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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649230/quantification-of-lyssavirus-neutralizing-antibodies-using-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-pseudotype-particles
#1
Sarah Moeschler, Samira Locher, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Beate Krämer, Gert Zimmer
Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease which is primarily caused by rabies virus (RABV) although other members of the genus Lyssavirus can cause rabies as well. As yet, 14 serologically and genetically diverse lyssaviruses have been identified, mostly in bats. To assess the quality of rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, virus neutralization tests with live RABV are performed in accordance with enhanced biosafety standards. In the present work, a novel neutralization test is presented which takes advantage of a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) from which the glycoprotein G gene has been deleted and replaced by reporter genes...
2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614701/the-lyssavirus-glycoprotein-a-key-to-cross-immunity
#2
Sindisiwe G Buthelezi, Heini W Dirr, Ereck Chakauya, Rachel Chikwamba, Lennart Martens, Tsepo L Tsekoa, Stoyan H Stoychev, Elien Vandermarliere
Rabies is an acute viral encephalomyelitis in warm-blooded vertebrates, caused by viruses belonging to Rhabdovirus family and genus Lyssavirus. Although rabies is categorised as a neglected disease, the rabies virus (RABV) is the most studied amongst Lyssaviruses which show nearly identical infection patterns. In efforts to improving post-exposure prophylaxis, several anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the glycoprotein (G protein) sites I, II, III and G5 have been characterized. To explore cross-neutralization capacity of available mAbs and discover new possible B-cell epitopes, we have analyzed all available glycoprotein sequences from Lyssaviruses with a focus on sequence variation and conservation...
November 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576075/vaccine-induced-rabies-case-in-a-cow-bos-taurus-molecular-characterisation-of-vaccine-strain-in-brain-tissue
#3
Vlad Vuta, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Emmanuelle Robardet, Gheorghe Barboi, Razvan Motiu, Florica Barbuceanu, Constantin Vlagioiu, Florence Cliquet
Rabies is a fatal neuropathogenic zoonosis caused by the rabies virus of the Lyssavirus genus, Rhabdoviridae family. The oral vaccination of foxes - the main reservoir of rabies in Europe - using a live attenuated rabies virus vaccine was successfully conducted in many Western European countries. In July 2015, a rabies vaccine strain was isolated from the brain tissues of a clinically suspect cow (Bos taurus) in Romania. The nucleotide analysis of both N and G gene sequences showed 100% identity between the rabid animal, the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain and five rabies vaccine batches used for the national oral vaccination campaign targeting foxes...
September 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522300/companion-animals-as-a-source-of-viruses-for-human-beings-and-food-production-animals
#4
REVIEW
L A Reperant, I H Brown, O L Haenen, M D de Jong, A D M E Osterhaus, A Papa, E Rimstad, J-F Valarcher, T Kuiken
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance...
July 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501458/serological-evidence-of-lyssaviruses-among-bats-on-southwestern-indian-ocean-islands
#5
Julien Mélade, Stewart McCulloch, Beza Ramasindrazana, Erwan Lagadec, Magali Turpin, Hervé Pascalis, Steven M Goodman, Wanda Markotter, Koussay Dellagi
We provide serological evidence of lyssavirus circulation among bats on southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. A total of 572 bats belonging to 22 species were collected on Anjouan, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Mahé and Madagascar and screened by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for the presence of neutralising antibodies against the two main rabies related lyssaviruses circulating on the African continent: Duvenhage lyssavirus (DUVV) and Lagos bat lyssavirus (LBV), representing phylogroups I and II, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479120/bat-trait-genetic-and-pathogen-data-from-large-scale-investigations-of-african-fruit-bats-eidolon-helvum
#6
COMMENT
Alison J Peel, Kate S Baker, David T S Hayman, Richard Suu-Ire, Andrew C Breed, Guy-Crispin Gembu, Tiziana Lembo, Andrés Fernández-Loras, David R Sargan, Anthony R Fooks, Andrew A Cunningham, James L N Wood
Bats, including African straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum), have been highlighted as reservoirs of many recently emerged zoonotic viruses. This common, widespread and ecologically important species was the focus of longitudinal and continent-wide studies of the epidemiological and ecology of Lagos bat virus, henipaviruses and Achimota viruses. Here we present a spatial, morphological, demographic, genetic and serological dataset encompassing 2827 bats from nine countries over an 8-year period. Genetic data comprises cytochrome b mitochondrial sequences (n=608) and microsatellite genotypes from 18 loci (n=544)...
