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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908079/using-line-acceleration-to-measure-false-killer-whale-pseudorca-crassidens-click-and-whistle-source-levels-during-pelagic-longline-depredation
#1
Aaron Thode, Lauren Wild, Janice Straley, Dustin Barnes, Ali Bayless, Victoria O'Connell, Erin Oleson, Jit Sarkar, Dan Falvey, Linda Behnken, Sean Martin
False killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) depredate pelagic longlines in offshore Hawaiian waters. On January 28, 2015 a depredation event was recorded 14 m from an integrated GoPro camera, hydrophone, and accelerometer, revealing that false killer whales depredate bait and generate clicks and whistles under good visibility conditions. The act of plucking bait off a hook generated a distinctive 15 Hz line vibration. Two similar line vibrations detected at earlier times permitted the animal's range and thus signal source levels to be estimated over a 25-min window...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908070/physical-constraints-of-cultural-evolution-of-dialects-in-killer-whales
#2
Olga A Filatova, Filipa I P Samarra, Lance G Barrett-Lennard, Patrick J O Miller, John K B Ford, Harald Yurk, Craig O Matkin, Erich Hoyt
Odontocete sounds are produced by two pairs of phonic lips situated in soft nares below the blowhole; the right pair is larger and is more likely to produce clicks, while the left pair is more likely to produce whistles. This has important implications for the cultural evolution of delphinid sounds: the greater the physical constraints, the greater the probability of random convergence. In this paper the authors examine the call structure of eight killer whale populations to identify structural constraints and to determine if they are consistent among all populations...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870149/development-of-sociality-and-emergence-of-independence-in-a-killer-whale-orcinus-orca-calf-from-birth-to-36-months
#3
Sara Guarino, Heather M Hill, Julie Sigman
Dolphin calves spend most of their time swimming with their mother immediately after birth. As they mature, the calves become increasingly independent, and begin to interact more often with other calves, juveniles, and sub-adults. For bottlenose dolphin calves, sociality is related to maternal behaviors. Unfortunately, much less is known about the development of sociality and emergence of independence for killer whale calves. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental changes in social behaviors and solitary activities of a killer whale calf across a 36-month period...
November 21, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804965/killer-whales-differentiating-in-geographic-sympatry-facilitated-by-divergent-behavioural-traditions
#4
A R Hoelzel, A E Moura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770983/conservation-status-of-killer-whales-orcinus-orca-in-the-strait-of-gibraltar
#5
R Esteban, P Verborgh, P Gauffier, D Alarcón, J M Salazar-Sierra, J Giménez, A D Foote, R de Stephanis
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Mediterranean Sea are currently restricted to the Strait of Gibraltar and surrounding waters. Thirty-nine individuals were present in 2011, with a well-differentiated social structure, organized into five pods. Killer whale occurrence in the Strait is apparently related to the migration of their main prey, Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). In spring, whale distribution was restricted to shallow waters off the western coast of the Strait where all pods were observed actively hunting tuna...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770981/marine-mammals-in-the-mediterranean-sea-an-overview
#6
G Notarbartolo di Sciara
Despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the Mediterranean Sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. Species currently recognised as regular in the Mediterranean-the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus; Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis; long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas; Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus; killer whale, Orcinus orca; striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba; rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis; common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus; harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena relicta) have adapted well to the region's environmental conditions, but their coexistence with humans is problematic...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636553/androgen-and-glucocorticoid-production-in-the-male-killer-whale-orcinus-orca-influence-of-age-maturity-and-environmental-factors
#7
J K O'Brien, K J Steinman, G A Fetter, T R Robeck
Circulating concentrations of testosterone and its precursor androstenedione, as well as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and the adrenal hormones cortisol and corticosterone were measured at monthly intervals in 14 male killer whales (Orcinus orca) aged 0.8-38 years. Analyses were performed for examination of the relationships of age, sexual maturation status (STATUS), season, and environmental temperature (monthly air ambient temperature, A-TEMP) with hormone production using a mixed effects linear regression model with animal ID as the random variable...
