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Dopamine and effort

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790900/maladaptive-decision-making-in-adults-with-a-history-of-adolescent-alcohol-use-in-a-preclinical-model-is-attributable-to-the-compromised-assignment-of-incentive-value-during-stimulus-reward-learning
#1
Lauren C Kruse, Abigail G Schindler, Rapheal G Williams, Sophia J Weber, Jeremy J Clark
According to recent WHO reports, alcohol remains the number one substance used and abused by adolescents, despite public health efforts to curb its use. Adolescence is a critical period of biological maturation where brain development, particularly the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, undergoes substantial remodeling. These circuits are implicated in complex decision making, incentive learning and reinforcement during substance use and abuse. An appealing theoretical approach has been to suggest that alcohol alters the normal development of these processes to promote deficits in reinforcement learning and decision making, which together make individuals vulnerable to developing substance use disorders in adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782490/unmet-needs-in-schizophrenia
#2
Maurizio Pompili, Herbert Y Meltzer
The objectives of this article are to describe current trends in the treatment of schizophrenia and the most interesting new approaches to optimizing outcome and fostering the development of new schizophrenia treatments. RESULTS: Increasing utilization of diverse types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g. clozapine-type serotonin (5-HT)2A and weak dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, amisulpride, a D2/D3/5-HT7 antagonist, and cariprazine, a D3 partial agonist with additional neurotransmitter targets, is occurring as their advantages in efficacy, especially for cognitive impairment and mood symptoms, and side effects is becoming appreciated...
August 3, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781202/biomarkers-for-cognitive-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Lorraine V Kalia
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive dysfunction is among the most prevalent and debilitating non-motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). The neuropathological correlates of cognitive dysfunction in PD are being revealed by clinicopathological correlation studies. These findings are fostering the development of candidate biomarkers to facilitate diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia, and to predict cognitive decline and onset of dementia in PD. METHODS: A literature review of candidate biomarkers for cognitive dysfunction in PD was performed based on a PubMed search for peer-reviewed articles published from 1997 to June 2017 using the search terms "biomarker", "parkinson", and "dementia"...
July 24, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758583/new-trends-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#4
Herbert Y Meltzer
The objectives of this article are to describe current trends in the treatment of schizophrenia and the most interesting new approaches to optimizing outcome and fostering the development of new schizophrenia treatments. RESULTS: Increasing utilization of diverse types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g. clozapine-type serotonin (5-HT)2A and weak dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, amisulpride, a D2/D3/5-HT7 antagonist, and cariprazine, a D3 partial agonist with additional neurotransmitter targets, is occurring as their advantages in efficacy, especially for cognitive impairment and mood symptoms, and side effects is becoming appreciated...
July 28, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731336/triple-reuptake-inhibitors-as-potential-therapeutics-for-depression-and-other-disorders-design-paradigm-and-developmental-challenges
#5
Murugaiah A M Subbaiah
Although first-line antidepressants offer therapeutic benefit, about 35% of depressed patients are not adequately treated, creating a large unmet medical need. These medicines mostly enhance the synaptic levels of serotonin and/or norepinephrine. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies implicate dopamine hypofunction in the pathophysiology of depression. Triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs), which elevate dopamine in addition to serotonin and norepinephrine, may demonstrate greater efficacy, with the reversal of anhedonia and improved tolerability...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719177/classics-in-neuroimaging-imaging-the-dopaminergic-pathway-with-pet
#6
Meghna Kanthan, Paul Cumming, Jacob M Hooker, Neil Vasdev
The success of positron emission tomography (PET) for observing molecular processes underlying brain function and disease is underpinned by radiotracer chemistry. From the earliest applications of PET to measure dopamine synthesis capacity and the abundance of neuroreceptors and transporters, to the more recent topic of dynamic neurochemical imaging, interrogation of brain dopamine in conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addictions has been a driving force that challenges the ingenuity of radiopharmaceutical scientists...
July 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716608/opioidergic-and-dopaminergic-modulation-of-cost-benefit-decision-making-in-long-evans-rats
#7
Ileana Morales, Paul J Currie, Timothy D Hackenberg, Raúl Pastor
Eating disorders are associated with impaired decision-making and dysfunctional reward-related neurochemistry. The present study examined the potential contributions of dopamine and opioid signaling to these processes using two different decision-making tasks. In one task, Long Evans Rats chose between working for a preferred food (high-carbohydrate banana-flavored sucrose pellets) by lever pressing on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement vs. obtaining less preferred laboratory chow that was concurrently available...