2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450525/-rabies-in-bats
#7
Kateřina Beranová, Dagmar Zendulková
Rabies is a zoonosis ending fatally in all mammals, including humans. Unlike the other mammals, this disease is usually not fatal in bats. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses which are divided into several distinct phylogroups comprising 15 known viruses. It is believed that the original hosts of all lyssaviruses are bats. Classical rabies virus (RABV) occurs in bats across Americas and represents the major cause of rabies in humans and domestic animals there. European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) are the most frequently diagnosed lyssaviruses in Eurasia...
June 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434858/lyssavirus-in-indian-flying-foxes-sri-lanka
#8
Panduka S Gunawardena, Denise A Marston, Richard J Ellis, Emma L Wise, Anjana C Karawita, Andrew C Breed, Lorraine M McElhinney, Nicholas Johnson, Ashley C Banyard, Anthony R Fooks
A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus.
August 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389615/genomic-characterization-of-a-novel-poxvirus-from-a-flying-fox-evidence-for-a-new-genus
#9
Mark A O'Dea, Shin-Lin Tu, Stanley Pang, Thomas De Ridder, Bethany Jackson, Chris Upton
The carcass of an Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus) which died following entrapment on a fence was submitted to the laboratory for Australian bat lyssavirus exclusion testing, which was negative. During post-mortem, multiple nodules were noted on the wing membranes, and therefore degenerate PCR primers targeting the poxvirus DNA polymerase gene were used to screen for poxviruses. The poxvirus PCR screen was positive and sequencing of the PCR product demonstrated very low, but significant, similarity with the DNA polymerase gene from members of the Poxviridae family...
September 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380028/dual-combined-real-time-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-lyssavirus-infection
#10
Laurent Dacheux, Florence Larrous, Rachel Lavenir, Anthony Lepelletier, Abdellah Faouzi, Cécile Troupin, Jalal Nourlil, Philippe Buchy, Herve Bourhy
The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies) in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251758/the-co-chaperone-cdc37-regulates-the-rabies-virus-phosphoprotein-stability-by-targeting-to-hsp90aa1-machinery
#11
Yunbin Xu, Fei Liu, Juan Liu, Dandan Wang, Yan Yan, Senlin Ji, Jie Zan, Jiyong Zhou
Cdc37, as a kinase-specific co-chaperone of the chaperone Hsp90AA1 (Hsp90), actively aids with the maturation, stabilization and activation of the cellular or viral kinase/kinase-like targets. Phosphoprotein (P) of rabies virus (RABV) is a multifunctional, non-kinase protein involved in interferon antagonism, viral transcription and replication. Here, we demonstrated that the RABV non-kinase P is chaperoned by Cdc37 and Hsp90 during infection. We found that Cdc37 and Hsp90 affect the RABV life cycle directly...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132040/characterization-of-epitopes-on-the-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-by-selection-and-analysis-of-escape-mutants
#12
Firouzeh Fallahi, Alexander I Wandeler, Susan A Nadin-Davis
The glycoprotein (G) is the only surface protein of the lyssavirus particle and the only viral product known to be capable of eliciting the production of neutralizing antibodies. In this study, the isolation of escape mutants resistant to monoclonal antibody (Mab) neutralization was attempted by a selection strategy employing four distinct rabies virus strains: the extensively passaged Evelyn Rokitnicki Abelseth (ERA) strain and three field isolates representing two bat-associated variants and the Western Canada skunk variant (WSKV)...
July 15, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076322/oral-rabies-vaccine-design-for-expression-in-plants
#13
Ankit Singh, Gauri Saxena, Praveen C Verma
Vaccination is the sensitization process of the immune system against any pathogen. Generally, recombinant subunit vaccines are considered safer than attenuated vaccines. As whole pathogenic organisms are used in the immunization process, the attenuated vaccines are considered more risky than subunit vaccines. Rabies is the oldest known zoonosis which spreads through a neurotropic Lyssavirus primarily mediated through infected canine bites. Rabies causes worldwide loss of more than 60,000 human lives every year...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27059240/the-close-genetic-relationship-of-lineage-d-betacoronavirus-from-nigerian-and-kenyan-straw-colored-fruit-bats-eidolon-helvum-is-consistent-with-the-existence-of-a-single-epidemiological-unit-across-sub-saharan-africa
#14
Stefania Leopardi, Daniel Oluwayelu, Clement Meseko, Sabrina Marciano, Luca Tassoni, Solomon Bakarey, Isabella Monne, Giovanni Cattoli, Paola De Benedictis
Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum), which have been identified as natural hosts for several zoonotic pathogens, such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, and ebolavirus, are associated with human settlements in Nigeria where they are commonly consumed as a delicacy. However, information on the viruses harbored by these bats is scarce. In this study, coronavirus sequences were detected using a nested RT-PCR targeting 440 bp of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in six of 79 fecal samples collected from an urban colony of E...
