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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668042/amazon-soil-charcoal-pyrogenic-carbon-stock-depends-of-ignition-source-distance-and-forest-type-in-roraima-brazil
#1
Lidiany C da Silva Carvalho, Philip M Fearnside, Marcelo T Nascimento, Reinaldo I Barbosa
Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) derived from charcoal particles (paleo + modern) deposited in the soil column has been little studied in the Amazon, and our understanding of the factors that control the spatial and vertical distribution of these materials in the region's forest soils is still unclear. The objective of this study was to test the effect of forest type and distance from the ignition source on the PyC stocks contained in macroscopic particles of soil charcoal (≥ 2 mm; 1-m depth) dispersed in ecotone forests of the northern Brazilian Amazon...
April 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666769/joint-level-energetics-differentiate-isoinertial-from-speed-power-resistance-training-a-bayesian-analysis
#2
Bernard X W Liew, Christopher C Drovandi, Samuel Clifford, Justin W L Keogh, Susan Morris, Kevin Netto
Background: There is convincing evidence for the benefits of resistance training on vertical jump improvements, but little evidence to guide optimal training prescription. The inability to detect small between modality effects may partially reflect the use of ANOVA statistics. This study represents the results of a sub-study from a larger project investigating the effects of two resistance training methods on load carriage running energetics. Bayesian statistics were used to compare the effectiveness of isoinertial resistance against speed-power training to change countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and joint energetics...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666372/brain-serotonin-synthesis-capacity-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-sertraline
#3
Jennifer I Lissemore, Debbie Sookman, Paul Gravel, Alexandre Berney, Amir Barsoum, Mirko Diksic, Thomas E Nordahl, Gilbert Pinard, Igor Sibon, Jean Cottraux, Marco Leyton, Chawki Benkelfat
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are both effective treatments for some patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about the neurochemical changes related to these treatment modalities. Here, we used positron emission tomography and the α-[11 C]methyl-L-tryptophan tracer to examine the changes in brain regional serotonin synthesis capacity in OCD patients following treatment with CBT or SSRI treatment. Sixteen medication-free OCD patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of either CBT or sertraline treatment...
April 18, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666289/new-york-city-house-mice-mus-musculus-as-potential-reservoirs-for-pathogenic-bacteria-and-antimicrobial-resistance-determinants
#4
Simon H Williams, Xiaoyu Che, Ashley Paulick, Cheng Guo, Bohyun Lee, Dorothy Muller, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Franklin D Lowy, Robert M Corrigan, W Ian Lipkin
House mice ( Mus musculus ) thrive in large urban centers worldwide. Nonetheless, little is known about the role that they may play in contributing to environmental contamination with potentially pathogenic bacteria. Here, we describe the fecal microbiome of house mice with emphasis on detection of pathogenic bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes by molecular methods. Four hundred sixteen mice were collected from predominantly residential buildings in seven sites across New York City over a period of 13 months...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666277/disparate-binding-kinetics-by-an-intrinsically-disordered-domain-enables-temporal-regulation-of-transcriptional-complex-formation
#5
Neil O Robertson, Ngaio C Smith, Athina Manakas, Mahiar Mahjoub, Gordon McDonald, Ann H Kwan, Jacqueline M Matthews
Intrinsically disordered regions are highly represented among mammalian transcription factors, where they often contribute to the formation of multiprotein complexes that regulate gene expression. An example of this occurs with LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) proteins in the developing spinal cord. The LIM-HD protein LHX3 and the LIM-HD cofactor LDB1 form a binary complex that gives rise to interneurons, whereas in adjacent cell populations, LHX3 and LDB1 form a rearranged ternary complex with the LIM-HD protein ISL1, resulting in motor neurons...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666139/last-year-of-life-study-cologne-lyol-c-protocol-for-a-cross-sectional-mixed-methods-study-to-examine-care-trajectories-and-transitions-in-the-last-year-of-life-until-death
#6
Julia Strupp, Gloria Hanke, Nicolas Schippel, Holger Pfaff, Ute Karbach, Christian Rietz, Raymond Voltz
