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Oculomotor nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923188/electrophysiology-in-fisher-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Satoshi Kuwabara, Yukari Sekiguchi, Sonoko Misawa
Fisher syndrome (FS), a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), is characterized by the clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. The lesion sites for these unique clinical features include the oculomotor nerves and group 1a neurons in the dorsal root ganglion, and the presence of FS is determined by the expression of ganglioside GQ1b in the human nervous system. Neurophysiological findings suggest that ataxia and areflexia are due to an impaired proprioceptive afferent system. Typically, the soleus H-reflex is absent and a body-sway analysis using posturography shows a 1-Hz peak, which indicates proprioception dysfunction...
November 20, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916956/functional-diversity-of-neurotrophin-actions-on-the-oculomotor-system
#2
REVIEW
Beatriz Benítez-Temiño, María A Davis-López de Carrizosa, Sara Morcuende, Esperanza R Matarredona, Rosa R de la Cruz, Angel M Pastor
Neurotrophins play a principal role in neuronal survival and differentiation during development, but also in the maintenance of appropriate adult neuronal circuits and phenotypes. In the oculomotor system, we have demonstrated that neurotrophins are key regulators of developing and adult neuronal properties, but with peculiarities depending on each neurotrophin. For instance, the administration of NGF (nerve growth factor), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) or NT-3 (neurotrophin-3) protects neonatal extraocular motoneurons from cell death after axotomy, but only NGF and BDNF prevent the downregulation in ChAT (choline acetyltransferase)...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904500/electrical-stimulation-promotes-regeneration-of-injured-oculomotor-nerves-in-dogs
#3
Lei Du, Min Yang, Liang Wan, Xu-Hui Wang, Shi-Ting Li
Functional recovery after oculomotor nerve injury is very poor. Electrical stimulation has been shown to promote regeneration of injured nerves. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation would improve the functional recovery of injured oculomotor nerves. Oculomotor nerve injury models were created by crushing the right oculomotor nerves of adult dogs. Stimulating electrodes were positioned in both proximal and distal locations of the lesion, and non-continuous rectangular, biphasic current pulses (0.7 V, 5 Hz) were administered 1 hour daily for 2 consecutive weeks...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903814/blink-associated-contralateral-eccentric-saccades-as-a-rare-sign-of-unilateral-brain-injury
#4
Ilaria Zivi, Eugenio Bertelli, Giacinta Bilotti, Ignazio Alessandro Clemente, Leopold Saltuari, Giuseppe Frazzitta
OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare sign of unilateral brain injury as a form of unwanted blink-associated contralateral eccentric saccades. METHODS: A 62-year-old patient who underwent an ischemic stroke affecting the entire right middle cerebral artery territory came to our attention 1 year after stroke, manifesting with transient contralateral conjugate gaze deviations associated with spontaneous blinking. We complemented the regular neurologic evaluation with brain MRI, study of evoked potentials, electroneurography of the facial nerve, and infrared video-oculoscopy...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886888/imaging-of-oculomotor-third-cranial-nerve-palsy
#5
REVIEW
Michael S Vaphiades, Glenn H Roberson
When evaluating a patient with an oculomotor cranial nerve palsy it may be unclear which neuroimaging modality is optimal; MRI, MR angiography, computed tomography, computed tomography angiography, or intraarterial digital subtraction angiography. We discuss the clinical guidelines in the evaluation of such patients and review neuroimaging techniques, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each.
February 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876664/isolated-hypertrophic-neuropathy-of-the-oculomotor-nerve
#6
Joshua J Lim, H Brent Clark, Andrew W Grande
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859787/microsurgical-anatomy-of-the-oculomotor-nerve
#7
REVIEW
HaeKwan Park, HyungKeun Rha, KyungJin Lee, ChungKee Chough, Wonil Joo
The oculomotor nerve supplies the extraocular muscles. It also supplies the ciliary and sphincter pupillae muscles through the ciliary ganglion. The nerve fibers leave the midbrain through the most medial part of the cerebral peduncle and enter the interpeduncular cistern. After the oculomotor nerve emerges from the interpeduncular fossa, it enters the cavernous sinus slightly lateral and anterior to the dorsum sellae. It enters the orbit through the superior orbital fissure, after exiting the cavernous sinus, to innervate the extraocular muscles...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857868/surgical-anatomy-of-the-medial-wall-of-the-orbit-in-14-human-cadavers
#8
Juan R Gras-Cabrerizo, Maria Martel-Martin, Jacinto Garcia-Lorenzo, Fernando Rodríguez-Álvarez, Joan R Montserrat-Gili, Rosa Mirapeix-Lucas, Humbert Massegur-Solench
Objective The aim of our study is to present the anatomical landmarks to perform an endoscopic endonasal approach to the medial wall of the orbit (EEAMO). Material and Methods We performed 14 complete nasal and orbital endoscopic dissections in 7 adult cadaveric heads. Results The EEAMO provides a surgical corridor between the medial rectus muscle superiorly and the inferior rectus muscle inferiorly .The mean distance between the ethmoidal crest and medial rectus muscle was 1.5 cm (range, 1.3-1.9 cm)...