August 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27048511/tick-infestation-in-birds-and-prevalence-of-pathogens-in-ticks-collected-from-different-places-in-germany
#15
Christine Klaus, Jörn Gethmann, Bernd Hoffmann, Ute Ziegler, Martin Heller, Martin Beer
The importance of ticks and tick-borne pathogens for human and animal health has been increasing over the past decades. For their transportation and dissemination, birds may play a more important role than wingless hosts. In this study, tick infestation of birds in Germany was examined. Eight hundred ninety-two captured birds were infested with ticks and belonged to 48 different species, of which blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were most strongly infested. Ground feeders were more strongly infested than non-ground feeders, sedentary birds more strongly than migratory birds, and short-distance migratory birds more strongly than long-distance migratory birds...
July 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041139/the-importance-of-immune-evasion-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rabies-virus
#16
Naoto Ito, Gregory W Moseley, Makoto Sugiyama
Rabies is a zoonotic disease caused by the Lyssavirus rabies virus (RABV) that can infect most mammals, including humans, where it has a case-fatality rate of almost 100%. Although preventable by vaccination, rabies causes c. 59,000 human fatalities every year worldwide. Thus, there exists an urgent need to establish an effective therapy and/or improve dissemination of vaccines for humans and animals. These outcomes require greater understanding of the mechanisms of RABV pathogenesis to identify new molecular targets for the development of therapeutics and/or live vaccines with high levels of safety...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27026357/temporal-variation-in-physiological-biomarkers-in-black-flying-foxes-pteropus-alecto-australia
#17
Lee McMichael, Daniel Edson, David Mayer, Amanda McLaughlin, Lauren Goldspink, Miranda E Vidgen, Steven Kopp, Joanne Meers, Hume Field
Bats of the genus Pteropus (Pteropodidae) are recognised as the natural host of multiple emerging pathogenic viruses of animal and human health significance, including henipaviruses, lyssaviruses and ebolaviruses. Some studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may be associated with Hendra virus infection in flying-foxes in Australia; however, it is essential to understand the normal range and seasonal variability of physiological biomarkers before seeking physiological associations with infection status...
March 2016: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26992832/development-of-broad-spectrum-human-monoclonal-antibodies-for-rabies-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#18
Paola De Benedictis, Andrea Minola, Elena Rota Nodari, Roberta Aiello, Barbara Zecchin, Angela Salomoni, Mathilde Foglierini, Gloria Agatic, Fabrizia Vanzetta, Rachel Lavenir, Anthony Lepelletier, Emma Bentley, Robin Weiss, Giovanni Cattoli, Ilaria Capua, Federica Sallusto, Edward Wright, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Hervé Bourhy, Davide Corti
Currently available rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for use in humans includes equine or human rabies immunoglobulins (RIG). The replacement of RIG with an equally or more potent and safer product is strongly encouraged due to the high costs and limited availability of existing RIG. In this study, we identified two broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies that represent a valid and affordable alternative to RIG in rabies PEP. Memory B cells from four selected vaccinated donors were immortalized and monoclonal antibodies were tested for neutralizing activity and epitope specificity...
March 31, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26887972/molecular-genetic-characterization-of-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-gene-sequences-from-rabid-dogs-in-bangkok-and-neighboring-provinces-in-thailand-2013-2014
#19
Surachet Benjathummarak, Chanon Fa-Ngoen, Chonlatip Pipattanaboon, Khwanchit Boonha, Pongrama Ramasoota, Pannamthip Pitaksajjakul
Because of its association with dogs, rabies virus (RABV) is still endemic in Thailand, where it is a serious public health problem. The genetic characterization of RABV in Thailand is limited. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of RABV in the endemic area. Viral RNA from 48 brain specimens from rabid dogs, collected in Bangkok and seven neighboring provinces in 2013-2014, was extracted and sequenced. The complete rabies glycoprotein (G) gene sequences (1575 nt) were aligned, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed using the maximum-likelihood method...
May 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869397/generation-of-recombinant-rabies-viruses-encoding-nanoluc-luciferase-for-antiviral-activity-assays
#20
Paulina Duhita Anindita, Michihito Sasaki, Haruaki Nobori, Akihiko Sato, Michael Carr, Naoto Ito, Makoto Sugiyama, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa
Rabies is an invariably fatal disease caused by Rabies virus (RABV), a member of the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus. Once central nervous infection occurs and symptoms develop, the case fatality rate approaches 100% despite availability of post-exposure prophylaxis. Therefore, new antiviral therapies for rabies are urgently required. Antivirals which can inhibit virus replication can be identified through screening of small compounds, however, as RABV infection does not generate easily discernible cytopathic effects in vitro, cell viability assays may not be feasible to observe antiviral activity of small compounds against RABV...
April 2, 2016: Virus Research
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