INTRODUCTION: The last year of life constitutes a particularly vulnerable phase for patients, involving nearly all health and social care structures. Yet, little scientific evidence is available that provides insight into the trajectories including the number and types of care setting transitions, transitions into palliative care and the dying phase. Only few studies have focused on difficulties associated with having to move between health and social care settings in the last year of life, although patients face a significant risk of adverse events...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665873/impact-of-paternal-deployment-to-the-conflicts-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-and-paternal-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-on-the-children-of-military-fathers
#7
Nicola T Fear, Ruth V Reed, Sarah Rowe, Howard Burdett, David Pernet, Alyson Mahar, Amy C Iversen, Paul Ramchandani, Alan Stein, Simon Wessely
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the social and emotional well-being of children whose fathers have been deployed to the conflicts in Iraq/Afghanistan or who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).AimsTo examine the emotional and behavioural well-being of children whose fathers are or have been in the UK armed forces, in particular the effects of paternal deployment to the conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan and paternal PTSD. METHOD: Fathers who had taken part in a large tri-service cohort and had children aged 3-16 years were asked about the emotional and behavioural well-being of their child(ren) and assessed for symptoms of PTSD via online questionnaires and telephone interview...
April 18, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665817/elevated-il-17-levels-in-semi-immune-anaemic-mice-infected-with-plasmodium-berghei-anka
#8
Gideon Kofi Helegbe, Nguyen Tien Huy, Tetsuo Yanagi, Mohammed Nasir Shuaibu, Mihoko Kikuchi, Mahamoud Sama Cherif, Kenji Hirayama
BACKGROUND: Alterations in inflammatory cytokines and genetic background of the host contribute to the outcome of malaria infection. Despite the promising protective role of IL-17 in infections, little attention is given to further understand its importance in the pathogenesis of severe malaria anaemia in chronic/endemic situations. The objective of this study, therefore, was to evaluate IL-17 levels in anaemic condition and its association with host genetic factors. METHODS: Two mice strains (Balb/c and CBA) were crossed to get the F1 progeny, and were (F1, Balb/c, CBA) taken through 6 cycles of Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain) infection and chloroquine/pyrimethamine treatment to generate semi-immune status...
April 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665494/isolation-and-characterization-of-the-cotinine-degrading-bacterium-nocardioides-sp-strain-jq2195
#9
Jiguo Qiu, Yanting Zhang, Lingling Zhao, Qin He, Jiandong Jiang, Qing Hong, Jian He
Cotinine, the primary nicotine metabolite, not only more stable and more difficult to degrade in the environment but is a potential health risk to human. To date, little is known about the biodegradation process of cotinine. In this study, a bacterial strain JQ2195 was isolated from municipal wastewater and was identified as Nocardioides sp. based on morphological, physiological characteristics, and 16 S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. This strain utilized cotinine as a sole carbon source and degraded 0...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665044/comparative-anatomy-and-development-of-pectoral-and-pelvic-girdles-in-hylid-anurans
#10
Mónica C Soliz, María Laura Ponssa, Virginia Abdala
The development of the tetrapod pectoral and pelvic girdles is intimately linked to the proximal segments of the fore- and hindlimbs. Most studies on girdles are osteological and provide little information about soft elements such as muscles and tendons. Moreover, there are few comparative developmental studies. Comparative data gleaned from cleared-and-stained whole mounts and serial histological sections of 10 species of hylid frogs are presented here. Adult skeletal morphology, along with bones, muscles, and connective tissue of both girdles and their association with the proximal portions of the anuran fore- and hindlimbs are described...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665031/mortality-following-surgery-for-trauma-in-an-indian-trauma-cohort
#11
M Mansourati, V Kumar, M Khajanchi, M L Saha, S Dharap, R Seger, M Gerdin Wärnberg
