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C. Little

D van Doorn, N Richardson, A Storey, A Osborne, C Cunningham, C Blake, J McNamara
Background: Irish farmers represent a 'high-risk' group for non-communicable diseases, which, arguably, pose a greater occupational health challenge for farmers. To date, there has been little exploration of the farming characteristics associated with farmers' poor health outcomes. Aims: To examine the relationship between farming and male farmers' self-reported health outcomes and to compare the study findings to national health studies to explore which factors specifically are associated with Irish farmers' poorer health outcomes relative to the general population...
February 17, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Hongpeng Xiong, Kena Xue, Wenquan Qin, Xuan Chen, Huifang Wang, Xianhui Shi, Tao Ma, Zhaohui Sun, Weiguang Chen, Xueqin Tian, Wei Lin, Xiujun Wen, Cai Wang
Previous studies showed that many wood-rotting fungi were attractive to termites; however, little attention has been paid to the relationship between termites and soil fungus. In the present study, different designs of two-choice tests were conducted to investigate the behaviors of two subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (wood-feeding lower termites) and Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) (fungus-growing higher termites), in response to soil (or sand) treated with the commercial conidial formulations of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (BioWorks) and Trichoderma viride Pers...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Chiara C Bortolasci, Briana Spolding, Edward Callaly, Sheree Martin, Bruna Panizzutti, Srisaiyini Kidnapillai, Timothy Connor, Kyoko Hasebe, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Olivia M Dean, Sean L McGee, Seetal Dodd, Laura Gray, Michael Berk, Ken Walder
Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a mental health condition with progressive social and cognitive function disturbances. Most patients' treatments are based on polypharmacy, but with no biological basis and little is known of the drugs' interactions. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of lithium, valproate, quetiapine and lamotrigine, and the interactions between them, on markers of inflammation, bioenergetics, mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in neuron-like cells (NT2) and microglial cells...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Martin Völker, Lukas D J Fiederer, Sofie Berberich, Jiří Hammer, Joos Behncke, Pavel Kršek, Martin Tomášek, Petr Marusič, Peter C Reinacher, Volker A Coenen, Moritz Helias, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Wolfram Burgard, Tonio Ball
Error detection in motor behavior is a fundamental cognitive function heavily relying on cortical information processing. Neural activity in the high-gamma frequency band (HGB) closely reflects such local cortical processing, but little is known about its role in error processing, particularly in the healthy human brain. Here we characterize the error-related response of the human brain based on data obtained with noninvasive EEG optimized for HGB mapping in 31 healthy subjects (15 females, 16 males), and additional intracranial EEG data from 9 epilepsy patients (4 females, 5 males)...
February 19, 2018: NeuroImage
Long Peng, Qi Sun, Hua Xue, Xiaofeng Wang
Mature seeds of Caragana korshinskii Kom. lose desiccation tolerance (DT) during germination. However, DT can be re-induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) or abscisic acid (ABA), and this provides a novel system to analyse the mechanism of DT. Although the global gene expression during the re-establishment of DT treated by PEG or ABA has been characterized, the changes in protein species abundance are still unknown. Here, we used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach to perform a comparative analysis of protein abundances in germinated seeds of PEG-treated, ABA-treated and untreated radicles in response to the re-establishment of DT...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Bradley E Iott, Tiffany C Veinot, Jimena Loveluck, Erin Kahle, Leon Golson, Akilah Benton
HIV/AIDS-related research requires recruitment of representative samples of MSM; yet, we know little about the comparative yield, diversity and cost-benefit tradeoffs between different recruitment venues. We compared 11 recruitment venues used for nine HIV prevention-related focus groups with MSM in Metropolitan Detroit. Of the 64 participants, 24 were clients recruited via an HIV/AIDS-focused nonprofit, 20 from Grindr advertisements, 6 from university-student email lists, and 5 from flyers/palmcards. Significantly more African-American, low-income and HIV-positive participants were recruited via the nonprofit...
February 22, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Abraham Lwidiko, Stephen Matthew Kibusi, Azan Nyundo, Bonaventura C T Mpondo
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents continue to have HIV/AIDS in southern Saharan Africa. Scaling up of HIV services has significantly improved access to ARV and consequently improved on morbidity and mortality related to HIV/AIDS including opportunistic infection. Despite the above efforts, non-communicable conditions including mental disorders such as depression have been observed to contribute to the burden of disabilities about which little is documented. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the magnitude of depressive symptoms and the associated factors among HIV-infected children and adolescents...
