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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244129/dolutegravir-reshapes-the-genetic-diversity-of-hiv-1-reservoirs
#1
Pierre Gantner, Guinevere Q Lee, David Rey, Thibault Mesplede, Marialuisa Partisani, Christine Cheneau, Geneviève Beck-Wirth, Jean-Pierre Faller, Mahsa Mohseni-Zadeh, Martin Martinot, Mark A Wainberg, Samira Fafi-Kremer
Objectives: Better understanding of the dynamics of HIV reservoirs under ART is a critical step to achieve a functional HIV cure. Our objective was to assess the genetic diversity of archived HIV-1 DNA over 48 weeks in blood cells of individuals starting treatment with a dolutegravir-based regimen. Methods: Eighty blood samples were prospectively and longitudinally collected from 20 individuals (NCT02557997) including: acutely (n = 5) and chronically (n = 5) infected treatment-naive individuals, as well as treatment-experienced individuals who switched to a dolutegravir-based regimen and were either virologically suppressed (n = 5) or had experienced treatment failure (n = 5)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243498/-cart-intensification-by-the-hiv-1-tat-b-clade-vaccine-progress-to-phase-iii-efficacy-studies
#2
Aurelio Cafaro, Cecilia Sgadari, Orietta Picconi, Antonella Tripiciano, Sonia Moretti, Vittorio Francavilla, Maria Rosaria Pavone Cossut, Stefano Buttò, Giovanni Cozzone, Fabrizio Ensoli, Paolo Monini, Barbara Ensoli
In spite of its success at suppressing HIV replication, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) only partially reduces immune dysregulation and loss of immune functions. These cART-unmet needs appear to be due to persistent virus replication and cell-to-cell transmission in reservoirs, and are causes of increased patients' morbidity and mortality. Up to now, therapeutic interventions aimed at cART-intensification by attacking the virus reservoir have failed. Areas covered: We briefly review the rationale and clinical development of Tat therapeutic vaccine in cART-treated subjects in Italy and South Africa (SA)...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237332/traditional-complementary-and-alternative-medical-cures-for-hiv-rationale-and-implications-for-hiv-cure-research
#3
Xin Pan, Alice Zhang, Gail E Henderson, Stuart Rennie, Chuncheng Liu, Weiping Cai, Feng Wu, Joseph D Tucker
Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) has been used by some people living with HIV (PLHIV) in an attempt to cure HIV. This article reviews the main factors influencing their decision to choose TCAM to cure HIV and discusses implications for HIV cure research. Those who decide to pursue traditional, complementary, and alternative medical cures may be influenced by the health system, cultural, and social dynamics, and their own individual beliefs and preferences. These same factors may impact participation in HIV cure research...
December 13, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234320/increasing-the-clinical-potential-and-applications-of-anti-hiv-antibodies
#4
REVIEW
Casey K Hua, Margaret E Ackerman
Preclinical and early human clinical studies of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to prevent and treat HIV infection support the clinical utility and potential of bNAbs for prevention, postexposure prophylaxis, and treatment of acute and chronic infection. Observed and potential limitations of bNAbs from these recent studies include the selection of resistant viral populations, immunogenicity resulting in the development of antidrug (Ab) responses, and the potentially toxic elimination of reservoir cells in regeneration-limited tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233121/do-retreatment-tuberculosis-patients-need-special-treatment-response-follow-up-beyond-the-standard-regimen-finding-of-five-year-retrospective-study-in-pastoralist-setting
#5
Fentabil Getnet, Henok Sileshi, Wubareg Seifu, Selam Yirga, Abere Shiferaw Alemu
BACKGROUND: Treatment outcomes serve as proxy measures of the quality of tuberculosis treatment provided by the health care system, and it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of Directly Observed Therapy-Short course program in controlling the disease, and reducing treatment failure, default and death. Hence, we evaluated tuberculosis treatment success rate, its trends and predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome in Ethiopian Somali region where 85% of its population is pastoralist...
