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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228179/serological-evidence-of-lyssavirus-infection-among-bats-in-nagaland-a-north-eastern-state-in-india
#1
R S Mani, D P Dovih, M A Ashwini, B Chattopadhyay, P K Harsha, K M Garg, S Sudarshan, R Puttaswamaiah, U Ramakrishnan, S N Madhusudana
Bats are known to be reservoirs of several medically important viruses including lyssaviruses. However, no systematic surveillance for bat rabies has been carried out in India, a canine rabies endemic country with a high burden of human rabies. Surveillance for rabies virus (RABV) infection in bats was therefore carried out in Nagaland, a north-eastern state in India at sites with intense human-bat interfaces during traditional bat harvests. Brain tissues and sera from bats were tested for evidence of infection due to RABV...
February 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151079/exposure-to-lyssaviruses-in-bats-of-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#2
Lem's N Kalemba, Michael Niezgoda, Amy T Gilbert, Jeffrey B Doty, Ryan M Wallace, Jean M Malekani, Darin S Carroll
Lyssavirus infections in the Democratic Republic of Congo are poorly documented. We examined 218 bats. No lyssavirus antigens were detected but Lagos bat virus (LBV) neutralizing antibodies (VNA) were detected in Eidolon helvum and Myonycteris torquata . Four samples with LBV VNA reacted against Shimoni bat virus.
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143485/new-isolations-of-the-rabies-related-mokola-virus-from-south-africa
#3
Jessica Coertse, Wanda Markotter, Kevin le Roux, Daniel Stewart, Claude T Sabeta, Louis H Nel
BACKGROUND: Mokola virus (MOKV) is a rabies-related lyssavirus and appears to be exclusive to the African continent. Only 24 cases of MOKV, which includes two human cases, have been reported since its identification in 1968. MOKV has an unknown reservoir host and current commercial vaccines do not confer protection against MOKV. RESULTS: We describe three new isolations of MOKV from domestic cats in South Africa. Two cases were retrospectively identified from 2012 and an additional one in 2014...
January 31, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122983/innate-immune-response-of-bat-and-human-cells-to-filoviruses-commonalities-and-distinctions
#4
Ivan V Kuzmin, Toni M Schwarz, Philipp A Ilinykh, Ingo Jordan, Thomas G Ksiazek, Ravi Sachidanandam, Christopher F Basler, Alexander Bukreyev
: Marburg (MARV) and Ebola (EBOV) viruses are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. The natural reservoir of MARV is the Egyptian rousette bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus); that of EBOV is unknown but believed to be another bat species. The Egyptian rousette develops subclinical productive infection with MARV but is refractory to EBOV. Interaction of filoviruses with hosts is greatly affected by the viral interferon (IFN)-inhibiting domains (IID). Our study was aimed at characterization of innate immune responses to filoviruses and the role of filovirus IID in bat and human cells...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081126/a-pan-lyssavirus-taqman-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-highly-variable-rabies-virus-and-other-lyssaviruses
#5
Ashutosh Wadhwa, Kimberly Wilkins, Jinxin Gao, Rene Edgar Condori Condori, Crystal M Gigante, Hui Zhao, Xiaoyue Ma, James A Ellison, Lauren Greenberg, Andres Velasco-Villa, Lillian Orciari, Yu Li
Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036390/the-global-phylogeography-of-lyssaviruses-challenging-the-out-of-africa-hypothesis
#6
David T S Hayman, Anthony R Fooks, Denise A Marston, Juan C Garcia-R
Rabies virus kills tens of thousands of people globally each year, especially in resource-limited countries. Yet, there are genetically- and antigenically-related lyssaviruses, all capable of causing the disease rabies, circulating globally among bats without causing conspicuous disease outbreaks. The species richness and greater genetic diversity of African lyssaviruses, along with the lack of antibody cross-reactivity among them, has led to the hypothesis that Africa is the origin of lyssaviruses. This hypothesis was tested using a probabilistic phylogeographical approach...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033365/potential-exposures-to-australian-bat-lyssavirus-notified-in-queensland-australia-2009-2014
