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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317646/clinical-validity-of-delayed-recall-tests-as-a-gateway-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development-framework
#1
REVIEW
Chiara Cerami, Bruno Dubois, Marina Boccardi, Andreas U Monsch, Jean Francois Demonet, Stefano F Cappa
Although Alzheimer's disease criteria promote the use of biomarkers, their maturity in clinical routine still needs to be assessed. In the light of the oncology framework, we conducted a literature review on measures used to assess delayed recall impairment due to medial temporal lobe dysfunction (i.e., free and cued word list recall tests). Ample evidence is available for phases 1 (rationale for use), 2 (discriminative ability), and 3 (early detection ability) for many of the tests in routine use. Evidence about phase 4 (performance in real world) and phase 5 (quantify impact and costs) is yet to come...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317384/exploring-possible-predictors-and-moderators-of-an-executive-function-training-for-children-with-an-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Marieke de Vries, Mathilde Ge Verdam, Pier Jm Prins, Ben A Schmand, Hilde M Geurts
Previously, a total of 121 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) performed an adaptive working memory (WM)-training, an adaptive flexibility-training, or a non-adaptive control (mock)-training. Despite overall improvement, there were minor differences between the adaptive and mock-training conditions. Moreover, dropout was relatively high (26%). In the current study we explored potential predicting and moderating factors to clarify these findings. The effects of intelligence, autism traits, WM, flexibility, reward sensitivity and Theory of Mind on dropout, improvement during training, and improvement in everyday executive functioning (EF), ASD-like behavior, and Quality of Life (QoL) were studied...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302564/tackling-maladaptive-memories-through-reconsolidation-from-neural-to-clinical-science
#3
James W B Elsey, Merel Kindt
Behavioral neuroscience has greatly informed how we understand the formation, persistence, and plasticity of memory. Research has demonstrated that memory reactivation can induce a labile period, during which previously consolidated memories are sensitive to change, and in need of restabilization. This process is known as reconsolidation. Such findings have advanced not only our basic understanding of memory processes, but also hint at the prospect of harnessing these insights for the development of a new generation of treatments for disorders of emotional memory...
March 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301178/practice-increases-procedural-errors-after-task-interruption
#4
Erik M Altmann, David Z Hambrick
Positive effects of practice are ubiquitous in human performance, but a finding from memory research suggests that negative effects are possible also. The finding is that memory for items on a list depends on the time interval between item presentations. This finding predicts a negative effect of practice on procedural performance under conditions of task interruption. As steps of a procedure are performed more quickly, memory for past performance should become less accurate, increasing the rate of skipped or repeated steps after an interruption...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300707/psychiatric-and-psychological-impact-of-surgery-while-awake-in-children-for-resection-of-brain-tumors
#5
Elise Riquin, Mickael Dinomais, Jean Malka, Thierry Lehousse, Philippe Duverger, Philippe Menei, Matthieu Delion
Intraoperative direct stimulation during surgery while awake is considered to be the gold standard for identifying eloquent cortical sites. Only a few studies have referenced the psychological impact of this event in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical study is to present the psychological aspects of surgery while awake in children. We question the psychiatric contraindications and age limits, and the impact on children, with particular attention to the psychological conditioning and experience of these patients...
March 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300627/serum-uric-acid-is-associated-with-better-executive-function-in-men-but-not-in-women-baseline-assessment-of-the-elsa-brasil-study
#6
Cristina Pellegrino Baena, Claudia Kimie Suemoto, Sandhi Barreto, Paulo Lotufo, Isabela Benseñor
BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (SUA) may protect against free radical stress damage and was previously linked to cognitive impairment in older adults, but evidence in middle-aged adults is scarce. PURPOSE: We sought to analyze whether SUA is associated with cognitive performance in apparently healthy middle-aged participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. METHODS: We excluded participants older than age 65, those taking allopurinol, benzbromarone, or medications that could impair cognitive performance, those with previous stroke, and those with incomplete data on cognitive tests or SUA...
March 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296164/brief-clinical-report-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pain-memory-reframing-interventions-for-children-s-needle-procedures
#7
REVIEW
Melanie Noel, C Meghan McMurtry, Maria Pavlova, Anna Taddio
OBJECTIVE: Children's pain memories play a powerful role in shaping future pain experiences. Interventions aiming to reframe children's memories of painful medical procedures hold promise for altering pain memories and improving subsequent pain experience; however, this evidence has not been synthesized. This brief clinical report includes a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing memory-reframing interventions for needle procedures in children and adolescents in order to stimulate future research...
