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Dopamine and working memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314129/crack-cocaine-inhalation-induces-schizophrenia-like-symptoms-and-molecular-alterations-in-mice-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Lorena Bianchine Areal, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Cristina Martins-Silva, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires
Crack cocaine (crack) addiction represents a major social and health burden, especially seeing as users are more prone to engage in criminal and violent acts. Crack users show a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities - particularly antisocial personality disorders - when compared to powder cocaine users. They also develop cognitive deficits related mainly to executive functions, including working memory. It is noteworthy that stimulant drugs can induce psychotic states, which appear to mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia among users...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291572/noradrenaline-transporter-blockade-increases-fronto-parietal-functional-connectivity-relevant-for-working-memory
#2
Dennis Hernaus, Marta Ma Casales Santa, Jan Stefan Offermann, Thérèse Van Amelsvoort
Experimental animal work has demonstrated that dopamine and noradrenaline play an essential role in modulating prefrontal cortex-mediated networks underlying working memory performance. Studies of functional connectivity have been instrumental in extending such notions to humans but, so far, have almost exclusively focussed on pharmacological agents with a predominant dopaminergic mechanism of action. Here, we investigate the effect of a single dose of atomoxetine 60mg, a noradrenaline transporter inhibitor, on working memory performance and associated functional connectivity during an n-back task in 19 healthy male volunteers...
March 10, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290500/pramipexole-restores-depressed-transmission-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-following-mptp-lesion
#3
Javier Castro-Hernández, Paul A Adlard, David I Finkelstein
The hippocampus has a significant association with memory, cognition and emotions. The dopaminergic projections from both the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra are thought to be involved in hippocampal activity. To date, however, few studies have investigated dopaminergic innervation in the hippocampus or the functional consequences of reduced dopamine in disease models. Further complicating this, the hippocampus exhibits anatomical and functional differentiation along its dorso-ventral axis. In this work we investigated the role of dopamine on hippocampal long term potentiation using D-amphetamine, which stimulates dopamine release, and also examined how a dopaminergic lesion affects the synaptic transmission across the anatomic subdivisions of the hippocampus...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289600/conflict-processing-in-juvenile-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-nf1-and-healthy-controls-two-pathways-to-success
#4
Annet Bluschke, Maja von der Hagen, Katharina Papenhagen, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a monogenetic autosomal-dominant disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms and is commonly associated with cognitive deficits. Patients with NF1 frequently exhibit cognitive impairments like attention problems, working memory deficits and dysfunctional inhibitory control. The latter is also relevant for the resolution of cognitive conflicts. However, it is unclear how conflict monitoring processes are modulated in NF1. To examine this question in more detail, we used a system neurophysiological approach combining high-density ERP recordings with source localisation analyses in juvenile patients with NF1 and controls during a flanker task...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286427/intraindividual-and-interindividual-di%C3%AF-erences-in-spontaneous-eye-blinking-relationships-to-working-memory-performance-and-frontal-eeg-asymmetry
#5
Leigh F Bacher, Shirley Retz, Courtney Lindon, Martha Ann Bell
The rate and timing of spontaneous eye blinking (SB) may be used to explore mechanisms of cognitive activity in infancy. In particular, SB rate is believed to reflect some dimensions of dopamine function; therefore, we hypothesized that SB rate would relate to working memory performance and to frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry. Forty, 10-mo-old infants completed an A-not-B task while SB and EEG were measured throughout. We found that SB rate varied across phases of the task, variability in SB rate was positively related to working memory performance, and frontal EEG asymmetry was related to individual differences in the rate of SB...
March 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273278/catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-polymorphisms-modulate-working-memory-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#6
Camila T Matsuzaka, Denise Christofolini, Vanessa K Ota, Ary Gadelha, Arthur A Berberian, Cristiano Noto, Diego R Mazzotti, Leticia M Spindola, Patricia N Moretti, Marilia A C Smith, Maria I Melaragno, Sintia I Belangero, Rodrigo A Bressan
Objective: Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, related to dopaminergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It is hypothesized that functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene could mediate the relationship between cognition and dopamine activity in the PFC. Other COMT SNPs could also play a role. Methods: We evaluated the role of three COMT SNPs (rs737865, rs165599, and rs4680) in schizophrenia and their impact on three working memory tasks...
