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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909431/the-microbiota-of-recreational-freshwaters-and-the-implications-for-environmental-and-public-health
#1
Chang Soo Lee, Minseok Kim, Cheonghoon Lee, Zhongtang Yu, Jiyoung Lee
The microbial communities in recreational freshwaters play important roles in both environmental and public health perspectives. In this study, the bacterial community structure and its associations with freshwater environments were investigated by analyzing the summertime microbiomes of three beach waters in Ohio (East Fork, Delaware, and Madison lakes) together with environmental and microbial water quality parameters. From the swimming season of 2009, 21 water samples were collected from the three freshwater beaches...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906201/the-cost-of-molecular-guided-therapy-in-oncology-a-prospective-cost-study-alongside-the-moscato-trial
#2
Arnaud Pagès, Stéphanie Foulon, Zhaomin Zou, Ludovic Lacroix, François Lemare, Thierry de Baère, Christophe Massard, Jean-Charles Soria, Julia Bonastre
AIM: There is increasing use of molecular technologies to guide cancer treatments, but few cost data are available. Our objective was to assess the costs of molecular-guided therapy for patients with advanced solid tumors alongside the Molecular Screening for Cancer Treatment and Optimization (MOSCATO) trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 529 patients. The molecular diagnosis included seven steps from tumor biopsy to the multidisciplinary molecular tumor board...
December 1, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906198/population-screening-for-brca1-brca2-mutations-lessons-from-qualitative-analysis-of-the-screening-experience
#3
Sari Lieberman, Amnon Lahad, Ariela Tomer, Carmit Cohen, Ephrat Levy-Lahad, Aviad Raz
PURPOSE: Population screening for BRCA1/BRCA2. mutations is being considered for Ashkenazi Jews (AJ) because 2.5% carry recurrent deleterious mutations and effective cancer prevention exists. This study aimed to provide a qualitative focus on perspectives of individuals, particularly carriers, who were tested through a screening trial. In this trial, the pretest process included only written information. METHODS: Interviews were performed with 26 carriers and 10 noncarriers who participated in a BRCA population screening trial for AJ...
December 1, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906040/identity-of-fasciola-spp-in-sheep-in-egypt
#4
Said Amer, Ahmed ElKhatam, Shereif Zidan, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
BACKGROUND: In Egypt, liver flukes, Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Fasciolidae), have a serious impact on the farming industry and public health. Both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are known to occur in cattle, providing the opportunity for genetic recombination. Little is known on the identity and genetic variability of Fasciola populations in sheep. METHODS: This study was performed to determine the prevalence of liver flukes in sheep in Menofia Province as a representative area of the delta region in Egypt, as measured by postmortem examination of slaughtered animals at three abattoirs...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904879/the-establishment-and-diversification-of-epidemic-associated-serogroup-w-meningococcus-in-the-african-meningitis-belt-1994-to-2012
#5
Adam C Retchless, Fang Hu, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Seydou Diarra, Kristen Knipe, Mili Sheth, Lori A Rowe, Lassana Sangaré, Absetou Ky Ba, Soumeya Ouangraoua, Dhwani Batra, Ryan T Novak, Rasmata Ouédraogo Traoré, Xin Wang
Epidemics of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by meningococcal serogroup A have been eliminated from the sub-Saharan African so-called "meningitis belt" by the meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (MACV), and yet, other serogroups continue to cause epidemics. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W remains a major cause of disease in the region, with most isolates belonging to clonal complex 11 (CC11). Here, the genetic variation within and between epidemic-associated strains was assessed by sequencing the genomes of 92 N...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902427/phenotypic-and-genetic-characterization-of-multi-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-tropics-of-southeast-asia
#6
Siti Norayuni Mohd Zulkeflle, Yus Amira Yusaimi, Norio Sugiura, Koji Iwamoto, Masafumi Goto, Motoo Utsumi, Nor'azizi Bin Othman, Zuriati Zakaria, Hirofumi Hara
Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem throughout the world. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in hospital wastewater is cause for great concern today. In this study, 276 S. aureus isolates were recovered from hospital wastewater samples in Malaysia. All of the isolates were screened for susceptibility to nine different classes of antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), ciprofloxacin (CFX), gentamicin (GMN), kanamycin (KMN), erythromycin (ERM), vancomycin (VAN), trimetoprim and sulfamethaxazole (TM-SMZ), chloramphenicol (CMP), tetracycline (TET), and nalidixic acid (NAL)...
