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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441145/epigenetic-regulation-of-hiv-1-latency-focus-on-polycomb-group-pcg-proteins
#1
REVIEW
Sheraz Khan, Mazhar Iqbal, Muhammad Tariq, Shahid M Baig, Wasim Abbas
HIV-1 latency allows the virus to persist until reactivation, in a transcriptionally silent form in its cellular reservoirs despite the presence of effective cART. Such viral persistence represents a major barrier to HIV eradication since treatment interruption leads to rebound plasma viremia. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have recently got a considerable attention in regulating HIV-1 post-integration latency as they are involved in the repression of proviral gene expression through the methylation of histones...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439706/use-of-eradication-in-hiv-cure-related-research-a-public-health-debate
#2
Karine Dubé, Stuart Luter, Breanne Lesnar, Luke Newton, Jerome Galea, Brandon Brown, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: The landscape of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) research has changed drastically over the past three decades. With the remarkable success of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in decreasing AIDS-related mortality, some researchers have shifted their HIV research focus from treatment to cure research. The HIV cure research community often uses the term eradication to describe the science, and talks about eradicating the virus from the body. In public discourse, the term eradication could be conflated with disease eradication at the population level...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438195/incidence-of-new-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-is-still-increasing-in-french-msm-living-with-hiv
#3
Pierre Pradat, Thomas Huleux, François Raffi, Pierre Delobel, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Pascal Pugliese, Jacques Reynes, David Rey, Bruno Hoen, André Cabie, Firouzé Bani-Sadr, Antoine Cheret, Claudine Duvivier, Christine Jacomet, Anne Fresard, Laurent Hustache-Mathieu, Laurent Cotte
OBJECTIVE: High hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment uptake combined with effective direct-acting antiviral-based regimens resulted in a dramatic decline of HCV infection in French people living with HIV (PLWH). We assessed the yearly incidence of new HCV infection in PLWH enrolled in the large French Dat'AIDS cohort from 2012 to 2016 with a specific focus on MSM. METHODS: The incidence of new HCV infection was determined yearly in HCV-negative PLWH with serological follow-up during 2012-2016...
February 12, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433524/measuring-replication-competent-hiv-1-advances-and-challenges-in-defining-the-latent-reservoir
#4
REVIEW
Zheng Wang, Francesco R Simonetti, Robert F Siliciano, Gregory M Laird
Antiretroviral therapy cannot cure HIV-1 infection due to the persistence of a small number of latently infected cells harboring replication-competent proviruses. Measuring persistent HIV-1 is challenging, as it consists of a mosaic population of defective and intact proviruses that can shift from a state of latency to active HIV-1 transcription. Due to this complexity, most of the current assays detect multiple categories of persistent HIV-1, leading to an overestimate of the true size of the latent reservoir...
February 13, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433300/treatment-rate-for-hcv-in-the-direct-acting-antivirals-era-in-hiv-co-infected-patients-data-from-an-italian-cohort
#5
Gianluca Cuomo, Cinzia Puzzolante, Claudia Lazzaretti, Giovanni Guaraldi, Vanni Borghi, Cristina Mussini
BACKGROUND: New Direct Antiviral Agents (DAA) are now effective in HCV infection; persons living with HIV (PLWH) were undertreated. Aim of this study was to describe the management of HCV treatment in a HIV/HCV cohort during a 16 years period. METHODS: An electronic review of all HIV patients with > 1 clinic check from the year 2000 was made. De- mographic, virologic and treatment data were collected. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2015 a total of 2352 PLWH were enrolled; 776 (33%) resulted positive at HCV anti- bodies, and were mostly genotype 1 and 3...
January 31, 2018: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427743/the-role-of-latency-reversal-agents-in-the-cure-of-hiv-a-review-of-current-data
#6
REVIEW
Kiandokht Bashiri, Nima Rezaei, Milena Nasi, Andrea Cossarizza
The definitive cure for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) infection is represented by the eradication of the virus from the patient's body. To reach this result, cells that are infected but do not produce the virus must become recognizable to be killed by the immune system. For this purpose, drugs defined "latency reverting agents" (LRA) that reactivate viral production are under investigation. A few clinical studies have been performed in HIV-infected patients treated with LRA and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)...
February 7, 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427516/mechanisms-of-cd8-t-cell-mediated-suppression-of-hiv-siv-replication
#7
REVIEW
Julia Bergild McBrien, Nitasha A Kumar, Guido Silvestri
In this article, we summarize the role of CD8+ T cells during natural and ART-treated HIV and SIV infections, discuss the mechanisms responsible for their suppressive activity, and review the rationale for CD8+ T cell-based HIV cure strategies. Evidence suggests that CD8+ T cells are involved in the control of virus replication during HIV and SIV infections. During early HIV infection, the cytolytic activity of CD8+ T cells is responsible for control of viremia. However, it has been proposed that CD8+ T cells also use non-cytolytic mechanisms to control SIV infection...
