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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923267/sleep-and-processing-of-trauma-memories
#1
Ihori Kobayashi, Thomas A Mellman, Duaa Altaee, Mary Katherine Howell, Joseph Lavela
Sleep has been implicated in learning processes that appear to underlie recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The importance of quality and timing of sleep following exposure-based therapies has been suggested. The present study evaluated relationships between sleep and adaptive emotional processing following written narrative exposure (WNE) to memories of traumatic events experienced by participants with clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Participants included 21 urban-residing nontreatment-seeking adults with full or subthreshold symptoms of PTSD who completed 4 sessions of 30-min WNE with the first session either in the evening or the morning...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923249/thyroid-function-in-human-obesity-underlying-mechanisms
#2
L C Fontenelle, M M Feitosa, J S Severo, T E C Freitas, J B S Morais, F L Torres-Leal, G S Henriques, D do Nascimento Marreiro
Obesity is associated with several metabolic and endocrine disorders; and changes in plasma concentrations, secretion patterns, and clearance of various hormones are observed in obese patients. In this context, recent research has shown that overweight can influence the function of the thyroid gland, usually leading to increased thyrotropin concentrations and changes in the ratio between the hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine, though within the normal range. The etiology of these changes is still unclear; however, several mechanisms have been proposed including the adaptive process to increase energy expenditure, hyperleptinemia, changes in the activity of deiodinases, the presence of thyroid hormones resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance...
December 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923147/validation-of-the-portuguese-version-of-the-pittsburgh-sleep-quality-index-psqi-pt
#3
Karine Alexandra Del Rio João, Nathália Brandolim Becker, Saul de Neves Jesus, Rute Isabel Santos Martins
The present study was realised to validate the Portuguese version of the PSQI. The instrument PSQI-PT was applied to 347 Portuguese community-dwelling adults aged 18-69 years old. The resulting data was used to perform the psychometric analysis to validate the instrument. No structural modifications to the questionnaire were necessary during the adaptation process. The scores for the PSQI-PT showed an adequate internal consistency. The principal component analysis (PCA) produced good factor loading for all items...
November 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923131/mates-with-benefits-when-and-how-sexual-cannibalism-is-adaptive
#4
Marlene Zuk
Sexual cannibalism occurs in several arthropod taxa, but its evolutionary significance has long been debated. A new study shows how females that eat their mates benefit in ways that go well beyond caloric nutrition.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923069/characterization-in-helicobacter-pylori-of-a-nickel-transporter-essential-for-colonization-that-was-acquired-during-evolution-by-gastric-helicobacter-species
#5
Frédéric Fischer, Marie Robbe-Saule, Evelyne Turlin, Francesco Mancuso, Valérie Michel, Pierre Richaud, Frédéric J Veyrier, Hilde De Reuse, Daniel Vinella
Metal acquisition is crucial for all cells and for the virulence of many bacterial pathogens. In particular, nickel is a virulence determinant for the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori as it is the cofactor of two enzymes essential for in vivo colonization, urease and a [NiFe] hydrogenase. To import nickel despite its scarcity in the human body, H. pylori requires efficient uptake mechanisms that are only partially defined. Indeed, alternative ways of nickel entry were predicted to exist in addition to the well-described NixA permease...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923053/different-evolutionary-paths-to-complexity-for-small-and-large-populations-of-digital-organisms
#6
Thomas LaBar, Christoph Adami
A major aim of evolutionary biology is to explain the respective roles of adaptive versus non-adaptive changes in the evolution of complexity. While selection is certainly responsible for the spread and maintenance of complex phenotypes, this does not automatically imply that strong selection enhances the chance for the emergence of novel traits, that is, the origination of complexity. Population size is one parameter that alters the relative importance of adaptive and non-adaptive processes: as population size decreases, selection weakens and genetic drift grows in importance...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922826/phenotypic-spandrel-absolute-discrimination-and-ligand-antagonism
#7
Paul François, Mathieu Hemery, Kyle A Johnson, Laura N Saunders
We consider the general problem of sensitive and specific discrimination between biochemical species. An important instance is immune discrimination between self and not-self, where it is also observed experimentally that ligands just below the discrimination threshold negatively impact response, a phenomenon called antagonism. We characterize mathematically the generic properties of such discrimination, first relating it to biochemical adaptation. Then, based on basic biochemical rules, we establish that, surprisingly, antagonism is a generic consequence of any strictly specific discrimination made independently from ligand concentration...
