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Procedural memory

Eric A Woodcock, Chaitali Anand, Dalal Khatib, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Jeffrey A Stanley
Glutamate is involved in excitatory neurotransmission and metabolic processes related to brain function. Previous studies using proton functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H fMRS) have demonstrated elevated cortical glutamate levels by 2-4% during visual and motor stimulation, relative to periods of no stimulation. Here, we extended this approach to working memory cognitive task performance, which has been consistently associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activation. Sixteen healthy adult volunteers completed a continuous visual fixation "rest" task followed by a letter 2-back working memory task during1 H fMRS acquisition of the left dlPFC, which encompassed Brodmann areas 45 and 46 over a 4...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
S Barlati, G Deste, M Gregorelli, A Vita
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are currently conceptualized as distinct disorders. However, the relationship between these two disorders has been revisited in recent years due to evidence that they share phenotypic and genotypic expressions. This study aimed to identify ASD traits in patients with schizophrenia, and to define their demographic, psychopathological, cognitive and functional correlates. METHOD: Seventy-five schizophrenia patients (20 females, mean age 42 ± 12) were evaluated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)...
March 20, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Harmen B Gudde, Debra Griffiths, Kenny R Coventry
The memory game paradigm is a behavioral procedure to explore the relationship between language, spatial memory, and object knowledge. Using two different versions of the paradigm, spatial language use and memory for object location are tested under different, experimentally manipulated conditions. This allows us to tease apart proposed models explaining the influence of object knowledge on spatial language (e.g., spatial demonstratives), and spatial memory, as well as understanding the parameters that affect demonstrative choice and spatial memory more broadly...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
René Ledesma-Alonso, Romeli Barbosa, Jaime Ortegón
The characterization and reconstruction of heterogeneous materials, such as porous media and electrode materials, involve the application of image processing methods to data acquired by scanning electron microscopy or other microscopy techniques. Among them, binarization and decimation are critical in order to compute the correlation functions that characterize the microstructure of the above-mentioned materials. In this study, we present a theoretical analysis of the effects of the image-size reduction, due to the progressive and sequential decimation of the original image...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Helen O' Brien, Neil O' Leary, Siobhan Scarlett, Celia O' Hare, Rose Anne Kenny
Background: the dramatic shift in the global population demographic has led to increasing numbers of older people undergoing hospitalisation and surgical procedures. Objectives: to determine whether hospitalisation or hospitalisation with surgery under general anaesthesia is associated with poorer cognitive performance in adults over the age of 50. Methods: cognitive function in the domains of global cognition, memory and executive function was assessed in 8,023 individuals at waves 1 and 2 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), 2 years apart...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Yoonjin Nah, Na-Young Shin, Sehjung Yi, Seung-Koo Lee, Sanghoon Han
Numerous studies have suggested that postpartum women show a decline in cognitive abilities. However, to date, no study has investigated the presence of qualitative alterations in recognition memory processes in postpartum women that may lead to a decline in cognitive ability. To address this issue, we employed the Remember/Know procedure and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results demonstrated that compared with the matched control (CTRL) group, the postpartum (PP) group endorsed "Remember" less and "Know" more to old items...
March 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Frank Niemeyer, Lutz Claes, Anita Ignatius, Nicholaus Meyers, Ulrich Simon
Distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for generating large amounts of bone in situ for treating pathologies such as large bone defects or skeletal malformations, for instance leg-length discrepancies. While an optimized distraction procedure might have the potential to reduce the rate of complications significantly, our knowledge of the underlying mechanobiological processes is still insufficient for systematic optimization of treatment parameters such as distraction rate or fixation stiffness. We present a novel numerical model of lateral distraction osteogenesis, based on a mechanically well-controlled in vivo experiment...
2018: PloS One
Mauro Mancuso, Nele Demeyere, Laura Abbruzzese, Alessio Damora, Valentina Varalta, Fabio Pirrotta, Gabriella Antonucci, Alessandro Matano, Marina Caputo, Maria Giovanna Caruso, Giovanna Teresa Pontiggia, Michela Coccia, Irene Ciancarelli, Pierluigi Zoccolotti
Background: The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) was recently developed with the aim of describing the cognitive deficits after stroke. The scale consists of 10 tasks encompassing five cognitive domains: attention and executive function, language, memory, number processing, and praxis. OCS was devised to be inclusive and un-confounded by aphasia and neglect. As such, it may have a greater potential to be informative on stroke cognitive deficits of widely used instruments, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, which were originally devised for demented patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Mouhannad M Sadek, Varsha Chaugai, Mark J Cleland, Timothy J Zakutney, David H Birnie, F Daniel Ramirez
BACKGROUND: The relevance of transthoracic impedance (TTI) to electrical cardioversion (ECV) success for atrial tachyarrhythmias when using biphasic waveform defibrillators is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: TTI is predictive of ECV success with contemporary defibrillators. METHODS: De-identified data stored in biphasic defibrillator memory cards from ECV attempts for atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) over a two-year period at our center were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
John Noel M Viaña, Frederic Gilbert
Memory dysfunction and cognitive impairments due to Alzheimer's disease can affect the selfhood and identity of afflicted individuals, causing distress to both people with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. Recently, a number of case studies and clinical trials have been conducted to determine the potential of deep brain stimulation as a therapeutic modality for people with Alzheimer's disease. Some of these studies have shown that deep brain stimulation could induce flashbacks and stabilize or even improve memory...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Mohamed A Eshra
Colloid cysts of the third ventricle are considered as benign lesions. The clinical manifestations are not clear in most of cases. Many treatment options are available and endoscopic removal of the cysts proves to be a very successful method especially if the lateral ventricles are moderately or severely dilated. Sometimes, we faced cases with non- or mildly dilated ventricles which may add more risks to the operation, limit the radicality of removal, or abort the procedure entirely. Sixteen cases of colloid cyst with mildly dilated ventricles were operated upon between 2008 and 2016 using the rigid endoscopic system...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Scott A Cairney, Anna Á Váli Guttesen, Nicole El Marj, Bernhard P Staresina
How are brief encounters transformed into lasting memories? Previous research has established the role of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, along with its electrophysiological signatures of slow oscillations (SOs) and spindles, for memory consolidation [1-4]. In related work, experimental manipulations have demonstrated that NREM sleep provides a window of opportunity to selectively strengthen particular memory traces via the delivery of auditory cues [5-10], a procedure known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR)...
