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Dopamine and effort

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225217/proteomic-analysis-of-the-cullin4b-interactome-using-proximity-dependent-biotinylation-in-living-cells
#1
Hailong Zhang, Shupeng Li, Pingting Liu, Frankie H F Lee, Albert H C Wong, Fang Liu
Cullin 4B (CUL4B) mutations have been implicated in mental retardation and dopamine-related behaviors due to disruptions in their interaction with Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs). Thus, further identification of CUL4B substrates can increase the knowledge of protein homeostasis and illuminate the role of CUL4B in neuropsychiatric disease. However, the transient nature of the coupling between CUL4B and its substrates is difficult to detect in vivo using current approaches, thus hampers efforts to investigate functions of CRLs within unperturbed living systems...
February 22, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204862/effect-of-constant-predictable-and-unpredictable-motor-tasks-on-motor-performance-and-blood-markers-of-stress
#2
Laura Kyguoliene, Albertas Skurvydas, Nerijus Eimantas, Neringa Baranauskienė, Dalia Mickeviciene, Daiva Urboniene, Margarita Cernych, Marius Brazaitis
An unfamiliar or novel physical stimulus induces activation of dopaminergic neurons within the brain and greater activity in areas involved in emotion; considering this, we aimed to establish whether unpredictable prolonged (fatiguing) motor task (vs. constant vs. predictable) evokes greater dopaminergic activity, enhances neuromuscular performance, motor accuracy, and perception of effort, and delays overall central fatigue. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (aged 22 ± 4 years) were required to perform 1 of 3 exercise trials (at least 1 week apart) of 100 intermittent isometric contraction (IIC) tasks involving knee extensions at 60° flexion...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202664/lrrk2-mouse-models-dissecting-the-behavior-striatal-neurochemistry-and-neurophysiology-of-pd-pathogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Mattia Volta, Heather Melrose
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD), resembling the sporadic disorder. Intensive effort has been directed toward LRRK2 mouse modeling and investigation, aimed at reproducing the human disease to inform mechanistic studies of pathogenesis and design of neuroprotective therapies. The physiological function of LRRK2 is still under exploration, but a clear role in striatal neurophysiology and animal behavior has emerged. Alterations in LRRK2 impair dopamine (DA) transmission, regulation and signaling, in addition to corticostriatal synaptic plasticity...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194005/genetic-inhibition-of-neurotransmission-reveals-role-of-glutamatergic-input-to-dopamine-neurons-in-high-effort-behavior
#4
M A Hutchison, X Gu, M F Adrover, M R Lee, T S Hnasko, V A Alvarez, W Lu
Midbrain dopamine neurons are crucial for many behavioral and cognitive functions. As the major excitatory input, glutamatergic afferents are important for control of the activity and plasticity of dopamine neurons. However, the role of glutamatergic input as a whole onto dopamine neurons remains unclear. Here we developed a mouse line in which glutamatergic inputs onto dopamine neurons are specifically impaired, and utilized this genetic model to directly test the role of glutamatergic inputs in dopamine-related functions...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177981/high-fat-diet-alters-weight-caloric-intake-and-haloperidol-sensitivity-in-the-context-of-effort-based-responding
#5
Stephen H Robertson, Steven R Boomhower, Erin B Rasmussen
High-fat (HF) diets result in weight gain, hyperphagia, and reduced dopamine D2 signaling; however, these findings have been obtained only under free-feeding conditions. This study tested the extent to which HF diet affects effort-dependent food procurement and the extent to which dopamine signaling is involved. Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed either a HF (n=20) or a standard-chow (n=20) diet. We assessed the sensitivity to effort-based reinforcement in 10 rats from each group by measuring consumption across a series of fixed-ratio schedules (FR 5-FR 300) under a closed economy and quantified performance using the exponential-demand equation...
