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Adaptations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679921/electromyographic-and-biomechanical-analysis-of-step-negotiation-in-charcot-marie-tooth-subjects-whose-level-walk-is-not-impaired
#1
Tiziana Lencioni, Giuseppe Piscosquito, Marco Rabuffetti, Enrica Di Sipio, Manuela Diverio, Isabella Moroni, Luca Padua, Emanuela Pagliano, Angelo Schenone, Davide Pareyson, Maurizio Ferrarin
BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) is a slowly progressive disease characterized by muscular weakness and wasting with a length-dependent pattern. Mildly affected CMT subjects showed slight alteration of walking compared to healthy subjects (HS). RESEARCH QUESTION: To investigate the biomechanics of step negotiation, a task that requires greater muscle strength and balance control compared to level walking, in CMT subjects without primary locomotor deficits (foot drop and push off deficit) during walking...
April 13, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679917/possible-impacts-of-sea-level-rise-on-disease-transmission-and-potential-adaptation-strategies-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Ana C Dvorak, Helena M Solo-Gabriele, Andrea Galletti, Bernardo Benzecry, Hannah Malone, Vicki Boguszewski, Jason Bird
Sea levels are projected to rise in response to climate change, causing the intrusion of sea water into land. In flat coastal regions, this would generate an increase in shallow water covered areas with limited circulation. This scenario raises a concern about the consequences it could have on human health, specifically the possible impacts on disease transmission. In this review paper we identified three categories of diseases which are associated with water and whose transmission can be affected by sea level rise...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679895/ingredientes-farmac%C3%A3-uticos-activos-potencialmente-inapropiados-en-adultos-mayores-lista-ifaspiam-panel-de-consenso-argentino
#3
Marta M Marzi, Miryam S Pires, Nora B Quaglia
OBJECTIVES: To perform a list agreed by Argentinean experts and adapted to the local context containing potentially inappropriate (PI) medications in old people (OP) usingthe Delphi consensus technique optimized for this subject. METHODS: A preliminary list of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) was drawn up based on foreign PIM lists and a selective search in the scientific literature. The iterative Delphi process was used to submit the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) of the preliminary PIM list to the panel of Argentinean experts...
April 18, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679859/the-relationship-of-age-activity-and-body-size-on-osteoarthritis-in-weight-bearing-skeletal-regions
#4
Stephanie E Calce, Helen K Kurki, Darlene A Weston, Lisa Gould
This study examined the simultaneous impact of multiple underlying factors on OA expression in weight-bearing joints of the vertebrae and lower limb of a modern European skeletal sample (Lisbon and Sassari). OA was evaluated using standard ranked categorical scoring; composite OA scores derived through principal component analysis. Body size was calculated from postcranial measurements; torsional strength (J) of the femoral midshaft was calculated from three-dimensional surface models, size standardized and used as a proxy for activity...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679784/a-swinging-seesaw-as-a-novel-model-mechanism-for-time-dependent-hormesis-under-dose-dependent-stimulatory-and-inhibitory-effects-a-case-study-on-the-toxicity-of-antibacterial-chemicals-to-aliivibrio-fischeri
#5
Haoyu Sun, Edward J Calabrese, Min Zheng, Dali Wang, Yongzheng Pan, Zhifen Lin, Ying Liu
Hormesis occurs frequently in broadly ranging biological areas (e.g. plant biology, microbiology, biogerontology), toxicology, pharmacology and medicine. While numerous mechanisms (e.g. receptor and pathway mediated pathway responses) account for stimulatory and inhibitory features of hormetic dose responses, the vast majority emphasizes the inclusion of many doses but only one timepoint or use of a single optimized dose that is assessed over a broad range of timepoints. In this paper, a toxicity study was designed using a large number of properly spaced doses with responses determined over a large number of timepoints, which could help us reveal the underlying mechanism of hormesis...
April 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679776/temporal-changes-in-mortality-impacts-of-heat-wave-and-cold-spell-in-korea-and-japan
#6
Whanhee Lee, Hayon Michelle Choi, Jae Young Lee, Da Hye Kim, Yasushi Honda, Ho Kim
Investigating how well people adapt to heat waves and cold spells has been an important issue under climate change. Also, most of previous studies focused only on the mortality risks for heat waves or cold spells for certain time period not considering its temporal changes and increasing frequencies. This study investigated the change in risks of mortality from heat waves and cold spells over time, and estimated the temporal changes in mortality burden attributed to heat waves and cold spells in Korea and Japan...
