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Dopamine and working memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212942/activation-of-type-4-dopaminergic-receptors-in-the-prelimbic-area-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-necessary-for-the-expression-of-innate-fear-behavior
#1
Macarena D Vergara, Victor N Keller, José A Fuentealba, Katia Gysling
The prelimbic area (PL) of the medial Prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in the acquisition and expression of conditioned and innate fear. Both types of fear share several neuronal pathways. It has been documented that dopamine (DA) plays an important role in the regulation of aversive memories in the mPFC. The exposure to an aversive stimulus, such as the smell of a predator odor or the exposure to footshock stress is accompanied by an increase in mPFC DA release. Evidence suggests that the type 4 dopaminergic receptor (D4R) is the molecular target through which DA modulates fear expression...
February 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#2
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186680/the-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-agonist-ly354740-and-the-d2-receptor-antagonist-haloperidol-reduce-locomotor-hyperactivity-but-fail-to-rescue-spatial-working-memory-in-glua1-knockout-mice
#3
Thomas Boerner, Alexei Bygrave, Jingkai Chen, Anushka Fernando, Stephanie Jackson, Chris Barkus, Rolf Sprengel, Peter H Seeburg, Paul J Harrison, Gary Gilmour, David M Bannerman, David J Sanderson
Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists have been suggested as potential anti-psychotics, at least in part, based on the observation that the agonist LY354740 appeared to rescue the cognitive deficits caused by non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, including spatial working memory deficits in rodents. Here, we tested the ability of LY354740 to rescue spatial working memory performance in mice that lack the GluA1 subunit of the AMPA glutamate receptor, encoded by Gria1, a gene recently implicated in schizophrenia by genome-wide association studies...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155134/parallel-basal-ganglia-circuits-for-decision-making
#4
REVIEW
Okihide Hikosaka, Ali Ghazizadeh, Whitney Griggs, Hidetoshi Amita
The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094815/drd2-co-expression-network-and-a-related-polygenic-index-predict-imaging-behavioral-and-clinical-phenotypes-linked-to-schizophrenia
#5
G Pergola, P Di Carlo, E D'Ambrosio, B Gelao, L Fazio, M Papalino, A Monda, G Scozia, B Pietrangelo, M Attrotto, J A Apud, Q Chen, V S Mattay, A Rampino, G Caforio, D R Weinberger, G Blasi, A Bertolino
Genetic risk for schizophrenia (SCZ) is determined by many genetic loci whose compound biological effects are difficult to determine. We hypothesized that co-expression pathways of SCZ risk genes are associated with system-level brain function and clinical phenotypes of SCZ. We examined genetic variants related to the dopamine D2 receptor gene DRD2 co-expression pathway and associated them with working memory (WM) behavior, the related brain activity and treatment response. Using two independent post-mortem prefrontal messenger RNA (mRNA) data sets (total N=249), we identified a DRD2 co-expression pathway enriched for SCZ risk genes...
January 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093558/glutamatergic-synapses-are-structurally-and-biochemically-complex-because-of-multiple-plasticity-processes-long-term-potentiation-long-term-depression-short-term-potentiation-and-scaling
#6
REVIEW
John Lisman
Synapses are complex because they perform multiple functions, including at least six mechanistically different forms of plasticity. Here, I comment on recent developments regarding these processes. (i) Short-term potentiation (STP), a Hebbian process that requires small amounts of synaptic input, appears to make strong contributions to some forms of working memory. (ii) The rules for long-term potentiation (LTP) induction in CA3 have been clarified: induction does not depend obligatorily on backpropagating sodium spikes but, rather, on dendritic branch-specific N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) spikes...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088287/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-3-deficiency-leads-to-behavior-impairment-with-monoaminergic-and-synaptic-dysfunction
#7
Hongmei Dai, Yu-Ichi Goto, Masayuki Itoh