2018: PloS One
C Best, J B Coe, J Hewson, M Meehan, D Kelton
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the veterinary referral process and factors that contribute to positive outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate equine referring veterinarians' (rDVMs') satisfaction with their most recent referral experience and compare rDVM and specialist perspectives. SAMPLE: 187 rDVMs and 92 specialists (referral care providers). METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study. An online survey was administered to both rDVMs and specialists...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Yanping Lin, Kangyu Wang, Xiangyu Li, Chunyu Sun, Rui Yin, Yanfang Wang, Yi Wang, Meiping Zhang
Most genes in a genome exist in the form of a gene family; therefore, it is necessary to have knowledge of how a gene family functions to comprehensively understand organismal biology. The receptor-like kinase (RLK)-encoding gene family is one of the most important gene families in plants. It plays important roles in biotic and abiotic stress tolerances, and growth and development. However, little is known about the functional differentiation and relationships among the gene members within a gene family in plants...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Stephanie L Smith, Helen V Senn, Sílvia Pérez-Espona, Megan T Wyman, Elizabeth Heap, Josephine M Pemberton
Since the mid-19th century, multiple introductions of Japanese sika deer ( Cervus nippon nippon ) and North American wapiti ( C. canadensis ) have taken place in the British Isles. While wapiti have generally been unsuccessful, sika have been very successful, especially in Scotland where they now overlap at least 40% of the range of native red deer ( C. elaphus ). Hybridization between these two species and red deer has been demonstrated in captivity and in the wild. Using a panel of 22 microsatellite loci that are highly diagnostic between red deer and sika, and moderately diagnostic between red deer and wapiti, we investigated the extent of introgression between these species in 2,943 deer sampled from around Scotland and from the English Lake District using the Bayesian clustering software STRUCTURE...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Wilfredo Falcón, Rich P Baxter, Samuel Furrer, Martin Bauert, Jean-Michel Hatt, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub, Arpat Ozgul, Nancy Bunbury, Marcus Clauss, Dennis M Hansen
We studied the temperature relations of wild and zoo Aldabra giant tortoises ( Aldabrachelys gigantea ) focusing on (1) the relationship between environmental temperature and tortoise activity patterns ( n  = 8 wild individuals) and (2) on tortoise body temperature fluctuations, including how their core and external body temperatures vary in relation to different environmental temperature ranges (seasons; n  = 4 wild and n  = 5 zoo individuals). In addition, we surveyed the literature to review the effect of body mass on core body temperature range in relation to environmental temperature in the Testudinidae...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Bruce A Kimball, Aura M Alonso-Rodríguez, Molly A Cavaleri, Sasha C Reed, Grizelle González, Tana E Wood
The response of tropical forests to global warming is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting the future carbon balance of Earth. To determine the likely effects of elevated temperatures on tropical forest understory plants and soils, as well as other ecosystems, an infrared (IR) heater system was developed to provide in situ warming for the Tropical Responses to Altered Climate Experiment (TRACE) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Three replicate heated 4-m-diameter plots were warmed to maintain a 4°C increase in understory vegetation compared to three unheated control plots, as sensed by IR thermometers...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Nauzley C Abedini, Shobha W Stack, Jessie L Goodman, Kenneth P Steinberg
Background : Burnout rates for internal medicine residents are among the highest of all specialties, yet little is known about how residents recover from burnout. Objective : We identified factors promoting recovery from burnout and factors that assist with the subsequent avoidance of burnout among internal medicine residents. Methods : A purposive sample of postgraduate year 2 (PGY-2), PGY-3, and recent graduates who experienced and recovered from burnout during residency participated in semistructured, 60-minute interviews from June to August 2016...
