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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385500/successful-strategies-implemented-towards-the-elimination-of-canine-rabies-in-the-western-hemisphere
#1
REVIEW
Andres Velasco-Villa, Luis E Escobar, Anthony Sanchez, Mang Shi, Daniel G Streicker, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Fernando Vargas-Pino, Veronica Gutierrez-Cedillo, Inger Damon, Ginny Emerson
Almost all cases of human rabies result from dog bites, making the elimination of canine rabies a global priority. During recent decades, many countries in the Western Hemisphere have carried out large-scale dog vaccination campaigns, controlled their free-ranging dog populations and enforced legislation for responsible pet ownership. This article reviews progress in eliminating canine rabies from the Western Hemisphere. After briefly summarizing the history of control efforts and describing the approaches listed above, we note that programs in some countries have been hindered by societal attitudes and severe economic disparities, which underlines the need to discuss measures that will be required to complete the elimination of canine rabies throughout the region...
April 4, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365457/the-history-of-rabies-in-the-western-hemisphere
#2
REVIEW
Andres Velasco-Villa, Matthew R Mauldin, Mang Shi, Luis E Escobar, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Inger Damon, Victoria A Olson, Daniel G Streicker, Ginny Emerson
Before the introduction of control programs in the 20th century, rabies in domestic dogs occurred throughout the Western Hemisphere. However, historical records and phylogenetic analysis of multiple virus isolates indicate that, before the arrival of the first European colonizers, rabies virus was likely present only in bats and skunks. Canine rabies was either rare or absent among domestic dogs of Native Americans, and first arrived when many new dog breeds were imported during the period of European colonization...
March 29, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342196/a-dna-logic-gate-automaton-for-detection-of-rabies-and-other-lyssaviruses
#3
Pavithra Vijayakumar, Joanne Macdonald
Immediate activation of biosensors is not always desirable, particularly if activation is due to non-specific interactions. Here we demonstrate the use of deoxyribozyme-based logic gate networks arranged into visual displays to precisely control activation of biosensors, and demonstrate a prototype molecular automaton able to discriminate between seven different genotypes of Lyssaviruses, including Rabies virus. The device uses novel mixed-base logic gates to enable detection of the large diversity of Lyssavirus sequence populations, while a NOT logic gate prevents non-specific activation across genotypes...
March 25, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318148/barriers-to-innovation-in-human-rabies-prophylaxis-and-treatment-a-causal-analysis-of-insights-from-key-opinion-leaders-and-literature
#4
L H M van de Burgwal, A M G Neevel, C A C M Pittens, A D M E Osterhaus, C E Rupprecht, E Claassen
Rabies is an essentially 100% fatal, zoonotic disease, caused by Lyssaviruses. Currently, the disease is vaccine-preventable with pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP). Still, rabies virus is estimated to cause up to 60,000 human deaths annually, of which the vast majority occurs in rural Asia and Africa, due to the inaccessibility of prophylaxis and non-existence of treatment. Despite these unmet clinical needs, rabies control mainly focuses on the sylvatic reservoir and drug innovation receives relatively little attention compared to other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)...
March 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299201/lyssaviruses-and-rabies-current-conundrums-concerns-contradictions-and-controversies
#5
REVIEW
Charles Rupprecht, Ivan Kuzmin, Francois Meslin
Lyssaviruses are bullet-shaped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses and the causative agents of the ancient zoonosis rabies. Africa is the likely home to the ancestors of taxa residing within the Genus Lyssavirus, Family Rhabdoviridae. Diverse lyssaviruses are envisioned as co-evolving with bats, as the ultimate reservoirs, over seemingly millions of years. In terms of relative distribution, overt abundance, and resulting progeny, rabies virus is the most successful lyssavirus species today, but for unknown reasons...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228179/serological-evidence-of-lyssavirus-infection-among-bats-in-nagaland-a-north-eastern-state-in-india
#6
R S Mani, D P Dovih, M A Ashwini, B Chattopadhyay, P K Harsha, K M Garg, S Sudarshan, R Puttaswamaiah, U Ramakrishnan, S N Madhusudana
Bats are known to be reservoirs of several medically important viruses including lyssaviruses. However, no systematic surveillance for bat rabies has been carried out in India, a canine rabies endemic country with a high burden of human rabies. Surveillance for rabies virus (RABV) infection in bats was therefore carried out in Nagaland, a north-eastern state in India at sites with intense human-bat interfaces during traditional bat harvests. Brain tissues and sera from bats were tested for evidence of infection due to RABV...