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 regulates IGF bioactivity, induces apoptosis, and inhibits cell growth independent of IGFs, but the functional role of IGFBP3 in the brain is not clear. In the present study, we revealed the effect of IGFBP3 on the brain by characterizing the phenotype of Igfbp3-null mice. Compared with wild-type mice, Igfbp3-null mice had significantly decreased IGF-1 content in the brain but no change in weights of brain and body. In Igfbp3-null mice, the number of dendritic spines was significantly reduced, and the dendritic diameter was thickening...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925199/dopamine-dependent-effects-on-basal-and-glutamate-stimulated-network-dynamics-in-cultured-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Yan Li, Xin Chen, Rhonda Dzakpasu, Katherine Conant
Oscillatory activity occurs in cortical and hippocampal networks with specific frequency ranges thought to be critical to working memory, attention, differentiation of neuronal precursors, and memory trace replay. Synchronized activity within relatively large neuronal populations is influenced by firing and bursting frequency within individual cells, and the latter is modulated by changes in intrinsic membrane excitability and synaptic transmission. Published work suggests that dopamine, a potent modulator of learning and memory, acts on dopamine receptor 1-like dopamine receptors to influence the phosphorylation and trafficking of glutamate receptor subunits, along with long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic transmission in striatum and prefrontal cortex...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897674/dopamine-alters-the-fidelity-of-working-memory-representations-according-to-attentional-demands
#9
Sean James Fallon, Nahid Zokaei, Agnes Norbury, Sanjay G Manohar, Masud Husain
Capacity limitations in working memory (WM) necessitate the need to effectively control its contents. Here, we examined the effect of cabergoline, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, on WM using a continuous report paradigm that allowed us to assess the fidelity with which items are stored. We assessed recall performance under three different gating conditions: remembering only one item, being cued to remember one target among distractors, and having to remember all items. Cabergoline had differential effects on recall performance according to whether distractors had to be ignored and whether mnemonic resources could be deployed exclusively to the target...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847474/reward-anticipation-dynamics-during-cognitive-control-and-episodic-encoding-implications-for-dopamine
#10
Kimberly S Chiew, Jessica K Stanek, R Alison Adcock
Dopamine (DA) modulatory activity critically supports motivated behavior. This modulation operates at multiple timescales, but the functional roles of these distinct dynamics on cognition are still being characterized. Reward processing has been robustly linked to DA activity; thus, examining behavioral effects of reward anticipation at different timing intervals, corresponding to different putative dopaminergic dynamics, may help in characterizing the functional role of these dynamics. Towards this end, we present two research studies investigating reward motivation effects on cognitive control and episodic memory, converging in their manipulation of rapid vs...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807366/cell-type-specific-modulation-of-targets-and-distractors-by-dopamine-d1-receptors-in-primate-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Simon N Jacob, Maximilian Stalter, Andreas Nieder
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is crucial for maintaining relevant information in working memory and resisting interference. PFC neurons are strongly regulated by dopamine, but it is unknown whether dopamine receptors are involved in protecting target memories from distracting stimuli. We investigated the prefrontal circuit dynamics and dopaminergic modulation of targets and distractors in monkeys trained to ignore interfering stimuli in a delayed-match-to-numerosity task. We found that dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) modulate the recovery of task-relevant information following a distracting stimulus...
October 27, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802831/persisting-neurobehavioral-effects-of-developmental-copper-exposure-in-wildtype-and-metallothionein-1-and-2-knockout-mice
#12
Ann Petro, Hannah G Sexton, Caroline Miranda, Anit Rastogi, Jonathan H Freedman, Edward D Levin
BACKGROUND: Metallothioneins (MT) are small proteins, which are crucial for the distribution of heavy and transition metals. Previously, we found in mice that knockout of MT 1 and 2 genes (MTKO) impaired spatial learning and potentiated the learning impairment caused by developmental mercury exposure. The current study examined the neurocognitive and neurochemical effects of MTKO with the developmental copper (Cu) supplementation. METHODS: Wildtype (WT) and MTKO mice were given supplemental Cu (0, 10 or 50 mg/l) in their drinking water during gestation and until weaning...
