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Teodora Alexa-Stratulat, Marius Neagu, Anca-Iulia Neagu, Ioana Dana Alexa, Beatrice Gabriela Ioan
The article explores the challenges of ensuring voluntary and informed consent which is obtained from potential research subjects in the north-eastern part of Romania. This study is one of the first empirical papers of this nature in Romania. The study used a quantitative survey design using the adapted Quality of Informed Consent (QuIC) questionnaire. The target population consisted of 100 adult persons who voluntarily enrolled in clinical trials. The informed consent form must contain details regarding the potential risks and benefits, the aim of the clinical trial, study design, confidentiality, insurance and contact details in case of additional questions...
June 22, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Isolina Maria Alberto Fruet, Graziele de Lima Dalmolin, Edison Luiz Devos Barlem, Rosangela Marion da Silva, Rafaela Andolhe
OBJECTIVE: To verify the applicability of the adapted Moral Distress Scale in the nursing setting of the hemato-oncology sector of a university hospital. METHOD: Cross-sectional study conducted with 46 nursing workers of a university hospital in the southern region of Brazil with data collected between December 2014 and March 2015 by means of the adapted Moral Distress Scale. Factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Pedro Costa Del Amo, Julio Lahoz Beneytez, Lies Boelen, Raya Ahmed, Kelly L Miners, Yan Zhang, Laureline Roger, Rhiannon E Jones, Silvia A Fuertes Marraco, Daniel E Speiser, Duncan M Baird, David A Price, Kristin Ladell, Derek Macallan, Becca Asquith
Adaptive immunity relies on the generation and maintenance of memory T cells to provide protection against repeated antigen exposure. It has been hypothesised that a self-renewing population of T cells, named stem cell-like memory T (TSCM) cells, are responsible for maintaining memory. However, it is not clear if the dynamics of TSCM cells in vivo are compatible with this hypothesis. To address this issue, we investigated the dynamics of TSCM cells under physiological conditions in humans in vivo using a multidisciplinary approach that combines mathematical modelling, stable isotope labelling, telomere length analysis, and cross-sectional data from vaccine recipients...
June 22, 2018: PLoS Biology
Clemens Wöllner, David Hammerschmidt, Henning Albrecht
Slow motion scenes are ubiquitous in screen-based audiovisual media and are typically accompanied by emotional music. The strong effects of slow motion on observers are hypothetically related to heightened emotional states in which time seems to pass more slowly. These states are simulated in films and video clips, and seem to resemble such experiences in daily life. The current study investigated time perception and emotional response to media clips containing decelerated human motion, with or without music using psychometric and psychophysiological testing methods...
2018: PloS One
Xiaofei Li, Sarah Zito, Michelle Sinclair, Clive J C Phillips
China is the world's biggest livestock producer, and has a rapidly expanding intensive livestock production in response to growing demand. The large size of the country and geographical dispersion of the livestock production systems means that animals are often transported long distances to slaughter. This study investigated perceptions of animal welfare issues by stakeholders in the Chinese transport and slaughter industry using utility scores and adaptive conjoint analysis. An initial workshop for experts in this field identified key concerns; these were then included in a questionnaire, which was distributed electronically to stakeholders...
2018: PloS One
Nicolas Henry, Eva-Maria Krammer, Florian Stengel, Quentin Adams, François Van Liefferinge, Ellen Hubin, Rui Chaves, Rouslan Efremov, Ruedi Aebersold, Guy Vandenbussche, Martine Prévost, Vincent Raussens, Stéphanie Deroo
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a forefront actor in the transport of lipids and the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis, and is also strongly implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Upon lipid-binding apoE adopts a conformational state that mediates the receptor-induced internalization of lipoproteins. Due to its inherent structural dynamics and the presence of lipids, the structure of the biologically active apoE remains so far poorly described. To address this issue, we developed an innovative hybrid method combining experimental data with molecular modeling and dynamics to generate comprehensive models of the lipidated apoE4 isoform...
June 22, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Steffen Schulz, Jens Haueisen, Karl-Juergen Bär, Andreas Voss

 The new interdisciplinary field of network physiology is getting more and more into the focus of interest in medicine. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is well described in schizophrenia (SZO). However, the linear and nonlinear coupling between the ANS and central nervous system (CNS) is only partly addressed until now. This coupling can be assumed as a feedback-feedforward network, reacting with flexible and adaptive responses to internal and external factors.