February 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151079/exposure-to-lyssaviruses-in-bats-of-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#7
Lem's N Kalemba, Michael Niezgoda, Amy T Gilbert, Jeffrey B Doty, Ryan M Wallace, Jean M Malekani, Darin S Carroll
Lyssavirus infections in the Democratic Republic of Congo are poorly documented. We examined 218 bats. No lyssavirus antigens were detected but Lagos bat virus (LBV) neutralizing antibodies (VNA) were detected in Eidolon helvum and Myonycteris torquata . Four samples with LBV VNA reacted against Shimoni bat virus.
April 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143485/new-isolations-of-the-rabies-related-mokola-virus-from-south-africa
#8
Jessica Coertse, Wanda Markotter, Kevin le Roux, Daniel Stewart, Claude T Sabeta, Louis H Nel
BACKGROUND: Mokola virus (MOKV) is a rabies-related lyssavirus and appears to be exclusive to the African continent. Only 24 cases of MOKV, which includes two human cases, have been reported since its identification in 1968. MOKV has an unknown reservoir host and current commercial vaccines do not confer protection against MOKV. RESULTS: We describe three new isolations of MOKV from domestic cats in South Africa. Two cases were retrospectively identified from 2012 and an additional one in 2014...
January 31, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122983/innate-immune-responses-of-bat-and-human-cells-to-filoviruses-commonalities-and-distinctions
#9
Ivan V Kuzmin, Toni M Schwarz, Philipp A Ilinykh, Ingo Jordan, Thomas G Ksiazek, Ravi Sachidanandam, Christopher F Basler, Alexander Bukreyev
Marburg (MARV) and Ebola (EBOV) viruses are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. The natural reservoir of MARV is the Egyptian rousette bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus); that of EBOV is unknown but believed to be another bat species. The Egyptian rousette develops subclinical productive infection with MARV but is refractory to EBOV. Interaction of filoviruses with hosts is greatly affected by the viral interferon (IFN)-inhibiting domains (IID). Our study was aimed at characterization of innate immune responses to filoviruses and the role of filovirus IID in bat and human cells...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081126/a-pan-lyssavirus-taqman-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-highly-variable-rabies-virus-and-other-lyssaviruses
#10
Ashutosh Wadhwa, Kimberly Wilkins, Jinxin Gao, Rene Edgar Condori Condori, Crystal M Gigante, Hui Zhao, Xiaoyue Ma, James A Ellison, Lauren Greenberg, Andres Velasco-Villa, Lillian Orciari, Yu Li
Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036390/the-global-phylogeography-of-lyssaviruses-challenging-the-out-of-africa-hypothesis
#11
David T S Hayman, Anthony R Fooks, Denise A Marston, Juan C Garcia-R
Rabies virus kills tens of thousands of people globally each year, especially in resource-limited countries. Yet, there are genetically- and antigenically-related lyssaviruses, all capable of causing the disease rabies, circulating globally among bats without causing conspicuous disease outbreaks. The species richness and greater genetic diversity of African lyssaviruses, along with the lack of antibody cross-reactivity among them, has led to the hypothesis that Africa is the origin of lyssaviruses. This hypothesis was tested using a probabilistic phylogeographical approach...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033365/potential-exposures-to-australian-bat-lyssavirus-notified-in-queensland-australia-2009-2014
#12
Damin Si, John Marquess, Ellen Donnan, Bruce Harrower, Bradley McCall, Sonya Bennett, Stephen Lambert
BACKGROUND: Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Potential exposure to ABLV has been a notifiable condition in Queensland since 2005...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974131/lyssavirus-reactive-antibodies-in-swedish-bats
#13
Anna-Lena Hammarin, Louise Treiberg Berndtsson, Kerstin Falk, Marie Nedinge, Gert Olsson, Åke Lundkvist
INTRODUCTION: To study the presence of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) infections in bat reservoirs in Sweden, active surveillance was performed during the summers from 2008 to 2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bat specimens were collected at >20 bat colonies in the central, southeastern, and southern parts of Sweden. In total, blood and saliva of 452 bats were examined by a virus neutralization test and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs)...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649230/quantification-of-lyssavirus-neutralizing-antibodies-using-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-pseudotype-particles
#14
Sarah Moeschler, Samira Locher, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Beate Krämer, Gert Zimmer
Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease which is primarily caused by rabies virus (RABV) although other members of the genus Lyssavirus can cause rabies as well. As yet, 14 serologically and genetically diverse lyssaviruses have been identified, mostly in bats. To assess the quality of rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, virus neutralization tests with live RABV are performed in accordance with enhanced biosafety standards. In the present work, a novel neutralization test is presented which takes advantage of a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) from which the glycoprotein G gene has been deleted and replaced by reporter genes...