April 18, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679775/influence-of-side-effects-on-early-therapy-persistence-with-letrozole-in-post-menopausal-patients-with-early-breast-cancer-results-of-the-prospective-evaluate-tm-study
#7
N Nabieva, T Fehm, L Häberle, J de Waal, M Rezai, B Baier, G Baake, H-C Kolberg, M Guggenberger, M Warm, N Harbeck, R Wuerstlein, J-U Deuker, P Dall, B Richter, G Wachsmann, C Brucker, J W Siebers, M Popovic, T Kuhn, C Wolf, H-W Vollert, G-P Breitbach, W Janni, R Landthaler, A Kohls, D Rezek, T Noesselt, G Fischer, S Henschen, T Praetz, V Heyl, T Kühn, T Krauss, C Thomssen, A Hohn, H Tesch, C Mundhenke, A Hein, C C Hack, K Schmidt, E Belleville, S Y Brucker, S Kümmel, M W Beckmann, D Wallwiener, P Hadji, P A Fasching
BACKGROUND: Endocrine treatment (ET) with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) is the treatment of choice in post-menopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer (EBC). However, adverse events (AEs) often lead to treatment discontinuation. This analysis aimed to identify side-effects that lead to patients failing to persist with letrozole treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Post-menopausal hormone receptor-positive EBC patients starting ET with letrozole were enroled in EvAluate-TM, a non-interventional study...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679760/two-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factors-mifs-from-the-clam-ruditapes-philippinarum-molecular-characterization-localization-and-enzymatic-activities
#8
Dan Wang, Dinglong Yang, Qing Wang, Ye Zhao, Chenghua Li, Qianyu Wei, Yijing Han, Jianmin Zhao
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an evolutionarily ancient cytokine-like factor and plays a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, two MIFs (designed as RpMIF-1 and RpMIF-2, respectively) were identified and characterized from the clam Ruditapes philippinarum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of RpMIF-1 and RpMFI-2 consisted of 531 and 722 nucleotides, encoding a polypeptide of 113 and 114 amino acid residues, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679742/adaptive-thermogenesis-by-dietary-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-emerging-evidence-and-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Rong Fan, Karsten Koehler, Soonkyu Chung
Brown/beige fat plays a crucial role in maintaining energy homeostasis through non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold temperature and excess nutrition (adaptive thermogenesis). Although numerous molecular and genetic regulators have been identified, relatively little information is available regarding thermogenic dietary molecules. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests that high consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or activation of GPR120, a membrane receptor of n-3 PUFA, stimulate adaptive thermogenesis...
April 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679661/evolutionary-compromises-to-metabolic-toxins-ammonia-and-urea-tolerance-in-drosophila-suzukii-and-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Virginia Belloni, Alessia Galeazzi, Giulia Bernini, Mauro Mandrioli, Elisabetta Versace, Albrecht Haase
The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii has evolved morphological and behavioural adaptations to lay eggs under the skin of fresh fruits. This results in severe damage to a wide range of small fruits. Drosophila suzukii females typically lay few eggs per fruit, preferring healthy fruits. Hence, larvae are exposed to a reduced amount of nitrogenous waste. Differently, the innocuous Drosophila melanogaster lays eggs on fermented fruits already infested by conspecifics, with larvae developing in a crowded environment with the accumulation of nitrogenous waste such as ammonia and urea...
April 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679647/a-new-micro-holder-device-for-local-drug-delivery-during-in-vivo-whole-cell-recordings
#11
María Sáez, Maya Ketzef, Javier Alegre-Cortés, Ramón Reig, Gilad Silberberg
Focal administration of pharmacological agents during in vivo recordings is a useful technique to study the functional properties of neural microcircuits. However, the lack of visual control makes this task difficult and inaccurate, especially when targeting small and deep regions where spillover to neighboring regions is likely to occur. An additional problem with recording stability arises when combining focal drug administration with in vivo intracellular recordings, which are highly sensitive to mechanical vibrations...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679625/nutrition-therapy-within-and-beyond-gestational-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Teri L Hernandez, Archana Mande, Linda A Barbour
With the global rising prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM), an adaptable, economical approach to nutrition therapy that effectively controls maternal glycemia while promoting normal fetal growth will have far-reaching implications. The conventional focus has been to rigidly limit all types of carbohydrate. While controlling glucose, this approach fosters maternal anxiety and is a primary barrier to adherence. Many mothers substitute fat for carbohydrate, which may unintentionally enhance lipolysis, promote elevated free fatty acids (FFA), and worsen maternal insulin resistance (IR)...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679511/light-availability-impacts-structure-and-function-of-phototrophic-stream-biofilms-across-domains-and-trophic-levels
#13
Mia M Bengtsson, Karoline Wagner, Clarissa Schwab, Tim Urich, Tom J Battin
Phototrophic biofilms are ubiquitous in freshwater and marine environments where they are critical for biogeochemical cycling, food webs and in industrial applications. In streams, phototrophic biofilms dominate benthic microbial life and harbor an immense prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial biodiversity with biotic interactions across domains and trophic levels. Here, we examine how community structure and function of these biofilms respond to varying light availability, as the crucial energy source for phototrophic biofilms...
