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Dopamine and effort

Samuele Maramai, Sandra Gemma, Simone Brogi, Giuseppe Campiani, Stefania Butini, Holger Stark, Margherita Brindisi
D3 receptors represent a major focus of current drug design and development of therapeutics for dopamine-related pathological states. Their close homology with the D2 receptor subtype makes the development of D3 selective antagonists a challenging task. In this review, we explore the relevance and therapeutic utility of D3 antagonists or partial agonists endowed with multireceptor affinity profile in the field of central nervous system disorders such as schizophrenia and drug abuse. In fact, the peculiar distribution and low brain abundance of D3 receptors make them a valuable target for the development of drugs devoid of motor side effects classically elicited by D2 antagonists...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ayaka Kato, Kenji Morita
It has been suggested that dopamine (DA) represents reward-prediction-error (RPE) defined in reinforcement learning and therefore DA responds to unpredicted but not predicted reward. However, recent studies have found DA response sustained towards predictable reward in tasks involving self-paced behavior, and suggested that this response represents a motivational signal. We have previously shown that RPE can sustain if there is decay/forgetting of learned-values, which can be implemented as decay of synaptic strengths storing learned-values...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Morgane Milienne-Petiot, James P Kesby, Mary Graves, Jordy van Enkhuizen, Svetlana Semenova, Arpi Minassian, Athina Markou, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) mania patients exhibit poor cognition and reward-seeking/hypermotivation, negatively impacting a patient's quality of life. Current treatments (e.g., lithium), do not treat such deficits. Treatment development has been limited due to a poor understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying these behaviors. Here, we investigated putative mechanisms underlying cognition and reward-seeking/motivational changes relevant to BD mania patients using two validated mouse models and neurochemical analyses...
October 9, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Nadja P Maric, Milica J Jovicic, Marina Mihaljevic, Cedo Miljevic
Preclinical Research After the identification of the schizophrenia as an illness over a century ago, treatment of affected individuals included unspecific, mostly very robust methods including deep insulin coma and lobectomy/leucotomy. The first relatively specific treatment of schizophrenia started about 60 years ago with the antipsychotic chlorpromazine. All currently approved antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors, indicating that manipulation of dopaminergic function is fundamental to a therapeutic response in psychosis...
September 16, 2016: Drug Development Research
Alexandre Zénon, Sophie Devesse, Etienne Olivier
UNLABELLED: Dopamine is known to be involved in regulating effort investment in relation to reward, and the disruption of this mechanism is thought to be central in some pathological situations such as Parkinson's disease, addiction, and depression. According to an influential model, dopamine plays this role by encoding the opportunity cost, i.e., the average value of forfeited actions, which is an important parameter to take into account when making decisions about which action to undertake and how fast to execute it...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jeehae Sun, Adam J Walker, Brian Dean, Maarten van den Buuse, Andrea Gogos
Sex differences appear to be an important factor in schizophrenia. Women with schizophrenia tend to exhibit less disease impairment than men, typically presenting with a later age-at-onset, lower overall incidence and less severe symptoms. These observations underpin the estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia, which postulates a protective role of estrogen against the development and severity of the disorder. While there has been significant attention placed on the impact of estrogens in schizophrenia, less consideration has been afforded to the role of progesterone, the other main female gonadal hormone...
August 24, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Shuai Wang, Shan-Hu Hu, Yi Shi, Bao-Ming Li
It has been shown that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and its dopamine system are crucial for decision making that requires physical/emotional effort, but not for all forms of cost-benefit decision making. Previous studies had mostly employed behavioral tasks with two competing cost-reward options that were preset by the experimenters. However, few studies have been conducted using scenarios in which the subjects have full control over the energy/time expenditure required to obtain a proportional reward...
September 7, 2016: Learning & Behavior
Marcia Spoelder, Peter Hesseling, Matthew Styles, Annemarie M Baars, José G Lozeman-van 't Klooster, Heidi M B Lesscher, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum has been widely implicated in the reinforcing properties of substances of abuse. However, the striatum is functionally heterogeneous, and previous work has mostly focused on psychostimulant drugs. Therefore, we investigated how dopamine within striatal sub-regions modulates alcohol-directed behaviour in rats. We assessed the effects of infusion of the dopamine receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol into the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) on responding for alcohol under fixed ratio 1 (FR1) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement...
August 13, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Harriet Beitscher-Campbell, Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Margaret A Madigan, John Giordano, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Mark S Gold
Background The reward deficiency syndrome hypothesis posits that genes are responsible for reward dependence and related behaviors. There is evidence that both bulimia and anorexia nervosa, especially in women, have been linked to a lifetime history of substance use disorder (SUD). There are difficulties in accepting food as an addiction similar to drugs; however, increasingly neuroimaging studies favor such an assertion. Case presentations We are reporting the evidence of comorbidity of eating disorders with SUD found within these case presentations...