February 2018: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Zhaoen Yang, Qian Gong, Lingling Wang, Yuying Jin, Jianping Xi, Zhi Li, Wenqiang Qin, Zuoren Yang, Lili Lu, Quanjia Chen, Fuguang Li
Members of the YABBY gene family, a small plant-specific family of genes, have been proposed to function in specifying abaxial cell fate. Although to date little has been learned about cotton YABBY genes, completion of the cotton genome enables a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of YABBY genes in cotton. Here, a total of 12, 12, and 23 YABBY genes were identified in Gossypium arboreum (2n = 26, A2 ), G. raimondii (2n = 26, D5 ), and G. hirsutum (2n = 4x = 52, [AD]t ), respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the N-terminal zinc-finger and C-terminal YABBY domains in YABBY proteins are highly conserved among cotton, Arabidopsis , and rice...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Benjamin L Jones, Leanne C Cullen-Unsworth, Richard K F Unsworth
Excess nutrients shift the ecological balance of coastal ecosystems, and this eutrophication is an increasing problem across the globe. Nutrient levels may be routinely measured, but monitoring rarely attempts to determine the source of these nutrients, even though bio-indicators are available. Nitrogen stable isotope analysis in biota is one such bio-indicator, but across the British Isles, this is rarely used. In this study, we provide the first quantitative evidence of the anthropogenic drivers of reduced water quality surrounding seagrass meadows throughout the British Isles using the stable nitrogen isotope δ15 N...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yahya Sohrabi, Valeryia Volkova, Tatyana Kobets, Helena Havelková, Imtissal Krayem, Martina Slapničková, Peter Demant, Marie Lipoldová
Interferon-induced GTPases [guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs)] play an important role in inflammasome activation and mediate innate resistance to many intracellular pathogens, but little is known about their role in leishmaniasis. We therefore studied expression of Gbp2b / Gbp1 and Gbp5 mRNA in skin, inguinal lymph nodes, spleen, and liver after Leishmania major infection and in uninfected controls. We used two different groups of related mouse strains: BALB/c, STS, and CcS-5, CcS-16, and CcS-20 that carry different combinations of BALB/c and STS genomes, and strains O20, C57BL/10 (B10) and B10...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Vanessa A Barcellos, Liline M S Martins, Alide C L Fontes, Julia C V Reuwsaat, Eamim D Squizani, Glauber R de Sousa Araújo, Susana Frases, Charley C Staats, Augusto Schrank, Livia Kmetzsch, Marilene H Vainstein
The Cryptococcus gattii species complex harbors the main etiological agents of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients. C. gattii molecular type VGII predominates in the north and northeastern regions of Brazil, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. C. gattii VGII isolates have a strong clinical relevance and phenotypic variations. These phenotypic variations among C. gattii species complex isolates suggest that some strains are more virulent than others, but little information is available related to the pathogenic properties of those strains...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sevasti Manousakidi, Arnaud Guillaume, Caroline Pirou, Sylvina Bouleau, Bernard Mignotte, Flore Renaud, Nathalie Le Floch
Ovarian cancer remains associated with a high mortality rate and relapse is too frequently seen after chemotherapeutic treatment of granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) or epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs). It is thus of major importance to progress in the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying chemoresistance of ovarian tumors. Overexpression of Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 (FGF1) is observed in various cancers, correlates with poor survival and could be responsible for resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy of serous ovarian cancers...
February 21, 2018: Oncogenesis
Alexandra Arreola, Laura Beth Payne, Morgan H Julian, Aguirre A de Cubas, Anthony B Daniels, Sarah Taylor, Huaning Zhao, Jordan Darden, Victoria L Bautch, W Kimryn Rathmell, John C Chappell
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutations induce neural tissue hemangioblastomas, as well as highly vascularized clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs). Pathological vessel remodeling arises from misregulation of HIFs and VEGF, among other genes. Variation in disease penetrance has long been recognized in relation to genotype. We show Vhl mutations also disrupt Notch signaling, causing mutation-specific vascular abnormalities, e.g., type 1 (null) vs. type 2B (murine G518A representing human R167Q). In conditional mutation retina vasculature, Vhl-null mutation (i...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Gabriela F Persinoti, Diego A Martinez, Wenjun Li, Aylin Döğen, R Blake Billmyre, Anna Averette, Jonathan M Goldberg, Terrance Shea, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Brian G Oliver, Richard Barton, Banu Metin, Süleyha Hilmioğlu-Polat, Macit Ilkit, Yvonne Gräser, Nilce M Martinez-Rossi, Theodore C White, Joseph Heitman, Christina A Cuomo
Dermatophytes include fungal species that infect humans, as well as those which also infect other animals or only grow in the environment. The dermatophyte species Trichophyton rubrum is a frequent cause of skin infection in immunocompetent individuals. While members of the T. rubrum species complex have been further categorized based on various morphologies, the population structure and ability to undergo sexual reproduction are not well understood. In this study, we analyze a large set of T. rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale isolates to examine mating types, evidence of mating, and genetic variation...
February 21, 2018: Genetics
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