 For the first time, in this study, we investigated linear and nonlinear short-term central-cardiorespiratory couplings of 17 patients suffering from paranoid schizophrenia (SZO) in comparison to 17 age-gender matched healthy subjects (CON) analyzing heart rate (HR), respiration (RESP) and the power of frontal EEG activity (PEEG)...
June 22, 2018: Physiological Measurement
N de Cesare, C Trevisan, E Maghin, M Piccoli, P G Pavan
The diaphragm is a mammalian skeletal muscle that plays a fundamental role in the process of respiration. Alteration of its mechanical properties due to a diaphragmatic hernia contributes towards compromising its respiratory functions, leading to the need for surgical intervention to restore the physiological conditions by means of implants. This study aims to assess via numerical modeling biomechanical differences between a diaphragm in healthy conditions and a herniated diaphragm surgically repaired with a polymeric implant, in a mouse model...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Qiaoning He, Haijian Yang, Chunxiang Hu
Temperature and light intensity are important environmental factors influencing microalgae for biodiesel production. The aim of present work was to study the effects of temperature (15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C) and its combination with high light intensity (HL, 400 μmol photon m-2  s-1 ) on lipid production of Monoraphidium dybowskii Y2 which was isolated from desert. The results demonstrated that algal growth was only inhibited at 15 °C. Promoted lipid content and decreased Fv/Fm were observed in 15 °C and 35 °C...
June 15, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Rixin Tang, Sixuan Ren, James T Enns, Robert L Whitwell
Adaptive motor control is premised on the principle of movement minimization, which in turn is premised on a form of sensorimotor memory. But what is the nature of this memory and under what conditions does it operate? Here, we test the limits of sensorimotor memory in an intermanual context by testing the effect that the action performed by the left hand has on subsequent right hand grasps. Target feature-overlap predicts that sensorimotor memory is engaged when task-relevant sensory features of the target are similar across actions; partial effector-overlap predicts that sensorimotor memory is engaged when there is similarity in the task-relevant effectors used to perform an action; and the action-goal conjunction hypotheses predicts that sensorimotor memories are engaged when the action goal and the action type overlap...
June 19, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Daína Lima, Flávia Lucena Zacchi, Jacó Joaquim Mattos, Fabrício Flores-Nunes, Carlos Henrique Araújo de Miranda Gomes, Álvaro Cavaler Pessoa de Mello, Marília Nardelli Siebert, Clei Endrigo Piazza, Satie Taniguchi, Silvio Tarou Sasaki, Márcia Caruso Bícego, Maria João Bebianno, Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Exposure of aquatic organisms to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), such as phenanthrene (PHE), may increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause changes in the biotransformation systems. In addition, changes in water temperature can cause adverse effects in the organisms. Estuarine species, like the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, can adapt and tolerate temperature variation. To evaluate the influence of temperature on biological responses of C. brasiliana exposed to PHE, oysters were maintained at three temperatures (18, 24 and 32 °C) for 15 days and co-exposed afterwards to 100 μg...
June 15, 2018: Chemosphere
Evan M Mistur, Gordon Kingsley, Daniel C Matisoff, Yehyun An
Employing a case of a state transportation agency, we examine how complex institutions which integrate outsourcing within a bureaucratic process adapt to environmental regulatory changes. In 2012, two endangered species of bats were located outside of their established ranges in northern Georgia. These discoveries required the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) to comply with a new set of federal regulations relating to those species when developing its projects. This article examines how GDOT adapted to new and unforeseen regulations in the face of environmental uncertainty...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
S M T Cavalcanti, C Nunes, S A C Lima, J L Soares-Sobrinho, S Reis
An adapted methodology for obtaining lipid nanoparticles that only uses the microwave reactor in the synthesis process was developed. The method has the following features: one-pot, one-step, fast, practical, economical, safe, readiness of scaling-up, lack of organic solvents and production of nanoparticles with low polydispersity index (PDI) (below 0.3). This new method was applied for the development of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) loaded with a hydrophilic drug, the antiretroviral agent zidovudine (AZT)...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vina P Nguyen, Heather Landau, Karen Quillen, Dina Brauneis, Anthony C Shelton, Lisa Mendelson, Hafsa Rahman, J Mark Sloan, Shayna Sarosiek, Vaishali Sanchorawala
High dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDM/SCT) has been used in patients with light chain (AL) amyloidosis for over two decades now with durable responses, prolonged survival, and decreasing treatment related mortality. Historically patients with poorer baseline functional status, advanced age, renal compromise and cardiac involvement have been treated with a risk-adapted modified conditioning dose of melphalan (mHDM) of 100-140 mg/m2 prior to SCT. Due in part to these baseline characteristics, patients receiving mHDM/SCT have had poorer outcomes compared to patients receiving full dose of melphalan at 200 mg/m2 ...
