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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923977/absence-of-renal-enlargement-in-fructose-fed-proximal-tubule-select-insulin-receptor-ir-insulin-like-growth-factor-receptor-igf1r-double-knockout-mice
#1
Lijun Li, Marcus Byrd, Kwame Doh, Patrice D Dixon, Hwal Lee, Swasti Tiwari, Carolyn M Ecelbarger
The major site of fructose metabolism in the kidney is the proximal tubule (PT). To test whether insulin and/or IGF1 signaling in the PT is involved in renal structural/functional responses to dietary fructose, we bred mice with dual knockout (KO) of the insulin receptor (IR) and the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) in PT by Cre-lox recombination, using a γ-glutamyl transferase promoter. KO mice had slightly (~10%) reduced body and kidney weights, as well as, a reduction in mean protein-to-DNA ratio in kidney cortex suggesting smaller cell size...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914008/igf1r-dental-pulp-stem-cells-enhanced-neuroplasticity-in-hypoxia-ischemia-model
#2
Hsiao-Yu Chiu, Chen-Huan Lin, Chung Y Hsu, John Yu, Chia-Hung Hsieh, Woei-Cherng Shyu
Until now, the surface markers of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) had not been fully identified. Here, we found that the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), regarded as a pluripotent marker of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), was also expressed in human dental pulp derived-mesenchymal stem cells (hDSCs), which displayed a potential for both self-renewal and multipotency. hDSC-secreted IGF1 interacted with IGF1R through an autocrine signaling pathway to maintain this self-renewal and proliferation potential. Stereotaxic implantation of immunosorted IGF1R(+) hDSCs in rats with neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (NHI) promoted neuroplasticity, improving the neurological outcome by increasing expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, which enhanced both neurogenesis and angiogenesis...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913611/silent-somatotroph-tumour-revisited-from-a-study-of-80-patients-with-and-without-acromegaly-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#3
Laura Chinezu, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Jacqueline Trouillas, Marion Lapoirie, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Gérald Raverot
BACKGROUND: Silent somatotroph tumours are growth hormone (GH) immunoreactive (IR) pituitary tumours without clinical and biological signs of acromegaly. Their better characterisation is required to improve the diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one silent somatotroph tumours were compared to 59 somatotroph tumours with acromegaly. Tumours in each group were classified into GH and plurihormonal (GH/prolactin (PRL)/±thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)) and into densely granulated (DG) and sparsely granulated (SG) types...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876799/irs4-induces-mammary-tumorigenesis-and-confers-resistance-to-her2-targeted-therapy-through-constitutive-pi3k-akt-pathway-hyperactivation
#4
Gerjon J Ikink, Mandy Boer, Elvira R M Bakker, John Hilkens
In search of oncogenic drivers and mechanisms affecting therapy resistance in breast cancer, we identified Irs4, a poorly studied member of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) family, as a mammary oncogene by insertional mutagenesis. Whereas normally silent in the postnatal mammary gland, IRS4 is found to be highly expressed in a subset of breast cancers. We show that Irs4 expression in mammary epithelial cells induces constitutive PI3K/AKT pathway hyperactivation, insulin/IGF1-independent cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumorigenesis...
November 23, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870972/mek-erk-signaling-is-involved-in-the-role-of-vegf-and-igf1-in-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-of-mouse-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells
#5
Chunhui Wang, Wenhui Liu, Xianning Zhang, Yinghui Wang, Huan Liu, Haifang Li
BACKGROUND: We found that mouse brown adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (BATDCs), but not white adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (WATDCs), could spontaneously differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells in a simple culture medium. This study would find out some critical trophic factors that were responsible for such difference in differentiation, and further determine the involved signaling pathway. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cardiomyocyte differentiation capacity of cells was identified by morphological observations, immunofluorescence staining, and evaluation of expression of cardiomyocyte specific markers...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862405/decidualization-of-the-canine-uterus-from-early-until-late-gestational-in-vivo-morphological-observations-and-functional-characterization-of-immortalized-canine-uterine-stromal-cell-lines
#6
F R Graubner, I M Reichler, N A Rahman, R Payan-Carreira, A Boos, M P Kowalewski
The apparent lack of classical mechanisms for maternal recognition of pregnancy is one of the most intriguing features of canine reproduction. Consequently, similar levels of circulating luteal steroids are observed in pregnant and non-pregnant dogs. However, the early pre-implantation canine embryo locally modulates uterine responses to its presence, facilitating the successful onset of pregnancy. As a part of this interaction, the canine uterus undergoes a species-specific decidualization. Maternal stroma-derived decidual cells develop, the only cells of the canine placenta expressing progesterone receptor (PGR)...
