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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634446/are-distal-and-proximal-visual-cues-equally-important-during-spatial-learning-in-mice-a-pilot-study-of-overshadowing-in-the-spatial-domain
#1
Marie Hébert, Jan Bulla, Denis Vivien, Véronique Agin
Animals use distal and proximal visual cues to accurately navigate in their environment, with the possibility of the occurrence of associative mechanisms such as cue competition as previously reported in honey-bees, rats, birds and humans. In this pilot study, we investigated one of the most common forms of cue competition, namely the overshadowing effect, between visual landmarks during spatial learning in mice. To this end, C57BL/6J × Sv129 mice were given a two-trial place recognition task in a T-maze, based on a novelty free-choice exploration paradigm previously developed to study spatial memory in rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629404/white-matter-lesions-characterise-brain-involvement-in-moderate-to-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-but-cerebral-atrophy-does-not
#2
Catherine A Spilling, Paul W Jones, James W Dodd, Thomas R Barrick
BACKGROUND: Brain pathology is relatively unexplored in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study is a comprehensive investigation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes and how these relate to disease severity and cognitive function. METHODS: T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired for 31 stable COPD patients (FEV1 52.1% pred., PaO2 10.1 kPa) and 24 age, gender-matched controls. T1-weighted images were segmented into GM, WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tissue classes using a semi-automated procedure optimised for use with this cohort...
June 19, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629381/the-era-of-bioengineering-how-will-this-affect-the-next-generation-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Michele Graciotti, Cristiana Berti, Harm-Anton Klok, Lana Kandalaft
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy consists of activating the patient's immune system to fight cancer and has the great potential of preventing future relapses thanks to immunological memory. A great variety of strategies have emerged to harness the immune system against tumors, from the administration of immunomodulatory agents that activate immune cells, to therapeutic vaccines or infusion of previously activated cancer-specific T cells. However, despite great recent progress many difficulties still remain, which prevent the widespread use of immunotherapy...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627448/opiate-exposure-state-controls-dopamine-d3-receptor-and-cdk5-calcineurin-signaling-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-during-reward-and-withdrawal-aversion-memory-formation
#4
Laura G Rosen, Walter J Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) is highly expressed in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), a neural region critical for processing opiate-related reward and withdrawal aversion-related memories. Functionally, D3R transmission is linked to downstream Cdk5 and calcineurin signaling, both of which regulate D3R activity states and play critical roles in memory-related synaptic plasticity. Previous evidence links D3R transmission to opiate-related memory processing, however little is known regarding how chronic opiate exposure may alter D3R-dependent memory mechanisms...
June 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622637/children-benefit-differently-from-night-and-day-time-sleep-in-motor-learning
#5
Jin H Yan
Motor skill acquisition occurs while practicing (on-line) and when asleep or awake (off-line). However, developmental questions still remain about whether children of various ages benefit similarly or differentially from night- and day-time sleeping. The likely circadian effects (time-of-day) and the possible between-test-interference (order effects) associated with children's off-line motor learning are currently unknown. Therefore, this study examines the contributions of over-night sleeping and mid-day napping to procedural skill learning...
June 13, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621146/dissociation-of-executive-and-attentional-elements-of-the-digit-span-task-in-a-population-of-older-adults-a-latent-class-analysis
#6
Denise R LaBelle, Bern G Lee, Justin B Miller
The prevailing model for working memory proposes the existence of a "central executive" responsible for coordinating and prioritizing incoming information from sensory and association cortices. The Digit Span task is commonly used by clinicians to parse attentional and executive components of working memory; however, the interrelatedness of these constructs in the context of advanced age and neurodegenerative disease remains an area of active investigation. The current study details a procedure and rationale for the use of latent class analysis, a data-driven, person-centered method, in the investigation of older adults and dementia...