December 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843362/isolated-oculomotor-nerve-palsy-resulting-from-acute-traumatic-tentorial-subdural-hematoma
#9
Victoria Cui, Timur Kouliev
Acute subdural hematoma (SDH) resulting from head trauma is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires expedient diagnosis and intervention to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Rapidly expanding or large hematomas, elevated intracranial pressure, and associated complications of brain herniation are associated with high mortality rates and poor recovery of neurological function. However, smaller bleeds (clot thickness <10 mm) or hematomas occurring in infrequent locations, such as the tentorium cerebelli, may be difficult to recognize and patients may present with unusual or subtle signs and symptoms, including isolated cranial nerve palsies...
2016: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802825/mog-igg-in-nmo-and-related-disorders-a-multicenter-study-of-50-patients-part-3-brainstem-involvement-frequency-presentation-and-outcome
#10
Sven Jarius, Ingo Kleiter, Klemens Ruprecht, Nasrin Asgari, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Nadja Borisow, Martin W Hümmert, Corinna Trebst, Florence Pache, Alexander Winkelmann, Lena-Alexandra Beume, Marius Ringelstein, Oliver Stich, Orhan Aktas, Mirjam Korporal-Kuhnke, Alexander Schwarz, Carsten Lukas, Jürgen Haas, Kai Fechner, Mathias Buttmann, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Hanna Zimmermann, Alexander U Brandt, Diego Franciotta, Kathrin Schanda, Friedemann Paul, Markus Reindl, Brigitte Wildemann
BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG) are present in a subset of aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG-negative patients with optic neuritis (ON) and/or myelitis. Little is known so far about brainstem involvement in MOG-IgG-positive patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency, clinical and paraclinical features, course, outcome, and prognostic implications of brainstem involvement in MOG-IgG-positive ON and/or myelitis. METHODS: Retrospective case study...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770832/contralateral-migration-of-oculomotor-neurons-is-regulated-by-slit-robo-signaling
#11
Brielle Bjorke, Farnaz Shoja-Taheri, Minkyung Kim, G Eric Robinson, Tatiana Fontelonga, Kyung-Tai Kim, Mi-Ryoung Song, Grant S Mastick
BACKGROUND: Oculomotor neurons develop initially like typical motor neurons, projecting axons out of the ventral midbrain to their ipsilateral targets, the extraocular muscles. However, in all vertebrates, after the oculomotor nerve (nIII) has reached the extraocular muscle primordia, the cell bodies that innervate the superior rectus migrate to join the contralateral nucleus. This motor neuron migration represents a unique strategy to form a contralateral motor projection. Whether migration is guided by diffusible cues remains unknown...
October 22, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738538/neurofibromatosis-type-2-presenting-with-oculomotor-ophthalmoplegia-and-distal-myopathy
#12
Jessica Mani Penny Tevaraj, Evelyn Tai Li Min, Raja Azmi Mohd Noor, Azhany Yaakub, Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam
Neurofibromatosis type 2 usually presents with bilateral acoustic schwannomas. We highlight the rare presentation of neurofibromatosis initially involving third nerve. A 23-year-old Malay female presented with left eye drooping of the upper lid and limitation of upward movement for 8 years. It was associated with right-sided body weakness, change in voice, and hearing disturbance in the right ear for the past 2 years. On examination, there was mild ptosis and limitation of movement superiorly in the left eye...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738402/a-pediatric-case-of-pituitary-macroadenoma-presenting-with-pituitary-apoplexy-and-cranial-nerve-involvement-case-report
#13
Mustafa Özçetin, Mehmet Karacı, Ertuğ Toroslu, Nurullah Edebali
Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733873/dental-occlusion-and-ophthalmology-a-literature-review
#14
Nicola Marchili, Eleonora Ortu, Davide Pietropaoli, Ruggero Cattaneo, Annalisa Monaco
Stomatognathic system is strictly correlated to other anatomical regions; many studies investigated relationship between temporomandibular joint and posture, several articles describe cranio-facial pain from dental causes, such as trigger points. Until now less interest has been given to connections between dental occlusion and ophthalmology, even if they are important and involving. Clinical experience in dental practice claims that mandibular latero-deviation is connected both to eye dominance and to defects of ocular convergence...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729607/-dermoid-cyst-in-meckel-s-cave-presenting-with-oculomotor-nerve-palsy-and-trigeminal-neuralgia-a-case-report
#15
Nozomu Tanabe, Takahiro Tomita, Shoichi Nagai, Naoya Kuwayama, Kyo Noguchi, Satoshi Kuroda
The authors report a rare case of an intracranial dermoid cyst found in Meckel's cave. A 63-year-old woman developed left oculomotor nerve palsy and was referred to their hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion in the left Meckel's cave and prepontine cistern, but her symptoms gradually improved during conservative observation. However, three years later she complained of left facial pain in the territory of the second branch of the trigeminal nerve. The left oculomotor nerve palsy exacerbated again...
