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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110406/simultaneous-spatio-temporal-matching-pursuit-decomposition-of-evoked-brain-responses-in-meg
#1
Paweł Kordowski, Artur Matysiak, Reinhard König, Cezary Sielużycki
We present a novel approach to the spatio-temporal decomposition of evoked brain responses in magnetoencephalography (MEG) aiming at a sparse representation of the underlying brain activity in terms of spatio-temporal atoms. Our approach is characterized by three attributes which constitute significant improvements with respect to existing approaches: (1) the spatial and temporal decomposition is addressed simultaneously rather than sequentially, with the benefit that source loci and corresponding waveforms can be unequivocally allocated to each other, and, hence, allow a plausible physiological interpretation of the parametrized data; (2) it is free from severe a priori assumptions about the solution space; (3) it comprises an optimization technique for the use of very large spatial and temporal subdirectories to greatly reduce the otherwise enormous computational cost by making use of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality...
January 21, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110279/walking-the-c4-pathway-past-present-and-future
#2
REVIEW
Robert T Furbank
The year 2016 marks 50 years since the publication of the seminal paper by Hatch and Slack describing the biochemical pathway we now know as C4 photosynthesis. This review provides insight into the initial discovery of this pathway, the clues which led Hatch and Slack and others to these definitive experiments, some of the intrigue which surrounds the international activities which led up to the discovery, and personal insights into the future of this research field. While the biochemical understanding of the basic pathways came quickly, the role of the bundle sheath intermediate CO2 pool was not understood for a number of years, and the nature of C4 as a biochemical CO2 pump then linked the unique Kranz anatomy of C4 plants to their biochemical specialization...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110268/metabolic-and-physiological-adjustment-of-suaeda-maritima-to-combined-salinity-and-hypoxia
#3
Jan H Behr, Alain Bouchereau, Solenne Berardocco, Charlotte E Seal, Timothy J Flowers, Christian Zörb
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Suaeda maritima is a halophyte commonly found on coastal wetlands in the intertidal zone. Due to its habitat S. maritima has evolved tolerance to high salt concentrations and hypoxic conditions in the soil caused by periodic flooding. In the present work, the adaptive mechanisms of S. maritima to salinity combined with hypoxia were investigated on a physiological and metabolic level. METHODS: To compare the adaptive mechanisms to deficient, optimal and stressful salt concentrations, S...
January 20, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110218/hydrogen-peroxide-as-a-central-redox-signaling-molecule-in-physiological-oxidative-stress-oxidative-eustress
#4
REVIEW
Helmut Sies
Hydrogen peroxide emerged as major redox metabolite operative in redox sensing, signaling and redox regulation. Generation, transport and capture of H2O2 in biological settings as well as their biological consequences can now be addressed. The present overview focuses on recent progress on metabolic sources and sinks of H2O2 and on the role of H2O2 in redox signaling under physiological conditions (1-10nM), denoted as oxidative eustress. Higher concentrations lead to adaptive stress responses via master switches such as Nrf2/Keap1 or NF-κB...
January 5, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110148/ciprofloxacin-induces-oxidative-stress-in-duckweed-lemna-minor-l-implications-for-energy-metabolism-and-antibiotic-uptake-ability
#5
Marcelo Pedrosa Gomes, Cíntia Almeida Gonçalves, Júlio César Moreira de Brito, Amanda Miranda Souza, Fernanda Vieira da Silva Cruz, Elisa Monteze Bicalho, Cleber Cunha Figueredo, Queila Souza Garcia
We investigate the physiological responses and antibiotic-uptake capacity of Lemna minor exposed to ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) induced toxic effects and hormesis in plants by significantly modifying photosynthesis and respiration pathways. A toxic effect was induced by a concentration ≥1.05mg ciprofloxacin l(-1) while hormesis occurs at the lowest concentration studied (0.75mg ciprofloxacin l(-1)). By impairing normal electron flow in the respiratory electron transport chain, ciprofloxacin induces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110045/antioxidative-systems-metal-ion-homeostasis-and-cadmium-distribution-in-iris-lactea-exposed-to-cadmium-stress
#6
Qiang Guo, Lin Meng, Ya-Nan Zhang, Pei-Chun Mao, Xiao-Xia Tian, Shan-Shan Li, Lin Zhang
Iris lactea is a perennial halophyte and is tolerant to Cd. However, the mechanisms underlying this Cd tolerance are still poorly understood. In this study, morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of I. lactea to a 21 d exposure to different concentrations of Cd (0-150mgL(-1)) were investigated. I. lactea plants showed no toxicity symptoms except for a small reduction in growth at 100 and 150mgL(-1) Cd, along with the enhancement of H2O2 and MDA content in comparison to the control. The activities of SOD and POD were significantly enhanced and Ca accumulated with increasing Cd concentrations...