June 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611148/failure-to-account-for-practice-effects-leads-to-clinical-misinterpretation-of-cognitive-outcome-following-carotid-endarterectomy
#7
Christopher J Marley, Andrew Sinnott, Judith E Hall, Gareth Morris-Stiff, Paul V Woodsford, Michael H Lewis, Damian M Bailey
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure to remove stenotic atherosclerotic plaque from the origin of the carotid artery to reduce the risk of major stroke. Its impact on postoperative cognitive function (POCF) remains controversial; complicated, in part, by a traditional failure to account for practice effects incurred during consecutive psychometric testing. To address this for the first time, we performed psychometric testing (learning and memory, working memory, attention and information processing, and visuomotor coordination) in 15 male patients aged 68 ± 8 years with symptomatic carotid stenosis the day before and 24 h following elective CEA (two consecutive tests, 48 h apart)...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606771/inter-hemispheric-frontal-alpha-synchronization-of-event-related-potentials-reflects-memory-induced-mental-fatigue
#8
Xinyang Liu, Juntao Liu, Feng Duan, Rui Liu, Shuping Gai, Shengwei Xu, Jianhui Sun, Xinxia Cai
Mental fatigue is often associated with continuous brain activities in our daily life. It can diminish efficiency and increase errors. However, the related physiological features are still not clear and under exploration. The present study investigated changes of inter-hemispheric synchronization in event-related potentials (ERPs) due to mental fatigue during sustained memory processing. Twenty-six participants performed a continuous two-back memory task for around 2.5h. Prefrontal and frontal synchronies in the alpha frequency band (8-13Hz) were analyzed because of their close relationships with memory functions...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606630/long-term-contextual-memory-in-infant-rats-as-evidenced-by-an-ethanol-conditioned-tolerance-procedure
#9
Stefanía Castelló, Juan Carlos Molina, Carlos Arias
Conditioned tolerance can be conceptualized as a particular case of Pavlovian conditioning in which contextual cues play the role of the conditioned stimulus. Although the evidence is contradictory, it is frequently assumed that long-term contextual conditioning in pre-weanling rats is weak or even absent. This hypothesis comes from and is sustained mainly by behavioral studies that explored different contextual effects in 16-18day-old rats using a fear-conditioning paradigm, but their conclusions are stated in terms of an immature (hippocampal-dependent) declarative memory system...
June 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604579/how-to-avoid-a-learning-curve-in-stapedotomy-a-standardized-surgical-technique
#10
Pingling Kwok, Otto Gleich, Katharina Dalles, Elisabeth Mayr, Peter Jacob, Jürgen Strutz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, whether a learning curve for beginners in stapedotomy can be avoided by using a prosthesis with thermal memory-shape attachment in combination with a standardized laser-assisted surgical technique. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Fifty-eight ears were operated by three experienced surgeons and compared with a group of 12 cases operated by a beginner in stapedotomy...
June 9, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601694/feeling-happy-when-feeling-down-the-effectiveness-of-positive-mental-imagery-in-dysphoria
#11
Maud Grol, Naomi Vanlessen, Rudi De Raedt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mental imagery can evoke strong emotional responses, but imagery perspective can influence the response, with observer perspective reducing emotionality. This is important provided that positive imagery can be an effective mood repair strategy in healthy individuals. However, (sub-clinical) depressed individuals tend to spontaneously adopt an observer perspective. We investigated whether positive imagery would result in a similar emotional response in dysphoric and non-dysphoric individuals when instructed and trained to use field perspective imagery...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600718/-compacted-procedures-for-adults-simple-addition-a-review-and-critique-of-the-evidence
#12
Yalin Chen, Jamie I D Campbell
We review recent empirical findings and arguments proffered as evidence that educated adults solve elementary addition problems (3 + 2, 4 + 1) using so-called compacted procedures (e.g., unconscious, automatic counting); a conclusion that could have significant pedagogical implications. We begin with the large-sample experiment reported by Uittenhove, Thevenot and Barrouillet (2016, Cognition, 146, 289-303), which tested 90 adults on the 81 single-digit addition problems from 1 + 1 to 9 + 9. They identified the 12 very-small addition problems with different operands both ≤ 4 (e...
June 9, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596476/rnase-alleviates-neurological-dysfunction-in-mice-undergoing-cardiac-arrest-and-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#13
Ye Ma, Chan Chen, Shu Zhang, Qiao Wang, Hai Chen, Yuanlin Dong, Zheng Zhang, Yan Li, Zhendong Niu, Tao Zhu, Hai Yu, Bin Liu
Cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the leading lethal factors. Despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure has been consecutively improved and lots of new strategies have been developed, neurological outcome of the patients experienced CPR is still disappointing. Ribonuclease (RNase) has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in acute stroke and postoperative cognitive impairment, possibly through acting against endogenous RNA that released from damaged tissue. However, the role of RNase in post-cardiac arrest cerebral injury is unknown...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596462/-pure-amnesia
#14
Koichi Tagawa, Haruki Tokida
Pure amnesia (amnesic syndrome) is an organic brain syndrome characterized by impairment in episodic memory, with either an anterograde or sometimes retrograde loss of memories. Although episodic memory is impaired, semantic memory, immediate memory, and procedural memory are preserved. The Papez circuit is a network of nerve fibers and nerve centers that starts and ends in the hippocampus travelling by way of the fornix, mammillary bodies, anterior thalamic nuclei, cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus...