February 10, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424324/nano-medicine-as-a-newly-emerging-approach-to-combat-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv
#8
Muthupandian Saravanan, Tsehaye Asmalash, Atsebaha Gebrekidan, Dawit Gebreegziabiher, Tadele Araya, Haftamu Hilekiros, Hamed Barabadi, Kumaresan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV) infection has attained pandemic level due to its complexity on both the HIV infection cycle and on the targets for drug delivery. This limits medication and consequently requires prominent and promising drug delivery systems to be invented. Notably, various nanomaterial have been studied to enhance effective delivery of the antiretroviral drugs for HIV prevention, diagnosis and cure. Some of these nanomaterials are liposomes, dendrimers, inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), polymeric micelles, natural and synthetic polymers...
February 8, 2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423731/hiv-persistence-in-adipose-tissue-reservoirs
#9
REVIEW
Jacob Couturier, Dorothy E Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence describing adipose tissue as a reservoir for HIV-1 and how this often expansive anatomic compartment contributes to HIV persistence. RECENT FINDINGS: Memory CD4 T cells and macrophages, the major host cells for HIV, accumulate in adipose tissue during HIV/SIV infection of humans and rhesus macaques. Whereas HIV and SIV proviral DNA is detectable in CD4 T cells of multiple fat depots in virtually all infected humans and monkeys examined, viral RNA is less frequently detected, and infected macrophages may be less prevalent in adipose tissue...
February 9, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422894/the-b-cell-follicle-in-hiv-infection-barrier-to-a-cure
#10
REVIEW
Matthew P Bronnimann, Pamela J Skinner, Elizabeth Connick
The majority of HIV replication occurs in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) such as the spleen, lymph nodes, and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Within SLOs, HIV RNA+ cells are concentrated in the B-cell follicle during chronic untreated infection, and emerging data suggest that they are a major source of replication in treated disease as well. The concentration of HIV RNA+ cells in the B-cell follicle is mediated by several factors. Follicular CD4+ T-cell subsets including T-follicular helper cells and T-follicular regulatory cells are significantly more permissive to HIV than extrafollicular subsets...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410548/analysis-of-the-spanish-ccr5-%C3%A2-32-inventory-of-cord-blood-units-lower-cell-counts-in-homozygous-donors
#11
Emma Enrich, Francisco Vidal, Francisco Sánchez-Gordo, Juan M Gómez-Zumaquero, Antonio Balas, Francesc Rudilla, Luisa Barea, Ana Castro, Luis Larrea, Miguel A Perez-Vaquero, Isidro Prat, Sergio Querol, Gregorio Garrido, Rafael Matesanz, Enric Carreras, Rafael F Duarte
The possibility to use CCR5-∆32 umbilical cord blood to cure HIV infection in patients in need of a hematopoietic transplant has been suggested. The less stringent HLA compatibility needed in this type of transplant facilitates the search of a suitable donor having the CCR5-∆32 mutation. To achieve an inventory of CCR5-∆32 cord blood units, the 20,236 best cell quality units of the Spanish Registry were genotyped. Furthermore, their CD34 + and total nucleated cells counts, blood type, gender, HLA and donor's geographical and ancestral origin were analyzed...
February 6, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401736/all-round-manipulation-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-by-hiv
#12
REVIEW
Alberto Ospina Stella, Stuart Turville
While significant progress has been made in terms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy, treatment does not represent a cure and remains inaccessible to many people living with HIV. Continued mechanistic research into the viral life cycle and its intersection with many aspects of cellular biology are not only fundamental in the continued fight against HIV, but also provide many key observations of the workings of our immune system. Decades of HIV research have testified to the integral role of the actin cytoskeleton in both establishing and spreading the infection...
February 5, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379389/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-tuberculosis-treatment-success-among-tb-hiv-co-infection-in-north-east-malaysia
#13
Tengku Mardhiah Tengku Jalal, Sarimah Abdullah, Farhanah Abd Wahab, Sharina Dir, Nyi Nyi Naing
Background: One of the six strategies developed by WHO, in order to stop Tuberculosis (TB) is addressing TB/HIV high-risk groups. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of successful TB treatment and factors associated with TB treatment success among TB/HIV co-infection patients in North-East Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the a-year period from 2003 to 2012 by reviewing TB/HIV records in all hospitals and health clinics. The outcome of interest was treatment success as defined by Ministry of Health (MOH) when the patients was cured or completed TB treatment...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378600/digital-pcr-as-a-tool-to-measure-hiv-persistence
#14
REVIEW
Sofie Rutsaert, Kobus Bosman, Wim Trypsteen, Monique Nijhuis, Linos Vandekerckhove
Although antiretroviral therapy is able to suppress HIV replication in infected patients, the virus persists and rebounds when treatment is stopped. In order to find a cure that can eradicate the latent reservoir, one must be able to quantify the persisting virus. Traditionally, HIV persistence studies have used real-time PCR (qPCR) to measure the viral reservoir represented by HIV DNA and RNA. Most recently, digital PCR is gaining popularity as a novel approach to nucleic acid quantification as it allows for absolute target quantification...