December 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232209/recent-progress-in-understanding-hiv-reservoirs
#6
Hsiao-Hsuan Kuo, Mathias Lichterfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reservoirs of HIV-1-infected cells persist long-term despite highly effective antiretroviral suppression therapy and represent the main barrier against a cure for HIV-1. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the complexity and diversity of viral reservoir cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Latently infected memory CD4 T cells are the predominant cell compartment responsible for viral persistence, but some studies suggest that myeloid cells, and possibly hematopoietic progenitors, can also serve as long-term viral reservoirs...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228368/the-oncolytic-virus-mg1-targets-and-eliminates-latently-hiv-1-infected-cells-implications-for-an-hiv-cure
#7
Nischal Ranganath, Teslin S Sandstrom, Stephanie C Burke Schinkel, Sandra C Côté, Jonathan B Angel
Latently HIV-infected cells evade immune- and drug-mediated clearance. These cells harbour intracellular signalling defects including impairment of the antiviral, type I IFN (IFN-I) response. Such defects have also been observed in several cancers, and have been exploited for the development of therapeutic oncolytic viruses, including the recombinant Maraba virus (MG1). We therefore hypothesized that MG1 would infect and eliminate latently HIV-1-infected cells, while sparing healthy uninfected cells. Preferential infection and elimination by MG1 was first demonstrated in latently HIV-1-infected cell lines...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228218/nonhuman-primate-models-and-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-infection-and-aids
#8
Ronald S Veazey, Andrew A Lackner
Research using nonhuman primates (NHPs) as models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in tremendous achievements not only in the prevention and treatment of HIV, but also in biomedical research more broadly. Once considered a death sentence, HIV infection is now fairly well controlled with combination antiretroviral treatments, almost all of which were first tested for efficacy and safety in nonhuman primates or other laboratory animals...
December 8, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226704/hiv-cure-research-crowdsourcing-an-author-response
#9
Joseph D Tucker, Alice Zhang, Yang Zhao
NA.
December 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226307/macrolides-for-treatment-of-haemophilus-ducreyi-infection-in-sexually-active-adults
#10
REVIEW
Laura Romero, Cesar Huerfano, Carlos F Grillo-Ardila
BACKGROUND: Chancroid is a genital ulcerative disease caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. This microorganism is endemic in Africa, where it can cause up to 10% of genital ulcers. Macrolides may be an effective alternative to treat chancroid and, based on their oral administration and duration of therapy, could be considered as first line therapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of macrolides for treatment of H ducreyi infection in sexually active adults...
December 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222081/media-consumption-and-creation-in-attitudes-toward-and-knowledge-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-web-based-survey
#11
Jacob Groshek, Miles Basil, Ling Guo, Sarah Parker Ward, Francis A Farraye, Jason Reich
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal condition affecting over 5 million people globally and 1.6 million in the United States but currently lacks a precisely determined cause or cure. The range of symptoms IBD patients experience are often debilitating, and the societal stigmas associated with some such symptoms can further degrade their quality of life. Better understanding the nature of this public reproach then is a critical component for improving awareness campaigns and, ultimately, the experiences of IBD patients...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221651/-the-myth-of-virgin-cleansing-latest-news-on-an-archaic-magico-religious-practice
#12
P Charlier, F Bou Abdallah, L Brun, V Hoang-Oppermann, S Deo, Y Mostefai-Dulac, M-F Mamzer, C Hervé
BACKGROUND: In the medical anthropology section of the Nanterre Hospital (France) for migrants and refugees, three cases were recorded of "virgin cleansing" in sub-Saharan African countries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: These consisted of sexual assaults (2 instances of rape and 1 of sexual interference) on sexually immature females (young girls) by patients with sexually transmitted infections (mainly HIV, syphilis) hoping they might thereby be cured. DISCUSSION: These particularly atrocious hetero-aggressive sexual practices based on magical arguments are unfortunately universal and are not limited to a specific culture...
December 5, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220353/research-on-hiv-cure-mapping-the-ethics-landscape
#13
Karine Dubé, Laurie Sylla, Lynda Dee, Jeff Taylor, David Evans, Carl Dean Bruton, Adam Gilberston, Lisa Gralinski, Brandon Brown, Asheley Skinner, Bryan J Weiner, Sandra B Greene, Amy Corneli, Adaora A Adimora, Joseph D Tucker, Stuart Rennie
In an essay, Karine Dubé and coauthors discuss the ethics of preclinical and clinical studies relevant to achieving an HIV cure.
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219825/ending-the-epidemic-critical-role-of-primary-hiv-infection
#14
H A B Prins, A Verbon, C A B Boucher, C Rokx
Early identification and immediate treatment of individuals newly infected with HIV is important for two reasons: it benefits the long-term health of the infected patient, and it reduces onward HIV transmission. Primary HIV infection (PHI) reflects the period following HIV acquisition during which viraemia bursts until the establishment of a stable plasma HIV-RNA level approximately six months post infection. During this period, patients are particularly contagious and are often unaware of the infection. As a consequence, PHI disproportionally affects onward transmission...