September 16, 2016: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547372/dietary-habits-of-polar-bears-in-foxe-basin-canada-possible-evidence-of-a-trophic-regime-shift-mediated-by-a-new-top-predator
#8
Melissa P Galicia, Gregory W Thiemann, Markus G Dyck, Steven H Ferguson, Jeff W Higdon
Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations in several areas with seasonal sea ice regimes have shown declines in body condition, reproductive rates, or abundance as a result of declining sea ice habitat. In the Foxe Basin region of Nunavut, Canada, the size of the polar bear subpopulation has remained largely stable over the past 20 years, despite concurrent declines in sea ice habitat. We used fatty acid analysis to examine polar bear feeding habits in Foxe Basin and thus potentially identify ecological factors contributing to population stability...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536700/comparative-in-silico-study-of-sex-determining-region-y-sry-protein-sequences-involved-in-sex-determining
#9
Masoume Vakili Azghandi, Mohammadreza Nasiri, Ali Shamsa, Mohsen Jalali, Mohammad Mahdi Shariati
BACKGROUND: The SRY gene (SRY) provides instructions for making a transcription factor called the sex-determining region Y protein. The sex-determining region Y protein causes a fetus to develop as a male. In this study, SRY of 15 spices included of human, chimpanzee, dog, pig, rat, cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, horse, zebra, frog, urial, dolphin and killer whale were used for determine of bioinformatic differences. METHODS: Nucleotide sequences of SRY were retrieved from the NCBI databank...
April 2016: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485668/genome-wide-snp-data-suggest-complex-ancestry-of-sympatric-north-pacific-killer-whale-ecotypes
#10
A D Foote, P A Morin
Three ecotypes of killer whale occur in partial sympatry in the North Pacific. Individuals assortatively mate within the same ecotype, resulting in correlated ecological and genetic differentiation. A key question is whether this pattern of evolutionary divergence is an example of incipient sympatric speciation from a single panmictic ancestral population, or whether sympatry could have resulted from multiple colonisations of the North Pacific and secondary contact between ecotypes. Here, we infer multilocus coalescent trees from >1000 nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and find evidence of incomplete lineage sorting so that the genealogies of SNPs do not all conform to a single topology...
November 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401258/characterization-and-longitudinal-monitoring-of-serum-progestagens-and-estrogens-during-normal-pregnancy-in-the-killer-whale-orcinus-orca
#11
Todd R Robeck, Karen J Steinman, Justine K O'Brien
The secretory patterns of progestagens and estrogens were characterized throughout 28 normal pregnancies until two month post-partum in eleven killer whales. HPLC analysis of serum from different reproductive stages (luteal phase, EARLY, MID, and LATE pregnancy) identified three major immunoreactive progestagen peaks; progesterone (P4), 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione (5α-DHP) and pregnanediol, with 5α-DHP approximately half of that for P4 in the luteal phase, and EARLY, but approximately 2/3 of P4 during MID and LATE pregnancy...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385756/the-significance-of-respiration-timing-in-the-energetics-estimates-of-free-ranging-killer-whales-orcinus-orca
#12
Marjoleine M H Roos, Gi-Mick Wu, Patrick J O Miller
Respiration rate has been used as an indicator of metabolic rate and associated cost of transport (COT) of free-ranging cetaceans, discounting potential respiration-by-respiration variation in O2 uptake. To investigate the influence of respiration timing on O2 uptake, we developed a dynamic model of O2 exchange and storage. Individual respiration events were revealed from kinematic data from 10 adult Norwegian herring-feeding killer whales (Orcinus orca) recorded with high-resolution tags (DTAGs). We compared fixed O2 uptake per respiration models with O2 uptake per respiration estimated through a simple 'broken-stick' O2-uptake function, in which O2 uptake was assumed to be the maximum possible O2 uptake when stores are depleted or maximum total body O2 store minus existing O2 store when stores are close to saturated...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353529/disturbance-specific-social-responses-in-long-finned-pilot-whales-globicephala-melas
#13
Fleur Visser, Charlotte Curé, Petter H Kvadsheim, Frans-Peter A Lam, Peter L Tyack, Patrick J O Miller
Social interactions among animals can influence their response to disturbance. We investigated responses of long-finned pilot whales to killer whale sound playbacks and two anthropogenic sources of disturbance: tagging effort and naval sonar exposure. The acoustic scene and diving behaviour of tagged individuals were recorded along with the social behaviour of their groups. All three disturbance types resulted in larger group sizes, increasing social cohesion during disturbance. However, the nature and magnitude of other responses differed between disturbance types...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282468/nearby-grandmother-enhances-calf-survival-and-reproduction-in-asian-elephants
#14
Mirkka Lahdenperä, Khyne U Mar, Virpi Lummaa
Usually animals reproduce into old age, but a few species such as humans and killer whales can live decades after their last reproduction. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that such life-history evolved through older females switching to invest in their existing (grand)offspring, thereby increasing their inclusive fitness and selection for post-reproductive lifespan. However, positive grandmother effects are also found in non-menopausal taxa, but evidence of their associated fitness effects is rare and only a few tests of the hypothesis in such species exist...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269787/longitudinal-evaluation-of-leukocyte-transcripts-in-killer-whales-orcinus-orca
#15
Tatjana Sitt, Lizabeth Bowen, Chia-Shan Lee, Myra T Blanchard, James McBain, Christopher Dold, Jeffrey L Stott
Early identification of illness and/or presence of environmental and/or social stressors in free-ranging and domestic cetaceans is a priority for marine mammal health care professionals. Incorporation of leukocyte gene transcript analysis into the diagnostic tool kit has the potential to augment classical diagnostics based upon ease of sample storage and shipment, inducible nature and well-defined roles of transcription and associated downstream actions. Development of biomarkers that could serve to identify "insults" and potentially differentiate disease etiology would be of great diagnostic value...