July 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704071/social-monogamy-in-nonhuman-primates-phylogeny-phenotype-and-physiology
#8
Jeffrey A French, Jon Cavanaugh, Aaryn C Mustoe, Sarah B Carp, Stephanie L Womack
Monogamy as a social system has been both a scientific puzzle and a sociocultural issue for decades. In this review, we examine social monogamy from a comparative perspective with a focus on primates, our closest genetic relatives. We break down monogamy into component elements, including pair-bonding and partner preference, mate guarding or jealousy, social attachment, and biparental care. Our survey of primates shows that not all features are present in species classified as socially monogamous, in the same way that human monogamous relationships may not include all elements-a perspective we refer to as "monogamy à la carte...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593190/nucleus-accumbens-shell-dopamine-preferentially-tracks-information-related-to-outcome-value-of-reward
#9
Deirdre A Sackett, Michael P Saddoris, Regina M Carelli
Effective decision-making requires organisms to predict reward values and bias behavior toward the best available option. The mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core, is involved in this process. Although studies support a role of the shell and core in specific aspects of decision-making (e.g., risk, effort, delay), no studies have directly compared dopamine release dynamics in these subregions to cues exclusively signaling the availability of different reward magnitudes...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555096/role-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-instrumental-learning-blockade-of-dopamine-d1-receptors-suppresses-overt-but-not-covert-learning
#10
Mayada Aly-Mahmoud, Pascal Carlier, Sherine A Salam, Mariam Houari Selmani, Marie Z Moftah, Monique Esclapez, Driss Boussaoud
HIGHLIGHTS Blockade of dopamine D1 receptors in ACC suppressed instrumental learning when overt responding was required.Covert learning through observation was not impaired.After treatment with a dopamine antagonist, instrumental learning recovered but not the rat's pretreatment level of effort tolerance.ACC dopamine is not necessary for acquisition of task-relevant cues during learning, but regulates energy expenditure and effort based decision. Dopamine activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is essential for various aspects of instrumental behavior, including learning and effort based decision making...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552230/strategies-for-bringing-stem-cell-derived-dopamine-neurons-to-the-clinic-the-kyoto-trial
#11
Jun Takahashi
Concerted efforts are realizing cell-based therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). In this chapter, I describe efforts at the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University. These efforts use induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as donor cells. The iPSCs were established as human leukocyte antigen homozygous at CiRA and are intended for allogeneic transplantation. Our manufacturing protocol includes a feeder-free cell culture with laminin fragment LM511-E8 and the sorting of CORIN(+) cells...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552228/strategies-for-bringing-stem-cell-derived-dopamine-neurons-to-the-clinic-a-european-approach-stem-pd
#12
Agnete Kirkeby, Malin Parmar, Roger A Barker
The treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) has for over 50 years relied on dopaminergic therapies that are highly effective especially in the early years of the condition, but ultimately are limited by the development of side effects that relate to the nonphysiological stimulation of dopamine receptors including in nonstriatal areas. Targeted regenerative therapies designed to restore specifically the lost dopaminergic innervation of the striatum would therefore represent a major advance in treating PD. Transplantation of human fetal ventral midbrain tissue to the striatum of PD patients has provided proof-of-principle that such an approach can provide long-term clinical benefits with a reduced dependency on any oral dopaminergic agents...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539420/a-selective-role-for-dopamine-in-learning-to-maximize-reward-but-not-to-minimize-effort-evidence-from-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Vasilisa Skvortsova, Bertrand Degos, Marie-Laure Welter, Marie Vidailhet, Mathias Pessiglione
Instrumental learning is a fundamental process through which agents optimize their choices, taking into account various dimensions of available options such as the possible reward or punishment outcomes and the costs associated with potential actions. Although the implication of dopamine in learning from choice outcomes is well established, less is known about its role in learning the action costs such as effort. Here, we tested the ability of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to maximize monetary rewards and minimize physical efforts in a probabilistic instrumental learning task...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521704/dopamine-d2-receptors-dimers-how-can-we-pharmacologically-target-them
#14
Marco Carli, Shivakumar Kolachalam, Stefano Aringhieri, Mario Rossi, Luca Giovannini, Roberto Maggio, Marco Scarselli
Dopamine D2 and D3 receptors are important pharmacological targets in Schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. Intriguingly, many studies have shown that they form homo- and heterodimers, and they can be targeted in specific tissues with new drugs. In this direction, many efforts have been made to develop new molecules that are able to interact with these receptor dimeric complexes. Among various strategies for targeting dopamine receptors dimers, two distinct classes of compounds, such as bivalent and bitopic ligands, have gained particular attention and their use in pharmacology looks promising...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511252/diagnosis-and-management-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Arjun Tarakad, Joseph Jankovic
Despite numerous efforts to identify specific and sensitive biomarkers, the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still based on clinical criteria that include the presence of a combination of cardinal motor features (tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability), other motor features (including freezing of gait and abnormal postures), and numerous nonmotor features. In addition, the presence of atypical features may suggest an alternative diagnosis. Levodopa therapy remains the gold standard in the management of motor features of PD...