BACKGROUND: India accounts for 20 per cent of worldwide trauma mortality. Little is known about the quality of trauma surgery in an Indian setting. The aim of this study was to estimate the overall perioperative mortality rate, and to assess the association between type of acute surgical intervention and perioperative mortality among adult patients treated for trauma in an urban Indian setting. METHODS: Data were obtained from injured adult patients enrolled in four urban Indian hospitals during 2013-2015...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664972/the-impact-of-social-and-psychological-consequences-of-disease-on-judgments-of-disease-severity-an-experimental-study
#12
Nicholas B King, Sam Harper, Meredith Young, Sarah C Berry, Kristin Voigt
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project systematically assesses mortality, healthy life expectancy, and disability across 195 countries and territories, using the disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Disability weights in the DALY are based upon surveys that ask users to rate health states based on lay descriptions. We conducted an experimental study to examine whether the inclusion or removal of psychological, social, or familial implications from a health state description might affect individual judgments about disease severity, and thus relative disability weights...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663958/patterns-of-usage-and-preferences-of-users-for-tuberculosis-related-text-messages-and-voice-calls-in-uganda
#13
J M Ggita, C Ojok, A J Meyer, K Farr, P B Shete, E Ochom, P Turimumahoro, D Babirye, D Mark, D Dowdy, S Ackerman, M Armstrong-Hough, T Nalugwa, I Ayakaka, D Moore, J E Haberer, A Cattamanchi, A Katamba, J L Davis
BACKGROUND: Little information exists about mobile phone usage or preferences for tuberculosis (TB) related health communications in Uganda. METHODS: We surveyed household contacts of TB patients in urban Kampala, Uganda, and clinic patients in rural central Uganda. Questions addressed mobile phone access, usage, and preferences for TB-related communications. We collected qualitative data about messaging preferences. RESULTS: We enrolled 145 contacts and 203 clinic attendees...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663951/active-case-finding-and-treatment-adherence-in-risk-groups-in-the-tuberculosis-pre-elimination-era
#14
R K Gupta, M Lipman, A Story, A Hayward, G de Vries, R van Hest, C Erkens, M X Rangaka, I Abubakar
Vulnerable populations, including homeless persons, high-risk drug and alcohol users, prison inmates and other marginalised populations, contribute a disproportionate burden of tuberculosis (TB) cases in low-incidence settings. Drivers of this disease burden include an increased risk of both TB transmission in congregate settings, and progression from infection to active disease. Late diagnosis and poor treatment completion further propagate the epidemic and fuel the acquisition of drug resistance. These groups are therefore a major priority for TB control programmes in low-incidence settings...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663867/coiled-coil-and-leucine-rich-repeat-domain-of-the-potyvirus-resistance-protein-pvr4-has-distinct-role-in-signaling-and-pathogen-recognition
#15
Saet-Byul Kim, Hye-Young Lee, Eun-Hye Choi, Eunsook Park, Jihyun Kim, Ki-Beom Moon, Hyun-Soon Kim, Doil Choi
The pepper Pvr4 encoding coiled-coil (CC) nucleotide-binding (NB) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein (CC-NLR) confer hypersensitive resistance (HR) to potyviruses, including Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV) by recognizing the viral avirulence protein, NIb. To figure out the Pvr4-mediated HR mechanism, we analyzed the signaling component genes and structure-function relationships of Pvr4 using chimeras and deletion mutants in Nicotiana benthamiana. Molecular chaperone components including HSP90, SGT1 and RAR1 were required, while plant hormones and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling components had little effect on Pvr4-NIb-mediated HR cell death...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663265/telemedicine-and-mobile-health-technology-are-effective-in-the-management-of-digestive-diseases-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Brian C Helsel, Joel E Williams, Kristen Lawson, Jessica Liang, Jonathan Markowitz
BACKGROUND: Mobile applications and interactive websites are an increasingly used method of telemedicine, but their use lacks evidence in digestive diseases. AIM: This study aims to explore digestive disease studies that use telemedicine to effectively manage disease activity, help monitor symptoms, improve compliance to the treatment protocol, increase patient satisfaction, and enhance the patient-to-provider communication. METHODS: EBSCO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases were searched using Medical Subject Headings and other keywords to identify studies that utilized telemedicine in patients with digestive disease...