June 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593652/pupil-size-as-a-measure-of-within-task-learning
#15
Cyrus K Foroughi, Ciara Sibley, Joseph T Coyne
Pupillometry is commonly used in research to determine how much mental effort an individual is exerting while completing tasks. Traditionally, larger pupils are associated with increased mental effort when completing more difficult tasks. However, little research has investigated how pupils change as individuals learn a new task. In theory, as one repeatedly completes a task, the task demands should reduce, reliance on working memory should decrease, and the task should become more automatic. This should translate to faster completion times and smaller peak pupil dilations...
June 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585899/cognitive-functions-evaluation-and-changes-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-in-elderly-patients
#16
Cristina Ciuca, Susy Ferrari, Lisa Placuzzi, Cinzia Marrozzini, Nevio Taglieri, Barbara Bordoni, Gianni Dall'Ara, Carolina Moretti, Michela Montefiori, Rabih Chattat, Antonio Marzocchi, Francesco Saia
AIM: To assess the prevalence and postprocedural evolution of cognitive impairment (CI) in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation. METHODS: 62 patients were enrolled. Mini Mental state examination (MMSE), verbal memory test (VMT), visual search test (VST) and phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) were used to evaluate the cognitive status. CI was considered when a pathological result of MMSE was confirmed by VMT, VST and PVF. RESULTS: A total of 26...
June 6, 2017: Future Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585587/depression-and-anxiety-in-patients-undergoing-elective-and-emergency-surgery-cross-sectional-study-from-allama-iqbal-memorial-teaching-hospital-sialkot
#17
Ansar Latif, Rana Mozammil Shamsher Khan, Kalsoom Nawaz
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of depression and anxiety in post-operative patients undergoing elective and emergency surgery. METHODS: The cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at the Department of Surgery and Department of Psychiatry of the Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching Hospital, Sialkot, Pakistan, from September 2013 to April 2016, and comprised patients due for elective or emergency surgery. Patients admitted to the surgical wards, including general surgical, neurosurgical, urological and orthopaedic wards, undergoing major surgical procedures were enrolled...
June 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582572/surgical-treatment-of-mesiotemporal-lobe-epilepsy-which-approach-is-favorable
#18
Barbara Schmeiser, Kathrin Wagner, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Irina Mader, Anne-Sophie Wendling, Bernhard Jochen Steinhoff, Marco Prinz, Christian Scheiwe, Astrid Weyerbrock, Josef Zentner
BACKGROUND: Mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy is one of the most frequent causes for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Different surgical approaches to the mesiotemporal area are used. OBJECTIVE: To analyze epileptological and neuropsychological results as well as complications of different surgical strategies. METHODS: This retrospective study is based on a consecutive series of 458 patients all harboring pharmacoresistant mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy...
June 2, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581708/optimization-of-d-peptides-for-a%C3%AE-monomer-binding-specificity-enhances-their-potential-to-eliminate-toxic-a%C3%AE-oligomers
#19
Antonia Nicole Klein, Tamar Ziehm, Thomas van Groen, Inga Kadish, Anne Elfgen, Markus Tusche, Maren Thomaier, Kerstin Reiss, Oleksandr Brener, Lothar Gremer, Janine Kutzsche, Dieter Willbold
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers are thought to be causative for the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Starting from the Aβ oligomer eliminating D-enantiomeric peptide D3, we developed and applied a two-step procedure based on peptide microarrays to identify D3 derivatives with increased binding affinity and specificity for monomeric Aβ(1-42) to further enhance the Aβ oligomer elimination efficacy. Out of more than 1,000 D3 derivatives, we selected seven novel D-peptides, named ANK1 to ANK7, and characterized them in more detail in vitro...
June 5, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579691/does-prediction-error-drive-one-shot-declarative-learning
#20
Andrea Greve, Elisa Cooper, Alexander Kaula, Michael C Anderson, Richard Henson
The role of prediction error (PE) in driving learning is well-established in fields such as classical and instrumental conditioning, reward learning and procedural memory; however, its role in human one-shot declarative encoding is less clear. According to one recent hypothesis, PE reflects the divergence between two probability distributions: one reflecting the prior probability (from previous experiences) and the other reflecting the sensory evidence (from the current experience). Assuming unimodal probability distributions, PE can be manipulated in three ways: (1) the distance between the mode of the prior and evidence, (2) the precision of the prior, and (3) the precision of the evidence...
June 2017: Journal of Memory and Language
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