November 15, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861515/involvement-of-igf1r-in-bronchiolar-epithelial-regeneration-role-during-repair-kinetics-after-selective-club-cell-ablation
#7
Icíar P López, Sergio Piñeiro-Hermida, Rosete S Pais, Raquel Torrens, Andreas Hoeflich, José G Pichel
Regeneration of lung epithelium is vital for maintaining airway function and integrity. An imbalance between epithelial damage and repair is at the basis of numerous chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factors) signaling has been associated with most of these respiratory pathologies, although their mechanisms of action in this tissue remain poorly understood. Expression profiles analyses of IGF system genes performed in mouse lung support their functional implication in pulmonary ontogeny...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856640/g-protein-coupled-receptors-gpcrs-that-signal-via-protein-kinase-a-pka-cross-talk-at-insulin-receptor-substrate-1-irs1-to-activate-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#8
Nathan C Law, Morris F White, Mary E Hunzicker-Dunn
GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors)2 activate PI3K/AKT (phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/v-AKT thymoma viral oncoprotein) to regulate many cellular functions that promote cell survival, proliferation, and growth. However, the mechanism by which GPCRs activate PI3K/AKT remains poorly understood. We used ovarian preantral granulosa cells (GCs) to elucidate the mechanism by which the GPCR agonist FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) via PKA (protein kinase A) activates the PI3K/AKT cascade. IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) is secreted in an autocrine/paracrine manner by GCs and activates the IGF1R (IGF1 receptor), but in the absence of FSH fails to stimulate YXXM phosphorylation of IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) required for PI3K/AKT activation...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803898/candidate-gene-expression-in-bos-indicus-ovarian-tissues-prepubertal-and-postpubertal-heifers-in-diestrus
#9
Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller, Marina Rufino S Fortes, Laercio R Porto-Neto, Matthew Kelly, Bronwyn Venus, Lisa Kidd, João Paulo Arcelino do Rego, Sophia Edwards, Gry B Boe-Hansen, Emily Piper, Sigrid A Lehnert, Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães, Stephen Stewart Moore
Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15, and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1, and TGFB2), and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes, such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2), type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1), and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1) could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase)...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803039/an-igf1r-dependent-pathway-drives-epicardial-adipose-tissue-formation-after-myocardial-injury
#10
Lior Zangi, Marcela S Oliveira, Lillian Y Ye, Qing Ma, Nishat Sultana, Yoav Hadas, Elena Chepurko, Daniela Später, Bin Zhou, Wei Leong Chew, Wataru Ebina, Maryline Abrial, Qing-Dong Wang, William T Pu, Kenneth R Chien
BACKGROUND: -Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and coronary artery disease are strongly associated, even after accounting for overall body mass. Despite its pathophysiological significance, the origin and paracrine signaling pathways that regulate EAT's formation and expansion are unclear. METHODS: -We used a novel modified mRNA (modRNA)-based screening approach to probe the effect of individual paracrine factors on epicardial progenitors in the adult heart...