January 30, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374858/tools-for-visualizing-hiv-in-cure-research
#15
REVIEW
Julia Niessl, Amy E Baxter, Daniel E Kaufmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The long-lived HIV reservoir remains a major obstacle for an HIV cure. Current techniques to analyze this reservoir are generally population-based. We highlight recent developments in methods visualizing HIV, which offer a different, complementary view, and provide indispensable information for cure strategy development. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances in fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques enabled key developments in reservoir visualization...
January 27, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371581/hiv-associated-cryptococcal-disease-in-resource-limited-settings-a-case-for-prevention-is-better-than-cure
#16
REVIEW
Rita O Oladele, Felix Bongomin, Sara Gago, David W Denning
Cryptococcal disease remains a significant source of global morbidity and mortality for people living with HIV, especially in resource-limited settings. The recently updated estimate of cryptococcal disease revealed a global incidence of 223,100 cases annually with 73% of these cases being diagnosed in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, 75% of the estimated 181,100 deaths associated with cryptococcal disease occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Point-of-care diagnostic assays have revolutionised the diagnosis of this deadly opportunistic infection...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370775/case-report-mechanisms-of-hiv-elite-control-in-two-african-women
#17
Yumna Moosa, Ramla F Tanko, Veron Ramsuran, Ravesh Singh, Mashudu Madzivhandila, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Melissa-Rose Abrahams, Philippe Selhorst, Kamini Gounder, Penny L Moore, Carolyn Williamson, Salim S Abdool Karim, Nigel J Garrett, Wendy A Burgers
BACKGROUND: The majority of people living with HIV require antiretroviral therapy (ART) for controlling viral replication, however there are rare HIV controllers who spontaneously and durably control HIV in the absence of treatment. Understanding what mediates viral control in these individuals has provided us with insights into the immune mechanisms that may be important to induce for a vaccine or functional cure for HIV. To date, few African elite controllers from high incidence settings have been described...
January 25, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369303/report-from-the-international-conference-on-viral-hepatitis-2017
#18
Vicente Soriano, Benjamin Young, Nancy Reau
The International Conference on Viral Hepatitis 2017 brought exciting news on the treatment of viral hepatitis. The most recent estimates of the burden for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were presented. The current gaps and prospects for regional and global eradication of viral hepatitis were discussed on the light of the WHO roadmap until 2030. Debates focused on hepatitis C and expectations using the new approved HCV pan-genotypic, once daily, oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), glecaprevir-pibrentasvir, and sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir...
January 25, 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369156/hepatitis-c-virus-cure-does-not-impact-kidney-function-decline-in-hiv-co-infected-patients
#19
Carmine Rossi, Sahar Saeed, Joseph Cox, Marie-Louise Vachon, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Sharon L Walmsley, Curtis Cooper, M John Gill, Mark Hull, Erica E M Moodie, Marina B Klein
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of sustained virologic response (SVR) and illicit (injection and non-injection) drug use on kidney function among hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV co-infected individuals. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study of HCV-HIV co-infected patients. METHODS: Data from 1,631 patients enrolled in the Canadian Co-Infection Cohort between 2003 and 2016 were analyzed. Patients who achieved SVR were matched 1:2 with chronically infected patients using time-dependent propensity scores...
January 23, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368456/rates-of-sustained-virological-response-12%C3%A2-weeks-after-the-scheduled-end-of-direct-acting-antiviral-daa-based-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-therapy-from-the-national-german-hcv-registry-does-hiv-coinfection-impair-the-response-to-daa-combination-therapy
#20
J Bischoff, S Mauss, C Cordes, T Lutz, S Scholten, A Moll, H Jäger, M Cornberg, M P Manns, A Baumgarten, J K Rockstroh
OBJECTIVES: The European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) treatment recommendations for hepatitis C no longer discriminate between HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected and HCV-monoinfected patients. However, recent data from Spain are questioning these recommendations on the basis of the findings of higher relapse rates and lower cure rates in HIV/HCV-infected subjects. The aim of our study was to compare HCV cure rates in monoinfected and coinfected patients from Germany...
January 25, 2018: HIV Medicine
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