#7
Damin Si, John Marquess, Ellen Donnan, Bruce Harrower, Bradley McCall, Sonya Bennett, Stephen Lambert
BACKGROUND: Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Potential exposure to ABLV has been a notifiable condition in Queensland since 2005...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974131/lyssavirus-reactive-antibodies-in-swedish-bats
#8
Anna-Lena Hammarin, Louise Treiberg Berndtsson, Kerstin Falk, Marie Nedinge, Gert Olsson, Åke Lundkvist
INTRODUCTION: To study the presence of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) infections in bat reservoirs in Sweden, active surveillance was performed during the summers from 2008 to 2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bat specimens were collected at >20 bat colonies in the central, southeastern, and southern parts of Sweden. In total, blood and saliva of 452 bats were examined by a virus neutralization test and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs)...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649230/quantification-of-lyssavirus-neutralizing-antibodies-using-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-pseudotype-particles
#9
Sarah Moeschler, Samira Locher, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Beate Krämer, Gert Zimmer
Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease which is primarily caused by rabies virus (RABV) although other members of the genus Lyssavirus can cause rabies as well. As yet, 14 serologically and genetically diverse lyssaviruses have been identified, mostly in bats. To assess the quality of rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, virus neutralization tests with live RABV are performed in accordance with enhanced biosafety standards. In the present work, a novel neutralization test is presented which takes advantage of a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) from which the glycoprotein G gene has been deleted and replaced by reporter genes...
September 16, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614701/the-lyssavirus-glycoprotein-a-key-to-cross-immunity
#10
Sindisiwe G Buthelezi, Heini W Dirr, Ereck Chakauya, Rachel Chikwamba, Lennart Martens, Tsepo L Tsekoa, Stoyan H Stoychev, Elien Vandermarliere
Rabies is an acute viral encephalomyelitis in warm-blooded vertebrates, caused by viruses belonging to Rhabdovirus family and genus Lyssavirus. Although rabies is categorised as a neglected disease, the rabies virus (RABV) is the most studied amongst Lyssaviruses which show nearly identical infection patterns. In efforts to improving post-exposure prophylaxis, several anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the glycoprotein (G protein) sites I, II, III and G5 have been characterized. To explore cross-neutralization capacity of available mAbs and discover new possible B-cell epitopes, we have analyzed all available glycoprotein sequences from Lyssaviruses with a focus on sequence variation and conservation...
November 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576075/vaccine-induced-rabies-case-in-a-cow-bos-taurus-molecular-characterisation-of-vaccine-strain-in-brain-tissue
#11
Vlad Vuta, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Emmanuelle Robardet, Gheorghe Barboi, Razvan Motiu, Florica Barbuceanu, Constantin Vlagioiu, Florence Cliquet
Rabies is a fatal neuropathogenic zoonosis caused by the rabies virus of the Lyssavirus genus, Rhabdoviridae family. The oral vaccination of foxes - the main reservoir of rabies in Europe - using a live attenuated rabies virus vaccine was successfully conducted in many Western European countries. In July 2015, a rabies vaccine strain was isolated from the brain tissues of a clinically suspect cow (Bos taurus) in Romania. The nucleotide analysis of both N and G gene sequences showed 100% identity between the rabid animal, the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain and five rabies vaccine batches used for the national oral vaccination campaign targeting foxes...
September 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522300/companion-animals-as-a-source-of-viruses-for-human-beings-and-food-production-animals
#12
REVIEW
L A Reperant, I H Brown, O L Haenen, M D de Jong, A D M E Osterhaus, A Papa, E Rimstad, J-F Valarcher, T Kuiken
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance...