December 6, 2016: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922823/slm35-links-mitochondrial-stress-response-and-longevity-through-tor-signaling-pathway
#8
Jose L Aguilar-Lopez, Raymond Laboy, Fabiola Jaimes-Miranda, Erika Garay, Alexander DeLuna, Soledad Funes
In most eukaryotic cells mitochondria are essential organelles involved in a great variety of cellular functions. One of the physiological processes linked to mitochondria is aging, a gradual process of damage accumulation that eventually promotes cell death. Aging depends on a balance between mitochondrial biogenesis, function and degradation. It has been previously shown that Tor1, Sch9 and Ras2 are activated in response to nutrient availability and regulate cell growth and division. A deficiency in any of these genes promotes lifespan extension and cell protection during oxidative and heat shock stress...
December 2, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922720/function-of-personal-growth-initiative-on-posttraumatic-growth-posttraumatic-stress-and-depression-over-and-above-adaptive-and-maladaptive-rumination
#9
Yuki Shigemoto, Blakely Low, Dominika Borowa, Christine Robitschek
OBJECTIVES: The current study examined whether various types of rumination are distinguishable and the effects of personal growth initiative (PGI) on posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress, and depression through adaptive and maladaptive rumination. METHOD: Sample included 292 college students who experienced a potentially traumatic event (PTE). RESULTS: Intrusive and deliberative rumination were found to be distinct factors. However, brooding and reflection, thought to be separate aspects of depression, were a single factor...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922674/2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde-induces-apoptosis-through-hsf1-mediated-bag3-expression
#10
Hai-Anh Nguyen, Soo-A Kim
BAG3, a member of BAG co-chaperone family, is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals. Through interaction with various binding partners, BAG3 is thought to play a role in cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions in normal and neoplastic cells. 2'-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde (HCA) is a natural derivative of cinnamaldehyde and has antitumor activity in various cancer cells. In the present study, for the first time, we identified that HCA induced BAG3 expression and BAG3-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922625/infections-in-the-spinal-cord-injured-population-a-systematic-review
#11
L Y Garcia-Arguello, J C O'Horo, A Farrell, R Blakney, M R Sohail, C T Evans, N Safdar
STUDY DESIGN: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are an increasing population due to recent military conflicts. SCI patients are at an increased risk of infection, but the epidemiology management and prevention strategies for these infections are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To review the incidence, microbiology and management of pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), urinary tract infections (UTI) and bloodstream infections in the SCI population via literature review...
December 6, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922539/effect-of-tomographic-operator-inaccuracies-and-respiratory-motion-on-pet-ct-lung-nodule-images-smearing
#12
Joël Daouk, Pascal Bailly, Roger Bouzerar, Marc-Étienne Meyer
BACKGROUND: In thoracic PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging, uptake foci usually appear smeared because of postreconstruction smoothing and respiratory motion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the respective contributions of the reconstruction process and respiratory motion on PET/CT images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one pulmonary lesions were studied. Free-breathing PET/CT acquisitions were followed by a 10-min respiratory-gated PET/CT acquisition...
December 2, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922534/interventional-effects-for-mediation-analysis-with-multiple-mediators
#13
Stijn Vansteelandt, Rhian M Daniel
The mediation formula for the identification of natural (in)direct effects has facilitated mediation analyses that better respect the nature of the data, with greater consideration of the need for confounding control. The default assumptions on which it relies are strong, however. In particular, they are known to be violated when confounders of the mediator-outcome association are affected by the exposure. This complicates extensions of counterfactual-based mediation analysis to settings that involve repeatedly measured mediators, or multiple correlated mediators...
November 29, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922476/perceptions-of-an-adapted-mindfulness-program-for-persons-experiencing-substance-use-disorders-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Gisli K Kristofersson, Tom Beckers, Rick Krueger
BACKGROUND: Of the 1.4 million Americans who sustain traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) each year up to half experience substance use disorders (SUDs). This often leads to various issues such as increased rates of mental health problems and delay or lack of return to full employment. AIMS: The purpose of this program evaluation was to describe Vinland National Center's (Vinland's) client and staff perceptions of a 4-week mindfulness-based intervention adapted from the original mindfulness-based stress reduction program for persons experiencing SUDs and TBIs...
