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Dopamine and effort

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875227/tas-303-a-novel-selective-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibitor-that-increases-urethral-pressure-in-rats-indicating-its-potential-as-a-therapeutic-agent-for-stress-urinary-incontinence
#1
Hiroya Mizutani, Fukumitsu Sakakibara, Masahito Komuro, Eiji Sasaki
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is characterized by involuntary leakage associated with exertion, effort, sneezing, coughing, or lifting. Duloxetine, a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of patients with SUI in some European countries, but not in the USA. There is currently no globally approved pharmacological drug for the treatment of SUI patients. Therefore, a new pharmacological treatment option is required. TAS-303 is a novel small-molecule selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that displays significant norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitory activity toward the serotonin or dopamine transporters...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809046/exposure-to-bright-light-biases-effort-based-decisions
#2
Erik Bijleveld, Melanie Knufinke
Secreted in the evening and the night, melatonin suppresses activity of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, a brain pathway involved in reward processing. However, exposure to bright light diminishes-or even prevents-melatonin secretion. Thus, we hypothesized that reward processing, in the evening, is more pronounced in bright light (vs. dim light). Healthy human participants carried out three tasks that tapped into various aspects of reward processing (effort expenditure for rewards task [EEfRT]; two-armed bandit task [2ABT]; balloon analogue risk task [BART)...
June 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807065/dopamine-ds3-receptor-partial-agonist-ls-3-134-attenuates-cocaine-motivated-behaviors
#3
Gregory L Powell, John Paul Bonadonna, Annika Vannan, Kuiying Xu, Robert H Mach, Robert R Luedtke, Janet L Neisewander
AIMS: The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a pharmacotherapeutic target for drug dependence. We have successfully imaged human D3Rs using radiolabeled LS-3-134, an arylamide phenylpiperazine with moderate selectivity for the D3R over D2R and low efficacy at the D2 and D3R. In this study, we screened for effects of LS-3-134 as a potential anti-cocaine therapeutic. METHODS: Male rats were pretreated with LS-3-134 (0, 1.0, 3.2, or 5.6 mg/kg, IP) 15 min prior to tests for its effects on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion...
May 25, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29798691/trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-a-multimodal-therapeutic-target-for-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#4
Michael D Schwartz, Juan J Canales, Riccardo Zucchi, Stefano Espinoza, Ilya Sukhanov, Raul R Gainetdinov
The trace amines, endogenous amines closely related to the biogenic amine neurotransmitters, have been known to exert physiological and neurological effects for decades. The recent identification of a trace amine-sensitive G protein-coupled receptor, trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), and subsequent development of TAAR1-selective small-molecule ligands, has renewed research into the therapeutic possibilities of trace amine signaling. Areas covered. Recent efforts in elucidating the neuropharmacology of TAAR1, particularly in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disease, addiction, and regulation of arousal state, will be discussed...
May 25, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754195/three-different-motor-task-strategies-to-assess-neuromuscular-adjustments-during-fatiguing-muscle-contractions-in-young-and-older-men
#5
Laura Kyguoliene, Albertas Skurvydas, Nerijus Eimantas, Neringa Baranauskiene, Rasa Steponaviciute, Laura Daniuseviciute, Henrikas Paulauskas, Margarita Cernych, Marius Brazaitis
Healthy aging is associated with a marked decline in motor performance. The functional consequences of applying varying novel or unexpected motor stimuli during intermittent isometric prolonged (fatiguing) motor tasks for lower limb neuromuscular fatigability and steadiness, perception of effort, and blood markers of stress in healthy aged men compared with young men have not been investigated. The participants in this study were 15 young men (aged 22 ± 4 years) and 10 older men (aged 67 ± 6 years)...
May 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750987/the-opportunity-cost-of-time-modulates-cognitive-effort
#6
A Ross Otto, Nathaniel D Daw
A spate of recent work demonstrates that humans seek to avoid the expenditure of cognitive effort, much like physical effort or economic resources. Less is clear, however, about the circumstances dictating how and when people decide to expend cognitive effort. Here we adopt a popular theory of opportunity costs and response vigor and to elucidate this question. This account, grounded in Reinforcement Learning, formalizes a trade-off between two costs: the harder work assumed necessary to emit faster actions and the opportunity cost inherent in acting more slowly (i...
May 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742478/autoimmune-phenotypes-in-schizophrenia-reveal-novel-treatment-targets
#7
REVIEW
Emily G Severance, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
Typical and atypical antipsychotics are the first-line treatments for schizophrenia, but these classes of drugs are not universally effective, and they can have serious side effects that impact compliance. Antipsychotic drugs generally target the dopamine pathways with some variation. As research of schizophrenia pathophysiology has shifted away from a strictly dopamine-centric focus, the development of new pharmacotherapies has waned. A field of inquiry with centuries-old roots is gaining traction in psychiatric research circles and may represent a new frontier for drug discovery in schizophrenia...