July 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243207/genome-culture-coevolution-promotes-rapid-divergence-of-killer-whale-ecotypes
#16
Andrew D Foote, Nagarjun Vijay, María C Ávila-Arcos, Robin W Baird, John W Durban, Matteo Fumagalli, Richard A Gibbs, M Bradley Hanson, Thorfinn S Korneliussen, Michael D Martin, Kelly M Robertson, Vitor C Sousa, Filipe G Vieira, Tomáš Vinař, Paul Wade, Kim C Worley, Laurent Excoffier, Phillip A Morin, M Thomas P Gilbert, Jochen B W Wolf
Analysing population genomic data from killer whale ecotypes, which we estimate have globally radiated within less than 250,000 years, we show that genetic structuring including the segregation of potentially functional alleles is associated with socially inherited ecological niche. Reconstruction of ancestral demographic history revealed bottlenecks during founder events, likely promoting ecological divergence and genetic drift resulting in a wide range of genome-wide differentiation between pairs of allopatric and sympatric ecotypes...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229472/separating-underwater-ambient-noise-from-flow-noise-recorded-on-stereo-acoustic-tags-attached-to-marine-mammals
#17
Alexander M von Benda-Beckmann, Paul J Wensveen, Filipa I P Samarra, S Peter Beerens, Patrick J O Miller
Sound-recording acoustic tags attached to marine animals are commonly used in behavioural studies. Measuring ambient noise is of interest to efforts to understand responses of marine mammals to anthropogenic underwater sound, or to assess their communication space. Noise of water flowing around the tag reflects the speed of the animal, but hinders ambient noise measurement. Here, we describe a correlation-based method for stereo acoustic tags to separate the relative contributions of flow and ambient noise...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186642/modulation-in-persistent-organic-pollutant-concentration-and-profile-by-prey-availability-and-reproductive-status-in-southern-resident-killer-whale-scat-samples
#18
Jessica I Lundin, Gina M Ylitalo, Rebecca K Booth, Bernadita Anulacion, Jennifer A Hempelmann, Kim M Parsons, Deborah A Giles, Elizabeth A Seely, M Bradley Hanson, Candice K Emmons, Samuel K Wasser
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), specifically PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs, in the marine environment are well documented, however accumulation and mobilization patterns at the top of the food-web are poorly understood. This study broadens the understanding of POPs in the endangered Southern Resident killer whale population by addressing modulation by prey availability and reproductive status, along with endocrine disrupting effects. A total of 140 killer whale scat samples collected from 54 unique whales across a 4 year sampling period (2010-2013) were analyzed for concentrations of POPs...
June 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119362/neuroanatomy-of-the-killer-whale-orcinus-orca-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-investigation-of-structure-with-insights-on-function-and-evolution
#19
Alexandra Wright, Miriam Scadeng, Dominik Stec, Rebecca Dubowitz, Sam Ridgway, Judy St Leger
The evolutionary process of adaptation to an obligatory aquatic existence dramatically modified cetacean brain structure and function. The brain of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) may be the largest of all taxa supporting a panoply of cognitive, sensory, and sensorimotor abilities. Despite this, examination of the O. orca brain has been limited in scope resulting in significant deficits in knowledge concerning its structure and function. The present study aims to describe the neural organization and potential function of the O...
April 27, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27039511/sperm-whales-reduce-foraging-effort-during-exposure-to-1-2-khz-sonar-and-killer-whale-sounds
#20
Saana Isojunno, Charlotte Cure, Petter Helgevold Kvadsheim, Frans-Peter Alexander Lam, Peter Lloyd Tyack, Paul Jacobus Wensveen, Patrick James O'Malley Miller
The time and energetic costs of behavioral responses to incidental and experimental sonar exposures, as well as control stimuli, were quantified using hidden state analysis of time series of acoustic and movement data recorded by tags (DTAG) attached to 12 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using suction cups. Behavioral state transition modeling showed that tagged whales switched to a non-foraging, non-resting state during both experimental transmissions of low-frequency active sonar from an approaching vessel (LFAS; 1-2 kHz, source level 214 dB re 1 µPa m, four tag records) and playbacks of potential predator (killer whale, Orcinus orca) sounds broadcast at naturally occurring sound levels as a positive control from a drifting boat (five tag records)...
January 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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