January 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110004/physiological-responses-associated-with-cultural-attachment
#7
Wei Jie Yap, George I Christopoulos, Ying-Yi Hong
Cultural attachment (CA) suggests that cultural symbols can function as attachment figures, in a similar way to prototypical maternal attachment figures. In order to further understand the psychophysiological mechanisms of CA, we examine whether cultural symbols regulate peripheral physiological indicators of arousal in response to symbolic threats. We supraliminally expose participants to neutral or threatening stimuli, followed by the subliminal presentation of CA and control images, while recording their Skin Conductance Responses (SCR)...
January 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109919/the-ozone-like-syndrome-in-durum-wheat-triticum-durum-desf-mechanisms-underlying-the-different-symptomatic-responses-of-two-sensitive-cultivars
#8
Valentina Picchi, Robert Monga, Riccardo Marzuoli, Giacomo Gerosa, Franco Faoro
Colombo and Sculptur are two modern durum wheat cultivars that, in previous studies, proved to be very sensitive to ozone injury in terms of eco-physiological parameters and significant grain yield loss. Nevertheless, their response regarding leaf visible symptoms was very different; Sculptur showed almost no symptoms, even after several weeks of ozone exposure, whereas Colombo showed in a few weeks typical ozone-like symptoms (chlorotic/necrotic spots). The mechanisms underlying this different response has been studied with a biochemical and microscopical approach...
January 12, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109904/immune-function-trade-offs-in-response-to-parasite-threats
#9
Lucas J Kirschman, Adam H Quade, Anthony J Zera, Robin W Warne
Immune function is often involved in physiological trade-offs because of the energetic costs of maintaining constitutive immunity and mounting responses to infection. However, immune function is a collection of discrete immunity factors and animals should allocate towards factors that combat the parasite threat with the highest fitness cost. For example, animals on dispersal fronts of expanding population may be released from density-dependent diseases. The costs of immunity, however, and life history trade-offs in general, are often context dependent...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109891/redox-regulation-of-electrophilic-signaling-by-reactive-persulfides-in-cardiac-cells
#10
REVIEW
Motohiro Nishida, Akiyuki Nishimura, Tetsuro Matsunaga, Hozumi Motohashi, Shingo Kasamatsu, Takaaki Akaike
Maintaining a redox balance by means of precisely controlled systems that regulate production, and elimination, and metabolism of electrophilic substances (electrophiles) is essential for normal cardiovascular function. Electrophilic signaling is mainly regulated by endogenous electrophiles that are generated from reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and the derivative reactive species of nitric oxide during stress responses, as well as by exogenous electrophiles including compounds in foods and environmental pollutants...
January 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109889/vascular-remodeling-a-redox-modulated-mechanism-of-vessel-caliber-regulation
#11
REVIEW
Leonardo Y Tanaka, Francisco R M Laurindo
Vascular remodeling, i.e. whole-vessel structural reshaping, determines lumen caliber in (patho)physiology. Here we review mechanisms underlying vessel remodeling, with emphasis in redox regulation. First, we discuss confusing terminology and focus on strictu sensu remodeling. Second, we propose a mechanobiological remodeling paradigm based on the concept of tensional homeostasis as a setpoint regulator. We first focus on shear-mediated models as prototypes of remodeling closely dominated by highly redox-sensitive endothelial function...
January 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109881/production-of-aba-responses-requires-both-the-nuclear-and-cytoplasmic-functional-involvement-of-pyr1
#12
EunJoo Park, Tae-Houn Kim
Abscisic acid (ABA) enhances stress tolerant responses in plants against unfavorable environmental conditions. In Arabidopsis, ABA promotes interactions between PYR/PYL/RCARs and PP2C, thereby allowing SnRK2s to phosphorylate downstream components required for the regulation of gene expression or for gating ion channels. Because PYR1 is known to localize to nucleus and cytoplasm it is a question whether nuclear or cytoplasmic PYR1 confer different functions to the ABA signaling pathway, as has been previously shown for regulatory proteins...