April 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662761/inflammation-and-age-associated-skeletal-muscle-deterioration-sarcopaenia
#17
REVIEW
Jinyu Wang, Kwok-Sui Leung, Simon Kwoon-Ho Chow, Wing-Hoi Cheung
Ageing is accompanied by chronic inflammatory responses due to elevated circulatory inflammatory cytokine production. Several inflammatory cytokines have been shown to be responsible for a decrease in muscle mass. However, little is known about the possible relationship between inflammation and sarcopaenia. This review aims to summarise the existing evidence about inflammation and sarcopaenia. Sarcopaenia is defined as an age-related decrease of muscle mass and/or muscle strength; it is caused by multiple factors, such as skeletal muscle atrophy, neuromuscular junction degeneration, hormone imbalance, cytokine imbalance, protein synthesis and proteolysis...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662668/proteomic-biomarkers-in-body-fluids-associated-with-pancreatic-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Cristina Jimenez-Luna, Carolina Torres, Raul Ortiz, Carmelo Dieguez, Joaquina Martinez-Galan, Consolacion Melguizo, Jose C Prados, Octavio Caba
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly malignant disease that represents the fourth leading cancer-related death worldwide. There has been very little improvement in survival rates over recent years, and surgical resection remains the only reliable curative approach. Factors that contribute to this dismal prognosis for PC include its rapid progression and invasion, the absence of specific symptoms, and the little impact of available chemotherapy. Importantly, the management of this malignancy is also limited by the lack of highly specific and sensitive biomarkers for its diagnosis and follow-up, and their identification is therefore considered a promising strategy to improve outcomes in these patients...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662058/greenland-records-of-aerosol-source-and-atmospheric-lifetime-changes-from-the-eemian-to-the-holocene
#19
S Schüpbach, H Fischer, M Bigler, T Erhardt, G Gfeller, D Leuenberger, O Mini, R Mulvaney, N J Abram, L Fleet, M M Frey, E Thomas, A Svensson, D Dahl-Jensen, E Kettner, H Kjaer, I Seierstad, J P Steffensen, S O Rasmussen, P Vallelonga, M Winstrup, A Wegner, B Twarloh, K Wolff, K Schmidt, K Goto-Azuma, T Kuramoto, M Hirabayashi, J Uetake, J Zheng, J Bourgeois, D Fisher, D Zhiheng, C Xiao, M Legrand, A Spolaor, J Gabrieli, C Barbante, J-H Kang, S D Hur, S B Hong, H J Hwang, S Hong, M Hansson, Y Iizuka, I Oyabu, R Muscheler, F Adolphi, O Maselli, J McConnell, E W Wolff
The Northern Hemisphere experienced dramatic changes during the last glacial, featuring vast ice sheets and abrupt climate events, while high northern latitudes during the last interglacial (Eemian) were warmer than today. Here we use high-resolution aerosol records from the Greenland NEEM ice core to reconstruct the environmental alterations in aerosol source regions accompanying these changes. Separating source and transport effects, we find strongly reduced terrestrial biogenic emissions during glacial times reflecting net loss of vegetated area in North America...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661879/accelerating-early-anti-tuberculosis-drug-discovery-by-creating-mycobacterial-indicator-strains-that-predict-mode-of-action
#20
Maikel Boot, Susanna Commandeur, Amit K Subudhi, Meriem Bahira, Trever C Smith, Abdallah M Abdallah, Mae van Gemert, Joël Lelièvre, Lluís Ballell, Bree B Aldridge, Arnab Pain, Alexander Speer, Wilbert Bitter
Due to the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis there is an urgent need for novel antibiotics to effectively combat these cases and shorten treatment regimens. Recently, drug screens using whole cell analyses have been shown to be successful. However, current high-throughput screens focus mostly on stricto sensu life-death screening that give little qualitative information. In doing so, promising compound scaffolds or non-optimized compounds that fail to reach inhibitory concentrations are missed. To accelerate early TB drug discovery, we performed RNA sequencing on Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum to map the stress responses that follow upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics with known targets: ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid, streptomycin and rifampicin...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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