June 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Denis Pélisson, Ouazna Habchi, Muriel T N Panouillères, Charles Hernoux, Alessandro Farnè
How movements are continuously adapted to physiological and environmental changes is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. While many studies have elucidated the mechanisms which underlie short-term sensorimotor adaptation (∼10-30 min), how these motor memories are maintained over longer-term (>3-5 days) -and thanks to which neural systems-is virtually unknown. Here, we examine in healthy human participants whether the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) is causally involved in the induction and/or the retention of saccadic eye movements' adaptation...
June 19, 2018: NeuroImage
Kritarth Singh, Lakshmi Sripada, AnastasiaLipatova, Milton Roy, Paresh Prajapati, Dhruv Gohil, Khyati Bhatelia, Peter M Chumakov, Rajesh Singh
The role of mitochondria is emerging in regulation of innate immunity, inflammation and cell death beyond its primary role in energy metabolism. Mitochondria act as molecular platform for immune adaptor protein complexes, which participate in innate immune signaling. The mitochondrial localized immune adaptors are widely expressed in non-immune cells, however their role in regulation of mitochondrial function and metabolic adaption is not well understood. NLRX1, a member of NOD family receptor proteins, localizes to mitochondria and is a negative regulator of anti-viral signaling...
June 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Rogério O Faleiros, Daniela P Garçon, Malson N Lucena, John C McNamara, Francisco A Leone
The evolutionary history of the Crustacea reveals ample adaptive radiation and the subsequent occupation of many osmotic niches resulting from physiological plasticity in their osmoregulatory mechanisms. We evaluate osmoregulatory ability in the intertidal, thinstripe hermit crab Clibanarius symmetricus after short-term exposure (6 h) or long-term acclimation (10 days) to a wide salinity range, also analyzing kinetic behavior and α-subunit mRNA expression of the gill (Na+ , K+ )-ATPase. The crab strongly hyper-regulates its hemolymph at 5 and 15‰S (Salinity, g L-1 ) but weakly hyper-regulates up to ≈27‰S...
June 19, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Evan Cesanek, Fulvio Domini
An influential idea in cognitive neuroscience is that perception and action are highly separable brain functions, implemented in distinct neural systems. In particular, this theory predicts that the functional distinction between grasping, a skilled action, and manual estimation, a type of perceptual report, should be mirrored by a split between their respective control systems. This idea has received support from a variety of dissociations, yet many of these findings have been criticized for failing to pinpoint the source of the dissociation...
June 19, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Adrien Mazoyer
The classic Luria-Delbrück model can be interpreted as a Poisson compound (number of mutations) of exponential mixtures (developing time of mutant clones) of geometric distributions (size of a clone in a given time). This "three-ingredients" approach is generalized in this paper to the case where the split instant distributions of cells are not i.i.d. : the lifetime of each cell is assumed to depend on its birth date. This model takes also into account cell deaths and non-exponentially distributed lifetimes...
June 19, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Noelle E Carlozzi, Phillip A Ianni, David S Tulsky, Tracey A Brickell, Rael T Lange, Louis M French, David Cella, Michael A Kallen, Jennifer A Miner, Anna L Kratz
OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and validity of Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures of sleep disturbance and fatigue in TBI caregivers and to determine the severity of fatigue and sleep disturbance in these caregivers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data collected through an online data capture platform. SETTING: Four rehabilitation hospitals and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers (N=560) of civilians (n=344) and service member/veterans (n=216) with TBI...
June 19, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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