November 3, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902393/frequency-of-mycobacterium-chimaera-among-belgian-patients-2015
#7
Karine Soetaert, Christelle Vluggen, Emmanuel André, Raymond Vanhoof, Brigitte Vanfleteren, Vanessa Mathys
Mycobacterium chimaera arouses an increasing public health concern, as this non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) has recently been associated with life-threatening cardiac infections. M. chimaera and Mycobacteriumintracellulare are genetically very close but recently appeared to present different epidemiological and clinical significance. Therefore, it has become important for laboratories to use adequate techniques allowing precise species identification. To date, most commercially available laboratory assays cannot distinguish them and erroneously identify M...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902350/novel-reassortant-h9n2-viruses-in-pigeons-and-evidence-for-antigenic-diversity-of-h9n2-viruses-isolated-from-quails-in-egypt
#8
Ahmed Kandeil, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Asmaa Maatouq, Yassmin Moatasim, Zhipeng Cai, Pamela McKenzie, Richard Webby, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed Ahmed Ali
The endemicity of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) among Egyptian poultry represents a public health risk. Co-circulation of low pathogenic AIV H9N2 subtype with highly pathogenic AIV H5N1 subtype in Egyptian farms potentiates the possibility to generate novel reassortant viruses. Herein, the genetic characteristics of surface glycoproteins of 59 Egyptian H9N2 viruses, isolated between 2013 and 2015, were analyzed. To elucidate the potential of genetic reassortment, 10 H9N2 isolates were selected based on different avian hosts (chickens, ducks, pigeons and quails) and conducted for phylogenetic analyses of full genome sequences...
November 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901040/follow-up-care-by-a-genetic-counsellor-for-relatives-at-risk-for-cardiomyopathies-is-cost-saving-and-well-appreciated-a-randomised-comparison
#9
Karin Nieuwhof, Erwin Birnie, Maarten P van den Berg, Rudolf A de Boer, Paul L van Haelst, J Peter van Tintelen, Irene M van Langen
Increasing numbers of patient relatives at risk of developing dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (DCM/HCM) are being identified and followed up by cardiologists according to the ACC/ESC guidelines. However, given limited healthcare resources, good-quality low-cost alternative approaches are needed. Therefore, we have compared conventional follow-up by a cardiologist with that provided at a cardiogenetic clinic (CGC) led by a genetic counsellor. Phenotype-negative first-degree relatives at risk for DCM/HCM were randomly assigned to see either a cardiologist or to attend a CGC...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900742/-precision-nursing-individual-based-knowledge-translation
#10
Li-Chi Chiang, Mei-Ling Yeh, Sui-Lung Su
U.S. President Obama announced a new era of precision medicine in the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI). This initiative aims to accelerate the progress of personalized medicine in light of individual requirements for prevention and treatment in order to improve the state of individual and public health. The recent and dramatic development of large-scale biologic databases (such as the human genome sequence), powerful methods for characterizing patients (such as genomics, microbiome, diverse biomarkers, and even pharmacogenomics), and computational tools for analyzing big data are maximizing the potential benefits of precision medicine...
December 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899195/the-future-of-clinical-cancer-genomics
#11
Kenneth Offit
The current and future applications of genomics to the practice of preventive oncology are being impacted by a number of challenges. These include rapid advances in genomic science and technology that allow massively parallel sequencing of both tumors and the germline, a diminishing of intellectual property restrictions on diagnostic genetic applications, rapid expansion of access to the internet which includes mobile access to both genomic data and tools to communicate and interpret genetic data in a medical context, the expansion of for-profit diagnostic companies seeking to monetize genetic information, and a simultaneous effort to depict medical professionals as barriers to rather than facilitators of understanding one's genome...