March 14, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291777/adolescent-but-not-adult-ethanol-binge-drinking-modulates-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-mice
#8
Juan Carlos Ledesma, Maria A Aguilar, Pablo Giménez-Gómez, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
BACKGROUND: Ethanol (EtOH) binge drinking is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers that induces long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations in adulthood. An early history of EtOH abuse during adolescence is highly correlated with cocaine addiction in adulthood. Abstinence of cocaine abuse can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety, psychosis, depression, and cognitive impairments. This study assessed the consequences of adolescent exposure to EtOH on the behavioral alterations promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adulthood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291229/optimizing-ultrathin-ag-films-for-high-performance-oxide-metal-oxide-flexible-transparent-electrodes-through-surface-energy-modulation-and-template-stripping-procedures
#9
Xi Yang, Pingqi Gao, Zhenhai Yang, Juye Zhu, Feng Huang, Jichun Ye
Among new flexible transparent conductive electrode (TCE) candidates, ultrathin Ag film (UTAF) is attractive for its extremely low resistance and relatively high transparency. However, the performances of UTAF based TCEs critically depend on the threshold thickness for growth of continuous Ag films and the film morphologies. Here, we demonstrate that these two parameters could be strongly altered through the modulation of substrate surface energy. By minimizing the surface energy difference between the Ag film and substrate, a 9 nm UTAF with a sheet resistance down to 6...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287787/training-working-memory-in-older-adults-is-there-an-advantage-of-using-strategies
#10
Erika Borella, Barbara Carretti, Roberta Sciore, Emanuela Capotosto, Laurence Taconnat, Cesare Cornoldi, Rossana De Beni
The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of a working memory (WM) training in elderly people, and to compare the effects of a WM training based on an adaptive procedure with one combining the same procedure with the use of a strategy, based on the construction of visual mental images. Eighteen older adults received training with a WM task (the WM group), another 18 received the same WM training and were also taught to use a visual imagery strategy (the WM + Strategy group), and another 18 served as active controls...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287764/pushing-typists-back-on-the-learning-curve-memory-chunking-improves-retrieval-of-prior-typing-episodes
#11
Motonori Yamaguchi, James M Randle, Thomas L Wilson, Gordon D Logan
Hierarchical control of skilled performance depends on chunking of several lower-level units into a single higher-level unit. The present study examined the relationship between chunking and recognition of trained materials in the context of typewriting. In 3 experiments, participants were trained with typing nonwords and were later tested on their recognition of the trained materials. In Experiment 1, participants typed the same words or nonwords in 5 consecutive trials while performing a concurrent memory task...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287570/investigating-motor-skill-learning-processes-with-a-robotic-manipulandum
#12
Susan Leemburg, Maiko Iijima, Olivier Lambercy, Lauriane Nallet-Khosrofian, Roger Gassert, Andreas Luft
Skilled reaching tasks are commonly used in studies of motor skill learning and motor function under healthy and pathological conditions, but can be time-intensive and ambiguous to quantify beyond simple success rates. Here, we describe the training procedure for reach-and-pull tasks with ETH Pattus, a robotic platform for automated forelimb reaching training that records pulling and hand rotation movements in rats. Kinematic quantification of the performed pulling attempts reveals the presence of distinct temporal profiles of movement parameters such as pulling velocity, spatial variability of the pulling trajectory, deviation from midline, as well as pulling success...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287137/subjective-experience-of-difficulty-depends-on-multiple-cues
#13
Kobe Desender, Filip Van Opstal, Eva Van den Bussche
Human cognition is characterized by subjective experiences that go along with our actions, but the nature and stability of these experiences remain largely unclear. In the current report, the subjective experience of difficulty is studied and it is proposed that this experience is constructed by integrating information from multiple cues. Such an account can explain the tight relationship between primary task performance and subjective difficulty, while allowing for dissociations between both to occur. Confirming this hypothesis, response conflict, reaction time and response repetition were identified as variables that contribute to the experience of difficulty...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284440/thinking-forensics-cognitive-science-for-forensic-practitioners
#14
REVIEW
Gary Edmond, Alice Towler, Bethany Growns, Gianni Ribeiro, Bryan Found, David White, Kaye Ballantyne, Rachel A Searston, Matthew B Thompson, Jason M Tangen, Richard I Kemp, Kristy Martire
Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback...