March 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Louise Crowe, Vicki Anderson, Winita Hardikar, Avihu Boneh
Ornithine Trans-Carbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common disorder of the urea cycle. Cognitive impairments in skills such as attention and executive function have been reported in individuals with OTC deficiency who are managed with medication. In some cases, children undergo liver transplantation (LTx) to correct the metabolic defect. The metabolic and medical outcomes of LTx are generally good. However, little is known about the impacts on cognition. In this study, four children (three female) completed detailed neuropsychological batteries prior to (n = 6) and following LTx (n = 8 assessments)...
March 10, 2018: JIMD Reports
Chengbin He, Shuxin Wang, Siyang Zuo
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Robotic-assisted endovascular intervention surgery has attracted significant attention and interest in recent years. However, limited designs have focused on the variable stiffness mechanism of the catheter shaft. Flexible catheter needs to be partially switched to a rigid state that can hold its shape against external force to achieve a stable and effective insertion procedure. Furthermore, driving catheter in a similar way with manual procedures has the potential to make full use of the extensive experience from conventional catheter navigation...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
N Crespo-Eguilaz, P D Dominguez, M Vaquero, J Narbona
AIM: To contribute to neuropsychological profiling of developmental amnesia subsequent to bilateral damage to both hippocampi in early age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The total sample of 24 schoolchildren from both sexes is distributed in three groups: perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and everyday complaints of memory in school age (n = 8); perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy without memory complaints (n = 7); and a group of typically developing (n = 9)...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Matthew O'Toole, David B Lindell, Gordon Wetzstein
How to image objects that are hidden from a camera's view is a problem of fundamental importance to many fields of research, with applications in robotic vision, defence, remote sensing, medical imaging and autonomous vehicles. Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) imaging at macroscopic scales has been demonstrated by scanning a visible surface with a pulsed laser and a time-resolved detector. Whereas light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems use such measurements to recover the shape of visible objects from direct reflections, NLOS imaging reconstructs the shape and albedo of hidden objects from multiply scattered light...
March 15, 2018: Nature
Diana Campos-Beltrán, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Jorge E Quintero, Lisa Marshall
D-serine is the major D-amino acid in the mammalian central nervous system. As the dominant co-agonist of the endogenous synaptic NMDA receptor, D-serine plays a role in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Alterations in D-serine are linked to neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Thus, it is of increasing interest to monitor the concentration of D-serine in vivo as a relevant player in dynamic neuron-glia network activity. Here we present a procedure for amperometric detection of D-serine with self-referencing ceramic-based microelectrode arrays (MEAs) coated with D-amino acid oxidase from the yeast Rhodotorula gracilis (RgDAAO)...
March 6, 2018: Biosensors
Caitlin Hilverman, Susan Wagner Cook, Melissa C Duff
Co-speech hand gesture facilitates learning and memory, yet the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting this remain unclear. One possibility is that motor information in gesture may engage procedural memory representations. Alternatively, iconic information from gesture may contribute to declarative memory representations mediated by the hippocampus. To investigate these alternatives, we examined gesture's effects on word learning in patients with hippocampal damage and declarative memory impairment, with intact procedural memory, and in healthy and in brain-damaged comparison groups...
March 5, 2018: Hippocampus
Nicole Y L Oei, Steffy W Jansen, Ilya M Veer, P Eline Slagboom, Jeroen van de Grond, Diana van Heemst
INTRODUCTION: Middle-aged offspring from long-lived families are thought to have a slower pace of aging, possibly related to HPA-axis function. Here, we investigated the neural and behavioral effects of social stress in offspring compared to their regular aging partners on emotional distraction during working memory (WM). METHODS: 104 middle-aged participants (53 males) consisting of offspring and their partners underwent the Trier Social Stress Test or a control procedure...
March 2, 2018: Biological Psychology
Yanhong Duan, Qi Wang, Qingwen Zeng, Jiayue Wang, Zhenzhen Chen, Meichen Xu, Yale Duan, Zheng Zhao, Qingsheng Xue, Xiaohua Cao
Although the striatum has a well-documented role in procedural learning and memory, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. GluN2B subunit is abundantly expressed in striatum, however, the function of striatal GluN2B subunit in striatum-related learning is also unclear. In the present study, using transgenic mice with forebrain-specific overexpression of the GluN2B subunit, we observed that up-regulation of GluN2B subunit expression results in enhanced dorsal striatum-related motor skill learning and stimulus-response (S-R) learning as well as cortico-dorsomedial striatal (cortico-DMS) long-term potentiation (LTP)...
March 2, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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