February 7, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161116/a-review-of-the-theoretical-and-biological-understanding-of-the-nocebo-and-placebo-phenomena
#6
REVIEW
Seetal Dodd, Olivia M Dean, João Vian, Michael Berk
PURPOSE: Placebos are commonly used in experimental and patient populations and are known to influence treatment outcomes. The mechanism of action of placebos has been investigated by several researchers. This review investigates the current knowledge regarding the theoretical and biological underpinning of the nocebo and placebo phenomena. METHOD: Literature was searched using PubMed using the following keywords: nocebo, placebo, μ-opioid, dopamine, conditioning, and expectancy...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154545/influence-of-the-slc6a3-dat1-gene-on-multifaceted-measures-of-self-regulation-in-preschool-children
#7
Lina M Cómbita, Pascale Voelker, Alicia Abundis-Gutiérrez, Joan P Pozuelos, M Rosario Rueda
Development of self-regulation, the capacity to voluntarily modulate thoughts, emotions and actions is strongly related to the maturation of the dopamine-mediated executive attention network (EAN). The attention control processes associated with the EAN greatly overlap with efficiency of the executive functions and are correlated with measures of effortful control. Regulation of dopamine levels within the EAN, particularly in the basal ganglia is carried out by the action of dopamine transporters. In humans, the SLC6A3/DAT1 gene carries out the synthesis of the DAT protein...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117839/the-genetic-overlap-between-mood-disorders-and-cardiometabolic-diseases-a-systematic-review-of-genome-wide-and-candidate-gene-studies
#8
REVIEW
A T Amare, K O Schubert, M Klingler-Hoffmann, S Cohen-Woods, B T Baune
Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (meta-GWASs) and candidate gene studies have identified genetic variants associated with cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and mood disorders. Although previous efforts were successful for individual disease conditions (single disease), limited information exists on shared genetic risk between these disorders. This article presents a detailed review and analysis of cardiometabolic diseases risk (CMD-R) genes that are also associated with mood disorders...
January 24, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108196/homovanillic-acid-in-csf-of-mild-stage-parkinson-s-disease-patients-correlates-with-motor-impairment
#9
Alessandro Stefani, Mariangela Pierantozzi, Enrica Olivola, Salvatore Galati, Rocco Cerroni, Vincenza D'Angelo, Atticus H Hainsworth, Valentina Saviozzi, Ernesto Fedele, Claudio Liguori
In Parkinson's disease (PD), several efforts have been spent in order to find biochemical parameters able to identify the progression of the pathological processes at the basis of the disease. It is already known that advanced PD patients manifesting dyskinesia are featured by the high homovanillic acid (HVA)/dopamine (DA) ratio, suggesting the increased turnover of DA in these patients. Less clear is whether similar changes affect mild and moderate stages of the disease (between 1 and 2.5 of Hoehn & Yahr -H&Y- stage)...
January 18, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088492/pikuni-blackfeet-traditional-medicine-neuroprotective-activities-of-medicinal-plants-used-to-treat-parkinson-s-disease-related-symptoms
#10
Aurélie de Rus Jacquet, Mitali Arun Tambe, Sin Ying Ma, George P McCabe, Jay Hansford C Vest, Jean-Christophe Rochet
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder affecting 5% of the population over the age of 85 years. Current treatments primarily involve dopamine replacement therapy, which leads to temporary relief of motor symptoms but fails to slow the underlying neurodegeneration. Thus, there is a need for safe PD therapies with neuroprotective activity. In this study, we analyzed contemporary herbal medicinal practices used by members of the Pikuni-Blackfeet tribe from Western Montana to treat PD-related symptoms, in an effort to identify medicinal plants that are affordable to traditional communities and accessible to larger populations...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044445/background-signal-as-an-in-situ-predictor-of-dopamine-oxidation-potential-improving-interpretation-of-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry-data
#11
Carl J Meunier, James G Roberts, Gregory S McCarty, Leslie A Sombers
Background-subtracted fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has emerged as a powerful analytical technique for monitoring subsecond molecular fluctuations in live brain tissue. Despite increasing utilization of FSCV, efforts to improve the accuracy of quantification have been limited due to the complexity of the technique and the dynamic recording environment. It is clear that variable electrode performance renders calibration necessary for accurate quantification; however, the nature of in vivo measurements can make conventional postcalibration difficult, or even impossible...
January 24, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031268/distinct-roles-of-opioid-and-dopamine-systems-in-lateral-hypothalamic-intracranial-self-stimulation
#12
Soichiro Ide, Takehiro Takahashi, Yukio Takamatsu, George R Uhl, Hiroaki Niki, Ichiro Sora, Kazutaka Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Opioid and dopamine systems play crucial roles in reward. Similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of reward that are mediated by these two systems have remained largely unknown. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the differences in reward function in both µ-opioid receptor knockout (MOP KO) mice and dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice, important molecules in the opioid and dopamine systems. METHODS: Mice were implanted with electrodes into the right lateral hypothalamus (lh)...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012090/a-decade-of-orexin-hypocretin-and-addiction-where-are-we-now
#13
Morgan H James, Stephen V Mahler, David E Moorman, Gary Aston-Jones
One decade ago, our laboratory provided the first direct evidence linking orexin/hypocretin signaling with drug seeking by showing that activation of these neurons promotes conditioned morphine-seeking behavior. In the years since, contributions from many investigators have revealed roles for orexins in addiction for all drugs of abuse tested, but only under select circumstances. We recently proposed that orexins play a fundamentally unified role in coordinating "motivational activation" under numerous behavioral conditions, and here we unpack this hypothesis as it applies to drug addiction...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006716/biomolecular-aspects-of-depression-a-retrospective-analysis
#14
Brandon N Peacock, David J Scheiderer, Gottfried H Kellermann
OBJECTIVE: The effects of psychological stress, oxidative stress, and chronic low grade inflammation on the neuro-immune connection have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. Thus, in the recent past, there has been a growing effort in determining the mechanism of this pathogenesis. While attempting to map out, this mechanism researchers and clinicians have searched for clinically relevant biomarkers for use in the diagnosis and for the assessment of those suffering from depression...