April 21, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679501/ecological-and-demographic-correlates-of-cooperation-from-individual-to-budding-dispersal
#14
António M M Rodrigues, Tiffany B Taylor
Identifying the ecological and demographic factors that promote the evolution of cooperation is a major challenge for evolutionary biologists. Explanations for the adaptive evolution of cooperation seek to determine which factors make reproduction in cooperative groups more favourable than independent breeding or other selfish strategies. A vast majority of the hypotheses posit that cooperative groups emerge in the context of philopatry, high costs of dispersal, high population density, and environmental stability...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679423/marginal-adaptation-of-cad-cam-all-ceramic-crowns-made-by-different-impression-methods-a-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Yeganeh Memari, Maryam Mohajerfar, Anahid Armin, Fatemeh Kamalian, Vida Rezayani, Elaheh Beyabanaki
All-ceramic crowns for teeth are widely used for restoring teeth. Stone casts have been made from conventional impression methods; however, newer techniques have made this process easier and faster for both the patient and the practitioner. Laboratory CAD/CAM technology mainly involves scanning the die stone, while other systems permit impression or intraoral scanning; however, one major concern remaining is the marginal fit of the restorations made using different methods for recording the prepared teeth. This study aims to review studies evaluating the marginal fit of all-ceramic crowns manufactured by CAD/CAM systems using different extra- and intra-oral scanners compared to conventional impressions...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679408/prehospital-emergency-care-nurses-strategies-while-caring-for-patients-with-limited-swedish-english-proficiency
#16
A Alm Pfrunder, A Falk, V Vicente, V Lindström
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the strategies of nurses working in the ambulance service while caring for patients with limited Swedish-English proficiency. BACKGROUND: Communication difficulties due to lack of mutual language is a challenge in health care systems around the world. Little is known about nurses' strategies while caring for patients with whom they do not share a mutual language in an unstructured, unplanned prehospital emergency environment, the ambulance service...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679395/placental-adaptations-to-micronutrient-dysregulation-in-the-programming-of-chronic-disease
#17
Pierre Hofstee, Daniel McKeating, Anthony V Perkins, James S M Cuffe
Poor nutrition during pregnancy is known to impair foetal development and increase the risk of chronic disease in offspring. Both macronutrients and micronutrients are required for a healthy pregnancy although significantly less is understood about the role of micronutrients in the programming of chronic disease. This is despite the fact that modern calorie rich diets are often also deficient in key micronutrients. The importance of micronutrients in gestational disorders is clearly understood but how they impact long term disease in humans requires further investigation...
April 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679381/comparative-gel-based-proteomic-analysis-of-chemically-crosslinked-complexes-in-dystrophic-skeletal-muscle
#18
Sandra Murphy, Margit Zweyer, Rustam R Mundegar, Dieter Swandulla, Kay Ohlendieck
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a highly progressive muscle wasting disease with a complex pathophysiology that is based on primary abnormalities in the dystrophin gene. In order to study potential changes in the oligomerisation of high-molecular-mass protein complexes in dystrophic skeletal muscle, chemical crosslinking was combined with mass spectrometric analysis. The biochemical stabilization of protein interactions was carried out with the homo-bifunctional and amine-reactive agent bis[sulfosuccinimidyl]suberate, followed by protein shift analysis in one-dimensional gels...
April 20, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679373/cytokine-producing-b-cells-promote-immune-mediated-bile-duct-injury-in-murine-biliary-atresia
#19
Joseph Bednarek, Brianna Traxinger, Dania Brigham, Jonathan Roach, David Orlicky, Dong Wang, Roberta Pelanda, Cara L Mack
Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal T cell-mediated inflammatory, sclerosing cholangiopathy. In the Rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced neonatal mouse model of BA (murine BA), mice lacking B cells do not develop BA, and the lack of B cells is associated with loss of T cell and macrophage activation. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of B cell-mediated immune activation (antigen presentation versus cytokine production) in murine BA. RESULTS: Normal neonatal B cells in the liver are predominantly at pro-B and pre-B cellular development...
April 20, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679327/engineering-human-neural-tissue-by-3d-bioprinting
#20
Qi Gu, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Jeremy M Crook
Bioprinting provides an opportunity to produce three-dimensional (3D) tissues for biomedical research and translational drug discovery, toxicology, and tissue replacement. Here we describe a method for fabricating human neural tissue by 3D printing human neural stem cells with a bioink, and subsequent gelation of the bioink for cell encapsulation, support, and differentiation to functional neurons and supporting neuroglia. The bioink uniquely comprises the polysaccharides alginate, water-soluble carboxymethyl-chitosan, and agarose...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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