October 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213273/targeting-trim5%C3%AE-in-hiv-cure-strategies-for-the-crispr-cas9-era
#15
Daryl Anne Victoria Weatherley, Michael Terence Boswell, Sarah L Rowland-Jones
In the past decade, studies of innate immune activity against HIV-1 and other retroviruses have revealed a powerful array of host factors that can attack the virus at various stages of its life cycle in human and primate cells, raising the prospect that these antiviral factors could be manipulated in immunotherapeutic strategies for HIV infection. This has not proved straightforward: while HIV accessory genes encode proteins that subvert or destroy many of these restriction factors, others, such as human TRIM5α show limited potency against HIV-1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212213/the-bromodomain-and-extraterminal-domain-inhibitor-bromosporine-synergistically-reactivates-latent-hiv-1-in-latently-infected-cells
#16
Hanyu Pan, Panpan Lu, Yinzhong Shen, Yanan Wang, Zhengtao Jiang, Xinyi Yang, Yangcheng Zhong, He Yang, Inam Ulla Khan, Muya Zhou, Bokang Li, Ziyu Zhang, Jianqing Xu, Hongzhou Lu, Huanzhang Zhu
The long-lived latent HIV-1 reservoir is the major barrier for complete cure of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Here we report that a novel bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitor bromosporine which can broadly target BETs, is able to potently reactivate HIV-1 replication in different latency models alone and more powerful when combined with prostratin or TNF-α. Furthermore, the treatment with bromosporine induced HIV-1 full-length transcripts in resting CD4+ T cells from infected individuals with suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) ex vivo, with no obvious cytotoxicity or global activation of T cell...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210347/visceral-leishmaniasis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-northwest-ethiopia-antiretroviral-treatment-and-burden-of-disease-among-patients-enrolled-in-hiv-care
#17
Johan van Griensven, Tesfa Simegn, Mengistu Endris, Ermias Diro
The approach to treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-HIV co-infection in East Africa has not been systematically examined. Although antiretroviral treatment (ART) should be initiated for all co-infected persons, the extent of ART prescription is not known. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all VL-HIV co-infected adults at selected referral and district hospitals in northwest Ethiopia from 2010 to 2015. Purposes of the study were to compare the proportion of VL diagnoses made in previously diagnosed HIV-patients versus diagnosis concurrent with HIV diagnosis and to quantify utilization of ART...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206656/hiv-integration-sites-and-implications-for-maintenance-of-the-reservoir
#18
Jori Symons, Paul U Cameron, Sharon R Lewin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of recent research of how HIV integration relates to productive and latent infection and implications for cure strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: How and where HIV integrates provides new insights into how HIV persists on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Clonal expansion of infected cells with the same integration site demonstrates that T-cell proliferation is an important factor in HIV persistence, however, the driver of proliferation remains unclear...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202880/a-retrospective-study-on-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-at-jinka-general-hospital-southern-ethiopia
#19
Biniam Wondale, Girmay Medihn, Takele Teklu, Wondmeneh Mersha, Mesfin Tamirat, Gobena Ameni
OBJECTIVE: Information on tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes would be useful for the improvement of the TB control program. The aim of the present study was to evaluate treatment outcomes of TB and identify associated factors in TB patients at the Jinka General Hospital (JGH), remote Zone of Ethiopia. RESULT: The result showed that 13.1% (154/1172) of the cases were cured, 60.9% treatment completed, 10.2% died and 9.1% were lost to follow-up. Thus, the overall treatment success rate was 74%...
December 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198134/if-we-build-it-will-they-come-perceptions-of-hiv-cure-related-research-by-people-living-with-hiv-in-four-u-s-cities-a-qualitative-focus-group-study
#20
Laurie Novick Sylla, David Evans, Jeff Taylor, Adam Lloyd Gilbertson, David Palm, Judith D Auerbach, Karine Dube
Global interest and investment in the search for an HIV cure has increased. Research has focused on what experts refer to as a sterilizing or eradicating cure, where HIV is eliminated from the body, and on what is often called a functional cure, where HIV remains, kept durably suppressed in the absence of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Many believe that a functional cure is likely to be found first. HIV cure studies will require active participation by people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Their desires and perceptions will be important to effectively recruit study participants and for uptake of any future strategy that demonstrates safety and efficacy...
December 3, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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