomas Trieb, Christian Kremser, Lisa Bartha, Michael Schocke, Thomas Benke
Functional imaging data suggest that the core network engaged in verbal semantic memory (SM) processing encompasses frontal and temporal lobe structures, with a strong left lateralization in normal right handers. The impact of long term temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) on this network has only partly been elucidated. We studied verbal SM in 50 patients with chronic, intractable TLE (left TLE=26, right TLE=24) and 35 right handed normal controls using a verbal fMRI semantic decision paradigm. All patients had language lateralized to the left hemisphere, as verified by the intracarotid amobarbital procedure...
December 2006: Epilepsy Research
M C Etchepareborda, F Mulas, R Gandia, L Abad-Mas, F Moreno, A Díaz-Lucero
AIM: To review the evaluation of neuropsychological functions by using non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods. DEVELOPMENT: Non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods can be sorted into two broad categories: the first includes those that make use of electromagnetic techniques, such as event-related potentials and magnetoencephalography (MEG), and the second consists of those involving haemodynamic techniques, such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 13, 2006: Revista de Neurologia
Melina R Uncapher, Michael D Rugg
Memories vary in their durability even when encoding conditions apparently remain constant. We investigated whether, under these circumstances, memory durability is nonetheless associated with variation in the neural activity elicited during encoding. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while volunteers semantically classified visually presented words. Using the "remember/know" procedure, memory for one-half of the words was tested after 30 min and for the remaining half after 48 h...
August 3, 2005: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
B Audoin, D Ibarrola, M V Au Duong, J Pelletier, S Confort-Gouny, I Malikova, A Ali-Chérif, P J Cozzone, J-P Ranjeva
The paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) is routinely used to evaluate the cognitive part of the multiple sclerosis functional composite (MSFC) score, the new reference index of patient disability. PASAT is sensitive to subtle cognitive impairment related to MS, although the cognitive components of this test still remain unclear. In order to better characterize brain systems involved during this complex task, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments were conducted during PASAT in a population of ten normal subjects...
May 2005: Magma
J Daniel Ragland, Ruben C Gur, Jeffrey Valdez, Bruce I Turetsky, Mark Elliott, Christian Kohler, Steve Siegel, Stephen Kanes, Raquel E Gur
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychological studies have demonstrated verbal episodic memory deficits in schizophrenia during word encoding and retrieval. This study examined neural substrates of memory in an analysis that controlled for successful retrieval. METHOD: Event-related blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation during word encoding and recognition in 14 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy comparison subjects...
June 2004: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jeremy R Reynolds, David I Donaldson, Anthony D Wagner, Todd S Braver
Activity in the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) is often thought to reflect processes that support episodic encoding. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to test whether processes subserved by LIPC could be negatively related to subsequent memory performance. Specifically, the current experiment explicitly tested the hypothesis that LIPC processing would positively impact encoding when primarily focused towards specific target items (item-level processing), whereas it would negatively impact encoding when primarily focused on the retrieval and instantiation of current task instructions (task-level processing)...
April 2004: NeuroImage
A P Aldenkamp, P A Boon, K Deblaere, E Achten, W H Backes, P Boon, P Hofman, J Troost, P Vandemaele, J Vermeulen, K Vonck, J Wilmink
BACKGROUND: Several procedures for testing language lateralization and memory function exist during the intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT). The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) gives the opportunity to assess the validity of some of these procedures, or at least to inspect the neuronal correlates. A comprehensive fMRI protocol was tested, aimed at addressing aspects of lateralization of language, as well as testing memory in relation to activation of mesiotemporal regions...
September 2003: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
R Cabeza, L Nyberg
Positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been extensively used to explore the functional neuroanatomy of cognitive functions. Here we review 275 PET and fMRI studies of attention (sustained, selective, Stroop, orientation, divided), perception (object, face, space/motion, smell), imagery (object, space/motion), language (written/spoken word recognition, spoken/no spoken response), working memory (verbal/numeric, object, spatial, problem solving), semantic memory retrieval (categorization, generation), episodic memory encoding (verbal, object, spatial), episodic memory retrieval (verbal, nonverbal, success, effort, mode, context), priming (perceptual, conceptual), and procedural memory (conditioning, motor, and nonmotor skill learning)...
January 2000: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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