November 1, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766367/increased-levels-of-dickkopf-1-are-indicative-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-downregulation-and-lower-osteoblast-signaling-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-contributing-to-lower-bone-mineral-density
#11
C Tsentidis, D Gourgiotis, L Kossiva, A Marmarinos, A Doulgeraki, K Karavanaki
: Higher levels of Dickkopf-1, which is an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin bone metabolic pathway, could be indicative of downregulated Wnt system, with possible lower osteoblast activation and higher osteoclast signaling in type 1 diabetes mellitus children and adolescents. Dickkopf-1 could significantly contribute to diabetes osteopathy. INTRODUCTION: Increased fracture risk and elevated Dickkopf-1 levels, which is an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin bone metabolic pathway, have been documented in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), while no relevant data exist on childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D)...
October 20, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699230/a-cord-blood-monocyte-derived-cell-therapy-product-accelerates-brain-remyelination
#12
Arjun Saha, Susan Buntz, Paula Scotland, Li Xu, Pamela Noeldner, Sachit Patel, Amy Wollish, Aruni Gunaratne, Tracy Gentry, Jesse Troy, Glenn K Matsushima, Joanne Kurtzberg, Andrew E Balber
Microglia and monocytes play important roles in regulating brain remyelination. We developed DUOC-01, a cell therapy product intended for treatment of demyelinating diseases, from banked human umbilical cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells. Immunodepletion and selection studies demonstrated that DUOC-01 cells are derived from CB CD14(+) monocytes. We compared the ability of freshly isolated CB CD14(+) monocytes and DUOC-01 cells to accelerate remyelination of the brains of NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ(null) mice following cuprizone feeding-mediated demyelination...
August 18, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696085/transcriptomic-effects-of-adenosine-2a-receptor-deletion-in-healthy-and-endotoxemic-murine-myocardium
#13
Kevin J Ashton, Melissa E Reichelt, S Jamal Mustafa, Bunyen Teng, Catherine Ledent, Lea M D Delbridge, Polly A Hofmann, R Ray Morrison, John P Headrick
Influences of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) activity on the cardiac transcriptome and genesis of endotoxemic myocarditis are unclear. We applied transcriptomic profiling (39 K Affymetrix arrays) to identify A2AR-sensitive molecules, revealed by receptor knockout (KO), in healthy and endotoxemic hearts. Baseline cardiac function was unaltered and only 37 A2AR-sensitive genes modified by A2AR KO (≥1.2-fold change, <5 % FDR); the five most induced are Mtr, Ppbp, Chac1, Ctsk and Cnpy2 and the five most repressed are Hp, Yipf4, Acta1, Cidec and Map3k2...
September 30, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683264/apelin-apln-and-apelin-receptor-aplnr-in-human-ovary-expression-signaling-and-regulation-of-steroidogenesis-in-primary-human-luteinized-granulosa-cells
#14
Jennifer Roche, Christelle Ramé, Maxime Reverchon, Namya Mellouk, Marion Cornuau, Fabrice Guerif, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
Apelin (APLN) is a recently discovered adipokine involved in the regulation of various metabolic functions. Its receptor, APLNR, is expressed in reproductive tissues, however, its role in human ovarian cells is unknown. In this study we identified APLN and APLNR in human ovarian follicles and analyzed their expression in granulosa cells and follicular fluid obtained from obese and non-obese patients, with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We also investigated the effect of APLN on steroidogenesis in cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (hGCs) from non-obese patients without PCOS...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660020/mac-t-cell-as-in-vitro-evaluation-system-for-casein-gene-expression-involved-in-glucose-level
#15
Young-Tae Heo, Woo-Tae Ha, Ran Lee, Won-Young Lee, Ha-Youn Jung, Kyu-Chan Hwang, Hyuk Song
Glucose is essential fuel in energy metabolism and synthesis pathways of all mammalian cells. In lactating animals, glucose is the major precursor for lactose and is a substrate for the synthesis of milk proteins and fat in mammary secretory (alveolar) epithelial cells. However, clear utilization of glucose in mammary cell during lactogenesis is still unknown due to lack of in vitro analyzing model. Therefore, objective of this study is to test reliability of mammary alveolar (MAC-T) cell as in vitro study model for glucose metabolism and lactating system...