May 6, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740277/hedonic-eating-and-the-delicious-circle-from-lipid-derived-mediators-to-brain-dopamine-and-back
#8
REVIEW
Roberto Coccurello, Mauro Maccarrone
Palatable food can be seductive and hedonic eating can become irresistible beyond hunger and negative consequences. This is witnessed by the subtle equilibrium between eating to provide energy intake for homeostatic functions, and reward-induced overeating. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to study neural circuits, and to identify potential factors responsible for the derangement of homeostatic eating toward hedonic eating and addiction-like feeding behavior. Here, we examined recent literature on "old" and "new" players accountable for reward-induced overeating and possible liability to eating addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739866/region-specific-regulation-of-presynaptic-dopamine-homeostasis-by-d2-autoreceptors-shapes-the-in-vivo-impact-of-the-neuropsychiatric-disease-associated-dat-variant-val559
#9
Raajaram Gowrishankar, Paul J Gresch, Gwynne L Davis, Rania M Katamish, Justin R Riele, Adele M Stewart, Roxanne A Vaughan, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Disruptions of dopamine (DA) signaling contribute to a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Despite evidence that risk for these disorders derives from heritable variation in DA-linked genes, a better understanding is needed of the molecular and circuit context through which gene variation drives distinct disease traits. Previously, we identified the DA transporter (DAT) variant Val559 in subjects with ADHD and established that the mutation supports anomalous DAT-mediated DA efflux (ADE)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732159/ultrasound-imaging-improves-hormone-therapy-strategies-for-induction-of-ovulation-and-in-vitro-fertilization-in-the-endangered-dusky-gopher-frog-lithobates-sevosa
#10
Katherine M Graham, Cecilia J Langhorne, Carrie K Vance, Scott T Willard, Andrew J Kouba
Establishing captive breeding populations of amphibians is an important conservation strategy to safeguard against ongoing declines of wild populations and provide broodstock for reintroduction programs. The endangered dusky gopher frog (DGF) has never naturally reproduced in captivity and requires breeding intervention to sustain the population. Methods for inducing ovulation in female DGFs using hormone therapies have not been evaluated. To address this need, we tested four exogenous hormone treatments to induce ovulation in DGFs ( n = 11/treatment), including: treatment (A) gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa); (B) GnRHa with dopamine antagonist metoclopramide hydrochloride; (C) GnRHa and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and (D) GnRHa with hCG following two low hCG priming doses...
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713659/dopamine-and-proximity-in-motivation-and-cognitive-control
#11
Andrew Westbrook, Michael Frank
Cognitive control - the ability to override a salient or prepotent action to execute a more deliberate one - is required for flexible, goal-directed behavior, and yet it is subjectively costly: decision-makers avoid allocating control resources, even when doing so affords more valuable outcomes. Dopamine likely offsets effort costs just as it does for physical effort. And yet, dopamine can also promote impulsive action, undermining control. We propose a novel hypothesis that reconciles opposing effects of dopamine on cognitive control: during action selection, striatal dopamine biases benefits relative to costs, but does so preferentially for "proximal" motor and cognitive actions...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678281/an-orphan-g-protein-coupled-receptor-causes-human-gigantism-and-or-acromegaly-molecular-biology-and-clinical-correlations
#12
REVIEW
Giampaolo Trivellin, Laura C Hernández-Ramírez, Jeremy Swan, Constantine A Stratakis
X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) is a recently described form of familial or sporadic pituitary gigantism characterized by very early onset GH and IGF-1 excess, accelerated growth velocity, gigantism and/or acromegaloid features. Germline or somatic microduplications of the Xq26.3 chromosomal region, invariably involving the GPR101 gene, constitute the genetic defect leading to X-LAG. GPR101 encodes a class A G protein-coupled receptor that activates the 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathway...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672668/distinct-effects-of-apathy-and-dopamine-on-effort-based-decision-making-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Campbell Le Heron, Olivia Plant, Sanjay Manohar, Yuen-Siang Ang, Matthew Jackson, Graham Lennox, Michele T Hu, Masud Husain
Effort-based decision-making is a cognitive process crucial to normal motivated behaviour. Apathy is a common and disabling complication of Parkinson's disease, but its aetiology remains unclear. Intriguingly, the neural substrates associated with apathy also subserve effort-based decision-making in animal models and humans. Furthermore, the dopaminergic system plays a core role in motivating effortful behaviour for reward, and its dysfunction has been proposed to play a crucial role in the aetiology of apathy in Parkinson's disease...