April 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482609/combining-nt3-overexpressing-mscs-and-plga-microcarriers-for-brain-tissue-engineering-a-potential-tool-for-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Hanieh Moradian, Hamid Keshvari, Hamidreza Fasehee, Rassoul Dinarvand, Shahab Faghihi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that characterized by destruction of substantia nigrostriatal pathway due to the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Regardless of substantial efforts for treatment of PD in recent years, an effective therapeutic strategy is still missing. In a multidisciplinary approach, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are genetically engineered to overexpress neurotrophin-3 (nt-3 gene) that protect central nervous system tissues and stimulates neuronal-like differentiation of BMSCs...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421658/transcriptional-signatures-of-connectomic-subregions-of-the-human-striatum
#17
Linden Parkes, Ben Fulcher, Murat Yücel, Alex Fornito
Functionally distinct regions of the brain are thought to possess a characteristic connectional fingerprint - a profile of incoming and outgoing connections that defines the function of that area. This observation has motivated efforts to subdivide brain areas using their connectivity patterns. However, it remains unclear whether these connectomically-defined subregions can be distinguished at the molecular level. Here, we combine high-resolution diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with transcriptomic data to show that connectomically-defined subregions of the striatum carry distinct transcriptional signatures...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373651/fatigue-modulates-dopamine-availability-and-promotes-flexible-choice-reversals-during-decision-making
#18
Pierpaolo Iodice, Claudio Ferrante, Luigi Brunetti, Simona Cabib, Feliciano Protasi, Mark E Walton, Giovanni Pezzulo
During decisions, animals balance goal achievement and effort management. Despite physical exercise and fatigue significantly affecting the levels of effort that an animal exerts to obtain a reward, their role in effort-based choice and the underlying neurochemistry are incompletely known. In particular, it is unclear whether fatigue influences decision (cost-benefit) strategies flexibly or only post-decision action execution and learning. To answer this question, we trained mice on a T-maze task in which they chose between a high-cost, high-reward arm (HR), which included a barrier, and a low-cost, low-reward arm (LR), with no barrier...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350890/quantification-of-motor-network-dynamics-in-parkinson-s-disease-by-means-of-landscape-and-flux-theory
#19
Han Yan, Jin Wang
The basal ganglia neural circuit plays an important role in motor control. Despite the significant efforts, the understanding of the principles and underlying mechanisms of this modulatory circuit and the emergence of abnormal synchronized oscillations in movement disorders is still challenging. Dopamine loss has been proved to be responsible for Parkinson's disease. We quantitatively described the dynamics of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit in Parkinson's disease in terms of the emergence of both abnormal firing rates and firing patterns in the circuit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334444/the-partial-dopamine-d2-receptor-agonist-aripiprazole-is-associated-with-weight-gain-in-adolescent-anorexia-nervosa
#20
Guido K W Frank, Megan E Shott, Jennifer O Hagman, Marissa A Schiel, Marisa C DeGuzman, Brogan Rossi
OBJECTIVE: Finding medication to support treatment of anorexia nervosa has been difficult. Neuroscience-based approaches may help in this effort. Recent brain imaging studies in adults and adolescents with anorexia nervosa suggest that dopamine-related reward circuits are hypersensitive and could provide a treatment target. METHODS: Here, we present a retrospective chart review of 106 adolescents with anorexia nervosa some of whom were treated with the dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist aripiprazole during treatment in a specialized eating disorder program...
April 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
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