February 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984049/disruptions-in-effort-based-decision-making-and-consummatory-behavior-following-antagonism-of-the-dopamine-d2-receptor
#15
Cindee F Robles, Alexander W Johnson
Dopamine is known to influence motivational processes, however the precise role of this neurotransmitter remains a contentious issue. In the current study we sought to further characterize dopamine signaling in reward-based decision-making and consummatory behavior in mice, via lateral ventricle infusion of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride. In Experiment 1, we examined effort-based decision-making, in which mice had a choice between one lever, where a single response led to the delivery of a low value reward (2% sucrose); and a second lever, which led to a higher value reward (20% sucrose) that gradually required more effort to obtain...
October 27, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935686/neuroprotection-of-brain-cells-by-lipoic-acid-treatment-after-cellular-stress
#16
Sara Paradells-Navarro, María Soledad Benlloch-Navarro, María Inmaculada Almansa Frias, Ma Angeles Garcia-Esparza, Vania Broccoli, María Miranda, José Miguel Soria
We have previously observed that in vivo lipoic acid (LA) treatment induced a protective effect onto primary cortical neurons after brain injury. In an effort to better understand LA action mechanism in the brain, in the present study, we stressed brain cells in vitro and ex vivo and then analyzed by inmmunocytochemistry and biochemical assays, the changes induced by LA on cell survival and on the concentration of oxidative stress markers, such as glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
December 9, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933960/novel-and-high-affinity-2-diphenylmethyl-sulfinyl-acetamide-modafinil-analogues-as-atypical-dopamine-transporter-inhibitors
#17
Jianjing Cao, Rachel D Slack, Oluyomi M Bakare, Caitlin Burzynski, Rana Rais, Barbara S Slusher, Theresa Kopajtic, Alessandro Bonifazi, Michael P Ellenberger, Hideaki Yano, Yi He, Guo-Hua Bi, Zheng-Xiong Xi, Claus J Loland, Amy Hauck Newman
The development of pharmacotherapeutic treatments of psychostimulant abuse has remained a challenge, despite significant efforts made toward relevant mechanistic targets, such as the dopamine transporter (DAT). The atypical DAT inhibitors have received attention due to their promising pharmacological profiles in animal models of cocaine and methamphetamine abuse. Herein, we report a series of modafinil analogues that have an atypical DAT inhibitor profile. We extended SAR by chemically manipulating the oxidation states of the sulfoxide and the amide functional groups, halogenating the phenyl rings, and/or functionalizing the terminal nitrogen with substituted piperazines, resulting in several novel leads such as 11b, which demonstrated high DAT affinity (Ki = 2...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926449/the-role-of-dopamine-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-apathy
#18
T T-J Chong, M Husain
Disorders of diminished motivation, such as apathy, are common and prevalent across a wide range of medical conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, stroke, depression, and schizophrenia. Such disorders have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life, yet their management lacks consensus and remains unsatisfactory. Here, we review laboratory and clinical evidence for the use of dopaminergic therapies in the treatment of apathy. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates motivated decision making in humans and other species...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910188/comparing-rewarding-and-reinforcing-properties-between-bath-salt-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-cocaine-using-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-rats
#19
Steven J Simmons, Ryan A Gregg, Fionya H Tran, Lili Mo, Eva von Weltin, David J Barker, Taylor A Gentile, Lucas R Watterson, Scott M Rawls, John W Muschamp
Abuse of synthetic psychostimulants like synthetic cathinones has risen in recent years. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one such synthetic cathinone that demonstrates a mechanism of action similar to cocaine. Compared to cocaine, MDPV is more potent at blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake and is readily self-administered by rodents. The present study compared the rewarding and reinforcing properties of MDPV and cocaine using systemic injection dose-response and self-administration models...
December 1, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908561/beyond-eye-gaze-what-else-can-eyetracking-reveal-about-cognition-and-cognitive-development
#20
REVIEW
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
November 11, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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