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283757/concept-of-patient-specific-shape-memory-implants-for-the-treatment-of-orbital-floor-fractures
#15
Ronny Grunert, Maximilian Wagner, Christian Rotsch, Harald Essig, Susanna Posern, Friedemann Pabst, Welf-Guntram Drossel, Juergen Lichtenstein
PURPOSE: We will aim to develop implants made of a Ni-Ti shape memory alloy which can be applied for the treatment of midface fractures, such as isolated orbital floor fractures. These can then be implanted in a compressed form and unfold automatically in the body. With the help of newly developed application instruments, the implants can be applied along transnasal and transantral approaches into the maxillary sinus. Our objective is to evaluate the operation process and the functionality of these implants, already in a pre-investigation by an experienced surgeon on a phantom...
March 10, 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280931/training-working-memory-updating-in-young-adults
#16
Rocío Linares, Erika Borella, M Teresa Lechuga, Barbara Carretti, Santiago Pelegrina
Working memory updating (WMU) is a core mechanism in the human mental architecture and a good predictor of a wide range of cognitive processes. This study analyzed the benefits of two different WMU training procedures, near transfer effects on a working memory measure, and far transfer effects on nonverbal reasoning. Maintenance of any benefits a month later was also assessed. Participants were randomly assigned to: an adaptive training group that performed two numerical WMU tasks during four sessions; a non-adaptive training group that performed the same tasks but on a constant and less demanding level of difficulty; or an active control group that performed other tasks unrelated with working memory...
March 9, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280646/meta-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-deep-brain-stimulation-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-performance-in-evaluation-tests-for-executive-brain-functions
#17
REVIEW
A M Martínez-Martínez, O M Aguilar, C A Acevedo-Triana
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition, which compromises the motor functions and causes the alteration of some executive brain functions. The presence of changes in cognitive symptoms in PD could be due to the procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS). We searched in several databases for studies that compared performance in executive function tests before and after the DBS procedure in PE and then performed a meta-analysis. After the initial search, there were 15 articles that specifically evaluated the functions of verbal fluency, working memory, cognitive flexibility, abstract thinking, and inhibition...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277685/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-phonological-working-memory-methodological-variability-affects-clinical-and-experimental-performance-metrics
#18
Stephanie J Tarle, R Matt Alderson, Connor H G Patros, Sarah E Lea, Kristen L Hudec, Elaine F Arrington
OBJECTIVE: Despite promising findings in extant research that suggest impaired working memory (WM) serves as a central neurocognitive deficit or candidate endophenotype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), findings from translational research have been relatively underwhelming. This study aimed to explicate previous equivocal findings by systematically examining the effect of methodological variability on WM performance estimates across experimental and clinical WM measures...
March 9, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276864/establishing-normative-data-for-multi-trial-memory-tests-the-multivariate-regression-based-approach
#19
Wim Van der Elst, Geert Molenberghs, Marleen van Tetering, Jelle Jolles
OBJECTIVE: Multi-trial memory tests are widely used in research and clinical practice because they allow for assessing different aspects of memory and learning in a single comprehensive test procedure. However, the use of multi-trial memory tests also raises some key data analysis issues. Indeed, the different trial scores are typically all correlated, and this correlation has to be properly accounted for in the statistical analyses. In the present paper, the focus is on the setting where normative data have to be established for multi-trial memory tests...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276861/screening-for-dementia-in-arabic-normative-data-from-an-elderly-lebanese-sample
#20
Fadi Abou-Mrad, Gordon Chelune, Edward Zamrini, Lubna Tarabey, Maryse Hayek, Patricia Fadel
OBJECTIVE: Prevention and treatment of dementia is a global concern that requires involvement of international samples. The purpose of this study is to develop culturally sensitive norms based on normal older Lebanese adults using multiple cognitive screening measures translated into Arabic for regional use. METHODS: Participants were 164 community dwelling older Lebanese adults without cognitive complaints. They were administered the following cognitive measures in Arabic: Alzheimer's Disease 8-item questionnaire, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Mini Mental Status Exam, Modified Mini Mental Status, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Lebanese Digit Span, Cross-Linguistic Naming Test, and phonemic and semantic fluency tests...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
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