October 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703443/a-cross-sectional-survey-and-cross-sectional-clinical-trial-to-determine-the-prevalence-and-management-of-eye-movement-disorders-and-vestibular-dysfunction-in-post-stroke-patients-in-the-sub-acute-phase-protocol
#16
Andoret van Wyk, Carina A Eksteen, Piet J Becker, Barbara M Heinze
INTRODUCTION: Visual impairment, specifically eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction may have a negative influence on the functional recovery in post-stroke patients. This type of sensory dysfunction may further be associated with poor functional outcome in patients' post-stroke. METHODS: In phase 1, a cross-sectional survey (n = 100) will be conducted to determine the prevalence of eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction in patients who sustained a stroke...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661034/long-term-therapeutic-outcome-of-ophthalmic-complications-following-endoscopic-sinus-surgery
#17
Heping Wu, Tao Shen, Jingchang Chen, Jianhua Yan
Ophthalmic complications associated with endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) are quite rare. There is a paucity of reliable data and limited experience on the clinical findings and treatments of these injuries. Our study here is to characterize the types of orbital injury following ESS, in particular extraocular muscle injury, and to evaluate the long-term therapeutic outcomes as compiled from a relatively large sample of Chinese patients.A series of 27 patients (21 males and 6 females; mean age = 42.6 years, ranges: 10-60 years) were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644330/identification-of-novel-senataxin-mutations-in-chinese-patients-with-autosomal-recessive-cerebellar-ataxias-by-targeted-next-generation-sequencing
#18
Cong Lu, Yi-Cen Zheng, Yi Dong, Hong-Fu Li
BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCA) are a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by early onset of gait impairment, disturbed limb coordination, dysarthria, and eye movement abnormalities, most likely due to the degeneration of cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. Despite of the rarity, ARCA are both clinically and genetically heterogeneous. To date, more than 30 culprit genes have been identified in ARCA. Unraveling the specific causative mutation in cases with ARCA remains challenging so far...
September 20, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639495/-neuro-ophthalmic-emergencies
#19
A Caignard, S Leruez, D Milea
Neuro-ophthalmic emergencies can cause life-threatening or sight-threatening complications. Various conditions may have acute neuro-ophthalmic manifestations, including inflammatory or ischemic processes, as well as tumoral, aneurysmal compression or metabolic and systemic diseases. Diplopia related to a partial third nerve palsy with pupillary involvement may reveal an intracranial aneurysm. Abnormalities of conjugate gaze may reveal an inflammatory or ischemic lesion, most often of the brainstem. An intracranial tumor may also manifest itself as a single or multiple oculomotor palsy, or causing various visual field defects, due to optic nerve, chiasm or retrochiasmal involvement...
October 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637627/predictive-factors-for-the-occurrence-of-visual-and-ischemic-complications-after-open-surgery-for-paraclinoid-aneurysms-of-the-internal-carotid-artery
#20
Ken-Ichiro Kikuta, Ryuhei Kitai, Toshihiko Kodera, Hidetaka Arishima, Makoto Isozaki, Norichika Hashimoto, Hiroyuki Neishi, Yoshifumi Higashino, Shinsuke Yamada, Munenori Yomo, Kousuke Awara
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive factors for visual and ischemic complications after open surgery for paraclinoid aneurysms of the internal carotid artery (ICA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight consecutive patients with unruptured paraclinoid aneurysms of ICA operated on between 2009 and 2013 were included in this study. The male:female ratio was 6:32 and the ages ranged from 33 to 81 (mean: 60 ± 2). Twenty cases were asymptomatic and 18 had ophthalmological symptoms...
2016: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
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