October 2016: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899145/bibliometric-analysis-of-publications-on-campylobacter-2000-2015
#12
Waleed M Sweileh, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Adham S AbuTaha, Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter species are widespread zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni causes a form of gastroenteritis called campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter drug resistance is considered a serious threat. In order to better understand national and international research output on Campylobacter, we conducted this bibliometric overview of publications on Campylobacter. This study can be used to assess extent of interaction and response of researchers, food regulators, and health policy makers to global burden of campylobacateriosis...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898717/gene-based-genome-wide-association-analysis-in-european-and-asian-populations-identified-novel-genes-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Hong Zhu, Wei Xia, Xing-Bo Mo, Xiang Lin, Ying-Hua Qiu, Neng-Jun Yi, Yong-Hong Zhang, Fei-Yan Deng, Shu-Feng Lei
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disease. Using a gene-based association research strategy, the present study aims to detect unknown susceptibility to RA and to address the ethnic differences in genetic susceptibility to RA between European and Asian populations. METHODS: Gene-based association analyses were performed with KGG 2.5 by using publicly available large RA datasets (14,361 RA cases and 43,923 controls of European subjects, 4,873 RA cases and 17,642 controls of Asian Subjects)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895635/molecular-characteristic-and-virulence-gene-profiles-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-pediatric-patients-in-shanghai-china
#14
Xing Wang, Xia Li, Wei Liu, Weichun Huang, Qihua Fu, Min Li
Staphylococcus aureus is a globally important human pathogen, especially among children and immunocompromised patients. The emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a serious public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, molecular characteristics and virulence profiles of CA-MRSA infections from pediatric patients in a university hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 80 CA-MRSA isolates were collected from July 2012 to December 2013 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcus chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and spa typing...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892699/genetics-of-consanguinity-and-inbreeding-in-health-and-disease
#15
Mohd Fareed, Mohammad Afzal
CONTEXT: Inbreeding increases the level of homozygotes for autosomal recessive disorders and is the major objective in clinical studies. The prevalence of consanguinity and the degree of inbreeding vary from one population to another depending on ethnicity, religion, culture and geography. Global epidemiological studies have revealed that consanguineous unions have been significantly associated with increased susceptibility to various forms of inherited diseases Objective: The study aimed to determine the role of consanguinity in human health and to highlight the associated risks for various diseases or disorders...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892531/a-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-a-horizontally-transferred-bacterial-surface-adhesin-gene-associated-with-antimicrobial-resistant-strains
#16
Masato Suzuki, Keigo Shibayama, Koji Yahara
Carbapenems are a class of last-resort antibiotics; thus, the increase in bacterial carbapenem-resistance is a serious public health threat. Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the microorganisms that can acquire carbapenem-resistance; it causes severe nosocomial infection, and is notoriously difficult to control in hospitals. Recently, a machine-learning approach was first used to analyze the genome sequences of hundreds of susceptible and resistant A. baumannii strains, including those carrying commonly acquired resistant mechanisms, to build a classifier that can predict strain resistance...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892525/sxt-r391-integrative-and-conjugative-elements-in-proteus-species-reveal-abundant-genetic-diversity-and-multidrug-resistance
#17
Xinyue Li, Yu Du, Pengcheng Du, Hang Dai, Yujie Fang, Zhenpeng Li, Na Lv, Baoli Zhu, Biao Kan, Duochun Wang
SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible mobile genetic elements that are found in most members of Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we determined fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates from food (4.2%) and diarrhoea patients (17.3%). BLASTn searches against GenBank showed that the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were closely related to that from different Enterobacteriaceae species, including Proteus mirabilis. Using core gene phylogenetic analysis, the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were grouped into six distinct clusters, including a dominant cluster and three clusters that have not been previously reported in Proteus isolates...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889901/a-novel-approach-to-screening-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-a-large-public-venue
#18
Megan Campbell, Jessa Humanki, Heather Zierhut
The primary aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a public health screening program to identify individuals at high risk of familial hypercholesterolemia through a novel screening approach at a large public venue. A finger-prick, non-fasting lipid panel was obtained, and a survey which consisted of 44 open- and close-ended questions divided into four sections: medical and family history of FH, opinions of cascade genetic testing, patient activation, and demographics was completed. A total of 971 participants met criteria and completed a cholesterol screen...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888505/geographical-and-ethnic-distribution-of-mthfr-gene-polymorphisms-and-their-associations-with-diseases-among-chinese-population
#19
REVIEW
Boyi Yang, Shujun Fan, Xueyuan Zhi, Ruilan Xia, Yanxun Wang, Quanmei Zheng, Guifan Sun
Numerous studies have investigated the distribution of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and their associations with diseases in China. In this study we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of these studies (715 eligible studies in total).Results revealed that the frequencies of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms varied markedly in different areas and ethnicities, and even showed geographical gradients. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with 42 clinical disorders (P<0...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884653/migration-recombination-and-reassortment-are-involved-in-the-evolution-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-bunyavirus
#20
Junming Shi, Sheng Hu, Xiaoping Liu, Juan Yang, Dan Liu, Liang Wu, Hualin Wang, Zhihong Hu, Fei Deng, Shu Shen
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV) has been identified as the etiological agent causing severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). SFTSV was reported in recent years as a newly emerging tick-borne virus in China, Japan and South Korea and is a novel member of the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, which is suspected to be transmitted by the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. The genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships between geographically distributed SFTSV strains are currently unclear...
November 21, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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