September 16, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614701/the-lyssavirus-glycoprotein-a-key-to-cross-immunity
#15
Sindisiwe G Buthelezi, Heini W Dirr, Ereck Chakauya, Rachel Chikwamba, Lennart Martens, Tsepo L Tsekoa, Stoyan H Stoychev, Elien Vandermarliere
Rabies is an acute viral encephalomyelitis in warm-blooded vertebrates, caused by viruses belonging to Rhabdovirus family and genus Lyssavirus. Although rabies is categorised as a neglected disease, the rabies virus (RABV) is the most studied amongst Lyssaviruses which show nearly identical infection patterns. In efforts to improving post-exposure prophylaxis, several anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the glycoprotein (G protein) sites I, II, III and G5 have been characterized. To explore cross-neutralization capacity of available mAbs and discover new possible B-cell epitopes, we have analyzed all available glycoprotein sequences from Lyssaviruses with a focus on sequence variation and conservation...
November 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576075/vaccine-induced-rabies-case-in-a-cow-bos-taurus-molecular-characterisation-of-vaccine-strain-in-brain-tissue
#16
Vlad Vuta, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Emmanuelle Robardet, Gheorghe Barboi, Razvan Motiu, Florica Barbuceanu, Constantin Vlagioiu, Florence Cliquet
Rabies is a fatal neuropathogenic zoonosis caused by the rabies virus of the Lyssavirus genus, Rhabdoviridae family. The oral vaccination of foxes - the main reservoir of rabies in Europe - using a live attenuated rabies virus vaccine was successfully conducted in many Western European countries. In July 2015, a rabies vaccine strain was isolated from the brain tissues of a clinically suspect cow (Bos taurus) in Romania. The nucleotide analysis of both N and G gene sequences showed 100% identity between the rabid animal, the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain and five rabies vaccine batches used for the national oral vaccination campaign targeting foxes...
September 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522300/companion-animals-as-a-source-of-viruses-for-human-beings-and-food-production-animals
#17
REVIEW
L A Reperant, I H Brown, O L Haenen, M D de Jong, A D M E Osterhaus, A Papa, E Rimstad, J-F Valarcher, T Kuiken
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance...
July 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501458/serological-evidence-of-lyssaviruses-among-bats-on-southwestern-indian-ocean-islands
#18
Julien Mélade, Stewart McCulloch, Beza Ramasindrazana, Erwan Lagadec, Magali Turpin, Hervé Pascalis, Steven M Goodman, Wanda Markotter, Koussay Dellagi
We provide serological evidence of lyssavirus circulation among bats on southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. A total of 572 bats belonging to 22 species were collected on Anjouan, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Mahé and Madagascar and screened by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for the presence of neutralising antibodies against the two main rabies related lyssaviruses circulating on the African continent: Duvenhage lyssavirus (DUVV) and Lagos bat lyssavirus (LBV), representing phylogroups I and II, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479120/bat-trait-genetic-and-pathogen-data-from-large-scale-investigations-of-african-fruit-bats-eidolon-helvum
#19
COMMENT
Alison J Peel, Kate S Baker, David T S Hayman, Richard Suu-Ire, Andrew C Breed, Guy-Crispin Gembu, Tiziana Lembo, Andrés Fernández-Loras, David R Sargan, Anthony R Fooks, Andrew A Cunningham, James L N Wood
Bats, including African straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum), have been highlighted as reservoirs of many recently emerged zoonotic viruses. This common, widespread and ecologically important species was the focus of longitudinal and continent-wide studies of the epidemiological and ecology of Lagos bat virus, henipaviruses and Achimota viruses. Here we present a spatial, morphological, demographic, genetic and serological dataset encompassing 2827 bats from nine countries over an 8-year period. Genetic data comprises cytochrome b mitochondrial sequences (n=608) and microsatellite genotypes from 18 loci (n=544)...
August 1, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450525/-rabies-in-bats
#20
Kateřina Beranová, Dagmar Zendulková
Rabies is a zoonosis ending fatally in all mammals, including humans. Unlike the other mammals, this disease is usually not fatal in bats. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses which are divided into several distinct phylogroups comprising 15 known viruses. It is believed that the original hosts of all lyssaviruses are bats. Classical rabies virus (RABV) occurs in bats across Americas and represents the major cause of rabies in humans and domestic animals there. European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) are the most frequently diagnosed lyssaviruses in Eurasia...
June 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
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