January 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109856/adenosine-contribution-to-normal-renal-physiology-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
REVIEW
Carlos Oyarzún, Wallys Garrido, Sebastián Alarcón, Alejandro Yáñez, Luis Sobrevia, Claudia Quezada, Rody San Martín
Adenosine is a nucleoside that is particularly interesting to many scientific and clinical communities as it has important physiological and pathophysiological roles in the kidney. The distribution of adenosine receptors has only recently been elucidated; therefore it is likely that more biological roles of this nucleoside will be unveiled in the near future. Since the discovery of the involvement of adenosine in renal vasoconstriction and regulation of local renin production, further evidence has shown that adenosine signaling is also involved in the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, sodium reabsorption and the adaptive response to acute insults, such as ischemia...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109796/minimization-of-dental-implant-diameter-and-length-according-to-bone-quality-determined-by-finite-element-analysis-and-optimized-calculation
#14
Nana Ueda, Yoshiyuki Takayama, Atsuro Yokoyama
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of bone quality and implant size on the maximum equivalent elastic strain (MES) in peri-implant bone using finite element (FE) analysis, and to minimize implant size via optimized calculation based on MES. METHODS: Three-dimensional FE models consisting of a mandible and a titanium implant with a superstructure were constructed and applied a vertical load or an oblique load of 60N. We investigated the effects of four variables: the thickness of the cortical bone (C), Young's modulus of the trabecular bone (T), and the diameter (D) and length (L) of the implant...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109589/effects-of-precalving-body-condition-and-prepartum-feeding-level-on-gene-expression-in-circulating-neutrophils
#15
M A Crookenden, C G Walker, A Heiser, A Murray, V S R Dukkipati, J K Kay, S Meier, K M Moyes, M D Mitchell, J J Loor, J R Roche
Extensive metabolic, physiological, and immunological changes are associated with calving and the onset of lactation. As a result, cows transitioning between pregnancy and lactation are at a greater risk of metabolic and infectious diseases. The ability of neutrophils to mount an effective immune response to an infection is critical for its resolution, and increasing evidence indicates that precalving nutrition affects postpartum neutrophil function. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of 2 precalving body condition scores (BCS; 4 vs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109586/elevation-of-blood-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-concentration-affects-glucose-metabolism-in-dairy-cows-before-and-after-parturition
#16
M Zarrin, L Grossen-Rösti, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross
Recent studies in mid- and late-lactation dairy cows showed that β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) infusion had a considerable effect on glucose metabolism and immune response during intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge. The objective of the present study was to infuse BHB during the dry period and after parturition to investigate the effects of elevated plasma BHB concentrations on metabolism and endocrine changes in transition dairy cows. The hypothesis tested was that regulation of glucose metabolism would change at different physiological stages and an additional elevation of BHB concentration would alter glucose concentration...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109179/quantitative-and-integrative-analysis-of-paracrine-hepatocyte-activation-by-non-parenchymal-cells-upon-lipopolysaccharide-induction
#17
Katharina Beuke, Frank A Schildberg, Federico Pinna, Ute Albrecht, Roman Liebe, Michaela Bissinger, Peter Schirmacher, Steven Dooley, Johannes G Bode, Percy A Knolle, Ursula Kummer, Kai Breuhahn, Sven Sahle
Gut-derived bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulate the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) from liver macrophages (MCs), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which control the acute phase response in hepatocytes through activation of the NF-κB pathway. The individual and cooperative impact of non-parenchymal cells on this clinically relevant response has not been analysed in detail due to technical limitations. To gain an integrative view on this complex inter- and intracellular communication, we combined a multi-scale mathematical model with quantitative, time-resolved experimental data of different primary murine liver cell types...
January 21, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109062/fibroblasts-as-maestros-orchestrating-tissue-regeneration
#18
REVIEW
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Raquel Soares, Pedro L Granja
Fibroblasts constitute a dynamic and versatile population of cells of mesenchymal origin, implicated in both regenerative strategies and pathological conditions. Despite being frequently associated to disease development, particularly through the establishment of fibrotic tissue, fibroblasts hold great potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. They are responsible for synthesizing and depositing extracellular matrix components, allowing other cells to settle and migrate along a three-dimensional support and thereby generating an organ-specific architecture...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108999/differential-response-of-scots-pine-seedlings-to-variable-intensity-and-ratio-of-r-and-fr-light
#19
Md Abdur Razzak, Sonali Sachin Ranade, Åsa Strand, M R García-Gil
We investigated the response to increasing intensity of red (R) and far-red (FR) light and to a decrease in R:FR ratio in Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) seedling. The results showed that FR-high irradiance response (FR-HIR) for hypocotyl elongation may be present in Scots pine, and that this response is enhanced by increasing light intensity. However, both hypocotyl inhibition and pigment accumulation were more strongly affected by the R light compared to FR light. This is in contrast to previous reports in Arabidopsis thaliana (L...
January 20, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108920/biochemical-and-physiological-responses-of-halophilic-nanophytoplankton-dunaliella-salina-from-exposure-to-xeno-estrogen-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol
#20
Dalel Belhaj, Khaled Athmouni, Doniez Frikha, Monem Kallel, Abdelfattah El Feki, Sami Maalej, John L Zhou, Habib Ayadi
The environmental impacts of various pollutants on the entire levels of organisms are under investigation. Among these pollutants, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) present a serious hazard, even though the environmental significance of these compounds remains basically unknown. To drop some light on this field, we assessed the effects of a 11-day exposure of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on the growth, metabolic content, antioxidant response, oxidative stress, and genetic damage of Dunaliella salina, isolated from Tunisian biotopes...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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