May 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628879/dopamine-effort-based-choice-and-behavioral-economics-basic-and-translational-research
#14
REVIEW
John D Salamone, Merce Correa, Jen-Hau Yang, Renee Rotolo, Rose Presby
Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621813/cushing-s-syndrome-a-historic-review-of-the-treatment-strategies-and-corresponding-outcomes-in-a-single-tertiary-center-over-the-past-half-century
#15
Anelia Nankova, Maria Yaneva, Atanaska Elenkova, Dimitar Tcharaktchiev, Marin Marinov, Asen Hadzhiyanev, Tanyo Sechanov, Georgi Gantchev, Georgi Todorov, Georgi Kirilov, Krasimir Kalinov, Maria Andreeva, Sabina Zacharieva
Cushing's syndrome (CS) is associated with serious comorbidities and an increased mortality rate that could be reduced only if strict biochemical control is achieved. The aim of this study was to show the 50-year experience of a single tertiary center in the management of CS patients - the different treatment modalities used over the years and the corresponding outcomes. It was a retrospective study of a large cohort of patients from the Bulgarian CS database: 613 patients (374 with ACTH-dependent and 239 with ACTH-independent CS)...
April 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566161/regionally-specific-effects-of-oxytocin-on-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking-in-male-and-female-rats
#16
Rachel A Weber, Carly N Logan, Kah-Chung Leong, Joanna Peris, Lori Knackstedt, Carmela M Reichel
Background: Oxytocin reduces cued reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in male and female rats, but the underlying neurobiology has not been uncovered. The majority of effort on this task has focused on oxytocin and dopamine interactions in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc). The NAcc is a key neural substrate in relapse and oxytocin administration in the NAcc reduces reinstatement to methamphetamine cues. Further, the NAcc has strong glutamatergic innervation from numerous regions including the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559549/visual-discrimination-transfer-and-modulation-by-biogenic-amines-in-honeybees
#17
Amanda Rodrigues Vieira, Nayara Salles, Marco Borges, Theo Mota
For more than a century, visual learning and memory have been studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera using operant appetitive conditioning. Although honeybees show impressive visual learning capacities in this well-established protocol, operant training of free-flying animals cannot be combined with invasive protocols for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. In view of this, different attempts have been made to develop new classical conditioning protocols for studying visual learning in harnessed honeybees, though learning performance remains considerably poorer than that for free-flying animals...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543874/effects-of-99mtc-trodat-1-drug-template-on-image-quantitative-analysis
#18
Cheng-Han Wu, Bang-Hung Yang, Yuan-Hwa Chou, Shyh-Jen Wang, Jyh-Cheng Chen
99mTc-TRODAT-1 is a type of drug that can bind to dopamine transporters in living organisms and is often used in SPCT imaging for observation of changes in the activity uptake of dopamine in the striatum. Therefore, it is currently widely used in studies on clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and movement-related disorders. In conventional 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT image evaluation, visual inspection or manual selection of ROI for semiquantitative analysis is mainly used to observe and evaluate the degree of striatal defects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525233/small-animal-massage-therapy-a-brief-review-and-relevant-observations
#19
REVIEW
Maira Rezende Formenton, Marco Aurélio Amador Pereira, Denise Tabacchi Fantoni
Massage therapy is becoming increasingly popular in human and animal physiotherapy and rehabilitation. Wider application of the technique led to research efforts aimed at providing scientific support to anecdotal beneficial effects, particularly pain relief. Recent studies have shown that massage therapy alters dopamine and serotonin levels, decreases noradrenaline levels, and modulates the immune system. Psychological effects such as reduction of stress and anxiety, with improvement of depressive patients, have been reported in humans...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515433/structure-activity-investigation-of-a-g-protein-biased-agonist-reveals-molecular-determinants-for-biased-signaling-of-the-d-2-dopamine-receptor
#20
Lani S Chun, Rakesh H Vekariya, R Benjamin Free, Yun Li, Da-Ting Lin, Ping Su, Fang Liu, Yoon Namkung, Stephane A Laporte, Amy E Moritz, Jeffrey Aubé, Kevin J Frankowski, David R Sibley
The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is known to elicit effects through activating two major signaling pathways mediated by either G proteins (Gi/o) or β-arrestins. However, the specific role of each pathway in physiological or therapeutic activities is not known with certainty. One approach to the dissection of these pathways is through the use of drugs that can selectively modulate one pathway vs. the other through a mechanism known as functional selectivity or biased signaling. Our laboratory has previously described a G protein signaling-biased agonist, MLS1547, for the D2R using a variety of in vitro functional assays...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
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