October 2016: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922469/sports-and-driving-with-an-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator
#15
Aileen M Ferrick, Kevin J Ferrick
Many patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) want to participate in sports and many need or wish to operate a personal motor vehicle. Healthcare providers need to advise patients regarding restrictions related to these activities in the context of the clinical indication for the ICD. Ethical considerations need to be considered when advising ICD patients of restrictions to reduce risk of injury to themselves and to others when participating in either sports or driving. Shared decision-making is necessary to have ICD patients understand and comply with recommended restrictions...
January 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922291/sexual-satisfaction-among-involuntarily-childless-women-a-cross-cultural-study-in-italy-and-brazil
#16
Paola Gremigni, Giulia Casu, Victor Mantoani Zaia, Maria Geralda Viana Heleno, Ciro Conversano, Caio Parente Barbosa
Infertility has been negatively associated with sexual satisfaction. This study aimed to estimate the relation of infertility to sexual satisfaction from a cross-cultural perspective, comparing Italian and Brazilian women. Between June 2012 and January 2013, 528 women seeking Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART) treatment in Italy (39%) or Brazil (61%) completed self-reports of sexual satisfaction (ISS) and infertility-related stress in the marital domain (IRS). IRS was the same across countries, ISS differed, with 34...
December 6, 2016: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922194/pharmacodynamic-response-profiles-of-anxiolytic-and-sedative-drugs
#17
Xia Chen, Freerk Broeyer, Marieke de Kam, Joke Baas, Adam Cohen, Joop van Gerven
INTRODUCTION: Centrally-acting acutely anxiolytic drugs, like benzodiazepines, barbiturates and gabapentinoids, affect various central nervous system (CNS) functions, which reflect not only their anxiolytic effects but also neuropsychological side-effects. To validate the pharmacodynamic biomarkers for GABA-ergic anxiolytics, this study determined the pharmacodynamics of two anxiolytics and a non-anxiolytic control and linked them to their anxiolytic and sedative effects, during an anxiety-challenge study day...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922139/are-low-sun-exposure-and-or-vitamin-d-risk-factors-for-type-1-diabetes
#18
K M Miller, P H Hart, N H de Klerk, E A Davis, R M Lucas
The global variation in type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence rates is one of the most significant observed for any non-communicable disease. Geographical patterns in incidence suggest that low sun exposure may contribute to the wide disparity, with incidence rates generally increasing with distance from the Equator. T1D development is associated with hyperactivity of the adaptive immune system leading to autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells. Both exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and vitamin D, with their known immunosuppressive effects, have the potential to delay or inhibit the disease...
December 6, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922085/diversity-of-major-urinary-proteins-mups-in-wild-house-mice
#19
Michaela Thoß, Viktoria Enk, Hans Yu, Ingrid Miller, Kenneth C Luzynski, Boglarka Balint, Steve Smith, Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli, Dustin J Penn
Major urinary proteins (MUPs) are often suggested to be highly polymorphic, and thereby provide unique chemical signatures used for individual and genetic kin recognition; however, studies on MUP variability have been lacking. We surveyed populations of wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus), and examined variation of MUP genes and proteins. We sequenced several Mup genes (9 to 11 loci) and unexpectedly found no inter-individual variation. We also found that microsatellite markers inside the MUP cluster show remarkably low levels of allelic diversity, and significantly lower than the diversity of markers flanking the cluster or other markers in the genome...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922071/a-carotenogenic-mini-pathway-introduced-into-white-corn-does-not-affect-development-or-agronomic-performance
#20
Daniela Zanga, Teresa Capell, Gustavo A Slafer, Paul Christou, Roxana Savin
High-carotenoid corn (Carolight®) has been developed as a vehicle to deliver pro-vitamin A in the diet and thus address vitamin A deficiency in at-risk populations in developing countries. Like any other novel crop, the performance of Carolight® must be tested in different environments to ensure that optimal yields and productivity are maintained, particularly in this case to ensure that the engineered metabolic pathway does not attract a yield penalty. Here we compared the performance of Carolight® with its near isogenic white corn inbred parental line under greenhouse and field conditions, and monitored the stability of the introduced trait...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
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