September 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Adam J Prus, Laura E Wise, Alan L Pehrson, Scott D Philibin, Benny Bang-Andersen, Jørn Arnt, Joseph H Porter
The atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine remains one of most effective treatments for schizophrenia, given a lack of extrapyramidal side effects, improvements in negative symptoms, cognitive impairment, and in symptoms in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The adverse effects of clozapine, including agranulocytosis, make finding a safe clozapine-like a drug a goal for drug developers. The drug discrimination paradigm is a model of interoceptive stimulus that has been used in an effort to screen experimental drugs for clozapine-like atypical antipsychotic effects...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Samantha E Yohn, Yumna Arif, Allison Haley, Guiseppe Tripodi, Younis Baqi, Christa E Müller, Noemi San Miguel, Mercè Correa, John D Salamone
RATIONALE: Motivational dysfunctions such as anergia, fatigue, and reduced effort expenditure are common in patients with depression and other disorders. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are implicated in depression, and cytokine administration induces motivational deficits in humans. OBJECTIVES: These studies focused on the effects of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) on effort-related decision-making. METHODS: Rats were assessed using the concurrent fixed ratio 5-lever pressing/chow feeding choice procedure, which measures the tendency of rats to work for a preferred food (high carbohydrate pellets) in the presence of a concurrently available but less preferred substitute (lab chow)...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
Andrew Westbrook, Todd S Braver
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2016: Neuron
Aviv Malkiel Weinstein, Nanette Freedman, Joel Greif, Zipi Yemini, Eyal Mishani, Edythe London, Roland Chisin, Moshe Bocher
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In an effort to help identify factors that maintain heavy smoking, this study tested the association of pretreatment cigarette use (cigarettes per day) with striatal dopamine release during smoking-cessation treatment. METHODS: Thirteen regular smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day) were evaluated on parameters of smoking behavior, and they entered a smoking cessation treatment protocol, including bupropion administration and individual counseling for 2 months...
September 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Tiago V Maia, Michael J Frank
We propose that schizophrenia involves a combination of decreased phasic dopamine responses for relevant stimuli and increased spontaneous phasic dopamine release. Using insights from computational reinforcement-learning models and basic-science studies of the dopamine system, we show that each of these two disturbances contributes to a specific symptom domain and explains a large set of experimental findings associated with that domain. Reduced phasic responses for relevant stimuli help to explain negative symptoms and provide a unified explanation for the following experimental findings in schizophrenia, most of which have been shown to correlate with negative symptoms: reduced learning from rewards; blunted activation of the ventral striatum, midbrain, and other limbic regions for rewards and positive prediction errors; blunted activation of the ventral striatum during reward anticipation; blunted autonomic responding for relevant stimuli; blunted neural activation for aversive outcomes and aversive prediction errors; reduced willingness to expend effort for rewards; and psychomotor slowing...
June 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Cody A Siciliano, Jason L Locke, Tiffany A Mathews, Marcelo F Lopez, Howard C Becker, Sara R Jones
Alcoholism is a prevalent and debilitating neuropsychiatric disease, and much effort has been aimed at elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maladaptive alcohol drinking in an effort to design rational treatment strategies. In preclinical literature, the use of inbred mouse lines has allowed for the examination of ethanol effects across vulnerable and resistant phenotypes. C57BL/6J mice consistently show higher rates of ethanol drinking compared to most mouse strains. Conversely, DBA/2J mice display low rates of ethanol consumption...
June 11, 2016: Alcohol
Chijioke N Egbujo, Duncan Sinclair, Chang-Gyu Hahn
Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric illness which is experienced by about 1 % of individuals worldwide and has a debilitating impact on perception, cognition, and social function. Over the years, several models/hypotheses have been developed which link schizophrenia to dysregulations of the dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin receptor pathways. An important segment of these pathways that have been extensively studied for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is the presynaptic neurotransmitter release mechanism...
August 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Raphaël Le Bouc, Lionel Rigoux, Liane Schmidt, Bertrand Degos, Marie-Laure Welter, Marie Vidailhet, Jean Daunizeau, Mathias Pessiglione
UNLABELLED: Motor dysfunction (e.g., bradykinesia) and motivational deficit (i.e., apathy) are hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Yet, it remains unclear whether these two symptoms arise from a same dopaminergic dysfunction. Here, we develop a computational model that articulates motor control to economic decision theory, to dissect the motor and motivational functions of dopamine in humans. This model can capture different aspects of the behavior: choice (which action is selected) and vigor (action speed and intensity)...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Samantha E Yohn, Emily E Errante, Aaron Rosenbloom-Snow, Matthew Somerville, Margaret Rowland, Kristin Tokarski, Nadia Zafar, Merce Correa, John D Salamone
Deficits in behavioral activation, exertion of effort, and other psychomotor/motivational symptoms are frequently seen in people with depression and other disorders. Depressed people show a decision bias towards selection of low effort activities, and animal tests of effort-related decision making are being used as models of motivational dysfunctions seen in psychopathology. The present studies investigated the ability of drugs that block dopamine transport (DAT), norepinephrine transport (NET), and serotonin transport (SERT) to modulate work output in rats responding on a test of effort-related decision making (i...
October 2016: Neuropharmacology
Samantha E Yohn, Augustyna Gogoj, Aileen Haque, Laura Lopez-Cruz, Allison Haley, Philip Huxley, Patricia Baskin, Merce Correa, John D Salamone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Andrew D Peckham, Sheri L Johnson
Extensive research supports the role of striatal dopamine in pursuing and responding to reward, and that eye-blink rate is a valid indicator of striatal dopamine. This study tested whether phasic changes in blink rate could provide an index of reward pursuit. This hypothesis was tested in people with bipolar I disorder (BD; a population with aberrations in reward responsivity), and in those without BD. Thirty-one adults with BD and 28 control participants completed a laboratory task involving effort towards monetary reward...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
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