September 19, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645148/primary-breast-cancer-cell-culture-yields-intra-tumor-heterogeneous-subpopulations-expressing-exclusive-patterns-of-receptor-tyrosine-kinases
#16
José Esparza-López, Pier A Ramos-Elías, Andrea Castro-Sánchez, Leticia Rocha-Zavaleta, Elizabeth Escobar-Arriaga, Alejandro Zentella-Dehesa, Eucario León-Rodríguez, Heriberto Medina-Franco, María de Jesus Ibarra-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: It has become evident that intra-tumor heterogeneity of breast cancer impact on several biological processes such as proliferation, migration, cell death and also might contribute to chemotherapy resistance. The expression of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) has not been analyzed in the context of intra-tumor heterogeneity in a primary breast cancer cell culture. Several subpopulations were isolated from the MBCDF (M serial-breast cancer ductal F line) primary breast cancer cells and were successfully maintained in culture and divided in two groups according to their morphology and RTKs expression pattern, and correlated with biological processes like proliferation, migration, anchorage-independent cell growth, and resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)...
2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631195/deciphering-brain-insulin-receptor-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-signalling
#17
A Kleinridders
Insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) are highly conserved receptor tyrosine kinases that share signalling proteins and are ubiquitously expressed in the brain. Central application of insulin or IGF1 exerts several similar physiological outcomes, varying in strength, whereas disruption of the corresponding receptors in the brain leads to remarkably different effects on brain size and physiology, thus highlighting the unique effects of the corresponding hormone receptors. Central insulin/IGF1 resistance impacts upon various levels of the IR/IGF1R signalling pathways and is a feature of the metabolic syndrome and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease...
November 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627078/-hypoglycemia-as-a-symptom-of-cancer-in-adults
#18
Zdeněk Fryšák, David Karásek
UNLABELLED: Decrease of blood glucose levels below 3 mmol/l is in fully developed cases accompanied by neuroglycopenic symptoms that may even lead to altered state of consciousness. The treating physician frequently faces a complicated situation. This may be due to inappropriately administered drugs including cases motivated by self-harm intentions (insulin, insulin secretagogues), or alcohol abuse. Undernourished people, or those afflicted with a serious systemic infection, end-stage liver or kidney diseases or with a failing heart, belong to a risk group...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623843/recent-advances-of-adapter-proteins-in-the-regulation-of-heart-diseases
#19
Li Tao, Linna Jia, Yuntian Li, Chengyun Song, Zheng Chen
Heart diseases are major causes of mortality. Cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction (MI), viral cardiomyopathy, ischemic and reperfusion (I/R) heart injury finally lead to heart failure and death. Insulin and IGF1 signal pathways play key roles in normal cardiomyocyte growth and physiological cardiac hypertrophy while inflammatory signal pathway is associated with pathological cardiac hypertrophy, MI, viral cardiomyopathy, I/R heart injury, and heart failure. Adapter proteins are the major family proteins, which transduce signals from insulin, IGF1, or cytokine receptors to the downstream pathways and have been shown to regulate variety of heart diseases...
September 13, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621108/mild-pituitary-phenotype-in-3-and-12-month-old-aip-deficient-male-mice
#20
Anne-Lise Lecoq, Philippe Zizzari, Mirella Hage, Lyvianne Decourtye, Clovis Adam, Say Viengchareun, Johannes D Veldhuis, Valérie Geoffroy, Marc Lombès, Virginie Tolle, Anne Guillou, Auli Karhu, Laurent Kappeler, Philippe Chanson, Peter Kamenický
Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas, particularly of the somatotroph lineage. Mice with global heterozygous inactivation of Aip (Aip(+/-)) also develop pituitary adenomas but differ from AIP-mutated patients by the high penetrance of pituitary disease. The endocrine phenotype of these mice is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine phenotype of Aip(+/-) mice by assessing the somatic growth, ultradian pattern of GH secretion and IGF1 concentrations of longitudinally followed male mice at 3 and 12 months of age...
October 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
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