March 2, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212942/activation-of-type-4-dopaminergic-receptors-in-the-prelimbic-area-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-necessary-for-the-expression-of-innate-fear-behavior
#7
Macarena D Vergara, Victor N Keller, José A Fuentealba, Katia Gysling
The prelimbic area (PL) of the medial Prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in the acquisition and expression of conditioned and innate fear. Both types of fear share several neuronal pathways. It has been documented that dopamine (DA) plays an important role in the regulation of aversive memories in the mPFC. The exposure to an aversive stimulus, such as the smell of a predator odor or the exposure to footshock stress is accompanied by an increase in mPFC DA release. Evidence suggests that the type 4 dopaminergic receptor (D4R) is the molecular target through which DA modulates fear expression...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#8
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186680/the-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-agonist-ly354740-and-the-d2-receptor-antagonist-haloperidol-reduce-locomotor-hyperactivity-but-fail-to-rescue-spatial-working-memory-in-glua1-knockout-mice
#9
Thomas Boerner, Alexei Bygrave, Jingkai Chen, Anushka Fernando, Stephanie Jackson, Chris Barkus, Rolf Sprengel, Peter H Seeburg, Paul J Harrison, Gary Gilmour, David M Bannerman, David J Sanderson
Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists have been suggested as potential anti-psychotics, at least in part, based on the observation that the agonist LY354740 appeared to rescue the cognitive deficits caused by non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, including spatial working memory deficits in rodents. Here, we tested the ability of LY354740 to rescue spatial working memory performance in mice that lack the GluA1 subunit of the AMPA glutamate receptor, encoded by Gria1, a gene recently implicated in schizophrenia by genome-wide association studies...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155134/parallel-basal-ganglia-circuits-for-decision-making
#10
REVIEW
Okihide Hikosaka, Ali Ghazizadeh, Whitney Griggs, Hidetoshi Amita
The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094815/drd2-co-expression-network-and-a-related-polygenic-index-predict-imaging-behavioral-and-clinical-phenotypes-linked-to-schizophrenia
#11
G Pergola, P Di Carlo, E D'Ambrosio, B Gelao, L Fazio, M Papalino, A Monda, G Scozia, B Pietrangelo, M Attrotto, J A Apud, Q Chen, V S Mattay, A Rampino, G Caforio, D R Weinberger, G Blasi, A Bertolino
Genetic risk for schizophrenia (SCZ) is determined by many genetic loci whose compound biological effects are difficult to determine. We hypothesized that co-expression pathways of SCZ risk genes are associated with system-level brain function and clinical phenotypes of SCZ. We examined genetic variants related to the dopamine D2 receptor gene DRD2 co-expression pathway and associated them with working memory (WM) behavior, the related brain activity and treatment response. Using two independent post-mortem prefrontal messenger RNA (mRNA) data sets (total N=249), we identified a DRD2 co-expression pathway enriched for SCZ risk genes...
January 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093558/glutamatergic-synapses-are-structurally-and-biochemically-complex-because-of-multiple-plasticity-processes-long-term-potentiation-long-term-depression-short-term-potentiation-and-scaling
#12
REVIEW
John Lisman
Synapses are complex because they perform multiple functions, including at least six mechanistically different forms of plasticity. Here, I comment on recent developments regarding these processes. (i) Short-term potentiation (STP), a Hebbian process that requires small amounts of synaptic input, appears to make strong contributions to some forms of working memory. (ii) The rules for long-term potentiation (LTP) induction in CA3 have been clarified: induction does not depend obligatorily on backpropagating sodium spikes but, rather, on dendritic branch-specific N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) spikes...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088287/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-3-deficiency-leads-to-behavior-impairment-with-monoaminergic-and-synaptic-dysfunction
#13
Hongmei Dai, Yu-Ichi Goto, Masayuki Itoh
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 regulates IGF bioactivity, induces apoptosis, and inhibits cell growth independent of IGFs, but the functional role of IGFBP3 in the brain is not clear. In the present study, we revealed the effect of IGFBP3 on the brain by characterizing the phenotype of Igfbp3-null mice. Compared with wild-type mice, Igfbp3-null mice had significantly decreased IGF-1 content in the brain but no change in weights of brain and body. In Igfbp3-null mice, the number of dendritic spines was significantly reduced, and the dendritic diameter was thickening...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925199/dopamine-dependent-effects-on-basal-and-glutamate-stimulated-network-dynamics-in-cultured-hippocampal-neurons
#14
Yan Li, Xin Chen, Rhonda Dzakpasu, Katherine Conant