November 2, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779907/the-neurocognitive-cost-of-enhancing-cognition-with-methylphenidate-improved-distractor-resistance-but-impaired-updating
#13
Sean James Fallon, Marieke E van der Schaaf, Niels Ter Huurne, Roshan Cools
A balance has to be struck between supporting distractor-resistant representations in working memory and allowing those representations to be updated. Catecholamine, particularly dopamine, transmission has been proposed to modulate the balance between the stability and flexibility of working memory representations. However, it is unclear whether drugs that increase catecholamine transmission, such as methylphenidate, optimize this balance in a task-dependent manner or bias the system toward stability at the expense of flexibility (or vice versa)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768692/genetic-dissection-of-aversive-associative-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-drosophila-larvae
#14
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707968/role-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-learning-and-generalizing-hierarchical-rules-in-8-month-old-infants
#15
Denise M Werchan, Anne G E Collins, Michael J Frank, Dima Amso
: Recent research indicates that adults and infants spontaneously create and generalize hierarchical rule sets during incidental learning. Computational models and empirical data suggest that, in adults, this process is supported by circuits linking prefrontal cortex (PFC) with striatum and their modulation by dopamine, but the neural circuits supporting this form of learning in infants are largely unknown. We used near-infrared spectroscopy to record PFC activity in 8-month-old human infants during a simple audiovisual hierarchical-rule-learning task...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671502/genome-wide-association-study-of-working-memory-brain-activation
#16
Gabriëlla A M Blokland, Angus K Wallace, Narelle K Hansell, Paul M Thompson, Ian B Hickie, Grant W Montgomery, Nicholas G Martin, Katie L McMahon, Greig I de Zubicaray, Margaret J Wright
In a population-based genome-wide association (GWA) study of n-back working memory task-related brain activation, we extracted the average percent BOLD signal change (2-back minus 0-back) from 46 regions-of-interest (ROIs) in functional MRI scans from 863 healthy twins and siblings. ROIs were obtained by creating spheres around group random effects analysis local maxima, and by thresholding a voxel-based heritability map of working memory brain activation at 50%. Quality control for test-retest reliability and heritability of ROI measures yielded 20 reliable (r>0...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641323/learning-and-generalization-from-reward-and-punishment-in-opioid-addiction
#17
Catherine E Myers, Janice Rego, Paul Haber, Kirsten Morley, Kevin D Beck, Lee Hogarth, Ahmed A Moustafa
This study adapts a widely-used acquired equivalence paradigm to investigate how opioid-addicted individuals learn from positive and negative feedback, and how they generalize this learning. The opioid-addicted group consisted of 33 participants with a history of heroin dependency currently in a methadone maintenance program; the control group consisted of 32 healthy participants without a history of drug addiction. All participants performed a novel variant of the acquired equivalence task, where they learned to map some stimuli to correct outcomes in order to obtain reward, and to map other stimuli to correct outcomes in order to avoid punishment; some stimuli were implicitly "equivalent" in the sense of being paired with the same outcome...
January 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618817/mood-induction-effects-on-motor-sequence-learning-and-stop-signal-reaction-time
#18
Brian Greeley, Rachael D Seidler
The neurobiological theory of positive affect proposes that positive mood states may benefit cognitive performance due to an increase of dopamine throughout the brain. However, the results of many positive affect studies are inconsistent; this may be due to individual differences. The relationship between dopamine and performance is not linear, but instead follows an inverted "U" shape. Given this, we hypothesized that individuals with high working memory capacity, a proxy measure for dopaminergic transmission, would not benefit from positive mood induction and in fact performance in dopamine-mediated tasks would decline...
September 12, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616337/activation-and-blockade-of-serotonin6-receptors-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-enhance-t-maze-and-hole-board-performance-in-a-unilateral-6-hydroxydopamine-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Kun Cheng Liu, Jun Yi Li, Wen Xie, Li Bo Li, Jin Zhang, Cheng Xue Du, Yu Ming Zhang, Hui Hui Tan, Hui Sheng Wang, Li Zhang
The role of dorsal hippocampus (DH) serotonin6 (5-HT6) receptors in memory is unknown, particularly in memory impairment of Parkinson's disease. We tested here effects of activation and blockade of DH 5-HT6 receptors on working and hippocampus-dependent memories in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced working and hippocampus-dependent memory impairments as measured by the T-maze rewarded alternation and hole-board tests, and decreased dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), DH and amygdala...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610420/low-resolution-electromagnetic-tomography-loreta-of-changed-brain-function-provoked-by-pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220z-in-one-adult-adhd-case
#20
Bruce Steinberg, Kenneth Blum, Thomas McLaughlin, Joel Lubar, Marcelo Febo, Eric R Braverman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often continues into adulthood. Recent neuroimaging studies found lowered baseline dopamine tone in the brains of affected individuals that may place them at risk for Substance Use Disorder (SUD). This is an observational case study of the potential for novel management of Adult ADHD with a non-addictive glutaminergic-dopaminergic optimization complex KB200z. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to evaluate the effects of KB220z on a 72-year-old male with ADHD, at baseline and one hour following administration...
2016: Open Journal of Clinical & Medical Case Reports
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