Oscillatory activity occurs in cortical and hippocampal networks with specific frequency ranges thought to be critical to working memory, attention, differentiation of neuronal precursors, and memory trace replay. Synchronized activity within relatively large neuronal populations is influenced by firing and bursting frequency within individual cells, and the latter is modulated by changes in intrinsic membrane excitability and synaptic transmission. Published work suggests that dopamine, a potent modulator of learning and memory, acts on dopamine receptor 1-like dopamine receptors to influence the phosphorylation and trafficking of glutamate receptor subunits, along with long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic transmission in striatum and prefrontal cortex...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897674/dopamine-alters-the-fidelity-of-working-memory-representations-according-to-attentional-demands
#15
Sean James Fallon, Nahid Zokaei, Agnes Norbury, Sanjay G Manohar, Masud Husain
Capacity limitations in working memory (WM) necessitate the need to effectively control its contents. Here, we examined the effect of cabergoline, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, on WM using a continuous report paradigm that allowed us to assess the fidelity with which items are stored. We assessed recall performance under three different gating conditions: remembering only one item, being cued to remember one target among distractors, and having to remember all items. Cabergoline had differential effects on recall performance according to whether distractors had to be ignored and whether mnemonic resources could be deployed exclusively to the target...
April 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847474/reward-anticipation-dynamics-during-cognitive-control-and-episodic-encoding-implications-for-dopamine
#16
Kimberly S Chiew, Jessica K Stanek, R Alison Adcock
Dopamine (DA) modulatory activity critically supports motivated behavior. This modulation operates at multiple timescales, but the functional roles of these distinct dynamics on cognition are still being characterized. Reward processing has been robustly linked to DA activity; thus, examining behavioral effects of reward anticipation at different timing intervals, corresponding to different putative dopaminergic dynamics, may help in characterizing the functional role of these dynamics. Towards this end, we present two research studies investigating reward motivation effects on cognitive control and episodic memory, converging in their manipulation of rapid vs...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807366/cell-type-specific-modulation-of-targets-and-distractors-by-dopamine-d1-receptors-in-primate-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Simon N Jacob, Maximilian Stalter, Andreas Nieder
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is crucial for maintaining relevant information in working memory and resisting interference. PFC neurons are strongly regulated by dopamine, but it is unknown whether dopamine receptors are involved in protecting target memories from distracting stimuli. We investigated the prefrontal circuit dynamics and dopaminergic modulation of targets and distractors in monkeys trained to ignore interfering stimuli in a delayed-match-to-numerosity task. We found that dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) modulate the recovery of task-relevant information following a distracting stimulus...
October 27, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802831/persisting-neurobehavioral-effects-of-developmental-copper-exposure-in-wildtype-and-metallothionein-1-and-2-knockout-mice
#18
Ann Petro, Hannah G Sexton, Caroline Miranda, Anit Rastogi, Jonathan H Freedman, Edward D Levin
BACKGROUND: Metallothioneins (MT) are small proteins, which are crucial for the distribution of heavy and transition metals. Previously, we found in mice that knockout of MT 1 and 2 genes (MTKO) impaired spatial learning and potentiated the learning impairment caused by developmental mercury exposure. The current study examined the neurocognitive and neurochemical effects of MTKO with the developmental copper (Cu) supplementation. METHODS: Wildtype (WT) and MTKO mice were given supplemental Cu (0, 10 or 50 mg/l) in their drinking water during gestation and until weaning...
November 2, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779907/the-neurocognitive-cost-of-enhancing-cognition-with-methylphenidate-improved-distractor-resistance-but-impaired-updating
#19
Sean James Fallon, Marieke E van der Schaaf, Niels Ter Huurne, Roshan Cools
A balance has to be struck between supporting distractor-resistant representations in working memory and allowing those representations to be updated. Catecholamine, particularly dopamine, transmission has been proposed to modulate the balance between the stability and flexibility of working memory representations. However, it is unclear whether drugs that increase catecholamine transmission, such as methylphenidate, optimize this balance in a task-dependent manner or bias the system toward stability at the expense of flexibility (or vice versa)...
April 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768692/genetic-dissection-of-aversive-associative-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-drosophila-larvae
#20
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
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