July 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501458/serological-evidence-of-lyssaviruses-among-bats-on-southwestern-indian-ocean-islands
#13
Julien Mélade, Stewart McCulloch, Beza Ramasindrazana, Erwan Lagadec, Magali Turpin, Hervé Pascalis, Steven M Goodman, Wanda Markotter, Koussay Dellagi
We provide serological evidence of lyssavirus circulation among bats on southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. A total of 572 bats belonging to 22 species were collected on Anjouan, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Mahé and Madagascar and screened by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for the presence of neutralising antibodies against the two main rabies related lyssaviruses circulating on the African continent: Duvenhage lyssavirus (DUVV) and Lagos bat lyssavirus (LBV), representing phylogroups I and II, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479120/bat-trait-genetic-and-pathogen-data-from-large-scale-investigations-of-african-fruit-bats-eidolon-helvum
#14
COMMENT
Alison J Peel, Kate S Baker, David T S Hayman, Richard Suu-Ire, Andrew C Breed, Guy-Crispin Gembu, Tiziana Lembo, Andrés Fernández-Loras, David R Sargan, Anthony R Fooks, Andrew A Cunningham, James L N Wood
Bats, including African straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum), have been highlighted as reservoirs of many recently emerged zoonotic viruses. This common, widespread and ecologically important species was the focus of longitudinal and continent-wide studies of the epidemiological and ecology of Lagos bat virus, henipaviruses and Achimota viruses. Here we present a spatial, morphological, demographic, genetic and serological dataset encompassing 2827 bats from nine countries over an 8-year period. Genetic data comprises cytochrome b mitochondrial sequences (n=608) and microsatellite genotypes from 18 loci (n=544)...
August 1, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450525/-rabies-in-bats
#15
Kateřina Beranová, Dagmar Zendulková
Rabies is a zoonosis ending fatally in all mammals, including humans. Unlike the other mammals, this disease is usually not fatal in bats. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses which are divided into several distinct phylogroups comprising 15 known viruses. It is believed that the original hosts of all lyssaviruses are bats. Classical rabies virus (RABV) occurs in bats across Americas and represents the major cause of rabies in humans and domestic animals there. European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) are the most frequently diagnosed lyssaviruses in Eurasia...
June 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434858/lyssavirus-in-indian-flying-foxes-sri-lanka
#16
Panduka S Gunawardena, Denise A Marston, Richard J Ellis, Emma L Wise, Anjana C Karawita, Andrew C Breed, Lorraine M McElhinney, Nicholas Johnson, Ashley C Banyard, Anthony R Fooks
A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus.
August 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389615/genomic-characterization-of-a-novel-poxvirus-from-a-flying-fox-evidence-for-a-new-genus
#17
Mark A O'Dea, Shin-Lin Tu, Stanley Pang, Thomas De Ridder, Bethany Jackson, Chris Upton
The carcass of an Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus) which died following entrapment on a fence was submitted to the laboratory for Australian bat lyssavirus exclusion testing, which was negative. During post-mortem, multiple nodules were noted on the wing membranes, and therefore degenerate PCR primers targeting the poxvirus DNA polymerase gene were used to screen for poxviruses. The poxvirus PCR screen was positive and sequencing of the PCR product demonstrated very low, but significant, similarity with the DNA polymerase gene from members of the Poxviridae family...
September 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380028/dual-combined-real-time-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-lyssavirus-infection
#18
Laurent Dacheux, Florence Larrous, Rachel Lavenir, Anthony Lepelletier, Abdellah Faouzi, Cécile Troupin, Jalal Nourlil, Philippe Buchy, Herve Bourhy
The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies) in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251758/the-co-chaperone-cdc37-regulates-the-rabies-virus-phosphoprotein-stability-by-targeting-to-hsp90aa1-machinery
#19
Yunbin Xu, Fei Liu, Juan Liu, Dandan Wang, Yan Yan, Senlin Ji, Jie Zan, Jiyong Zhou
Cdc37, as a kinase-specific co-chaperone of the chaperone Hsp90AA1 (Hsp90), actively aids with the maturation, stabilization and activation of the cellular or viral kinase/kinase-like targets. Phosphoprotein (P) of rabies virus (RABV) is a multifunctional, non-kinase protein involved in interferon antagonism, viral transcription and replication. Here, we demonstrated that the RABV non-kinase P is chaperoned by Cdc37 and Hsp90 during infection. We found that Cdc37 and Hsp90 affect the RABV life cycle directly...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132040/characterization-of-epitopes-on-the-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-by-selection-and-analysis-of-escape-mutants
#20
Firouzeh Fallahi, Alexander I Wandeler, Susan A Nadin-Davis
The glycoprotein (G) is the only surface protein of the lyssavirus particle and the only viral product known to be capable of eliciting the production of neutralizing antibodies. In this study, the isolation of escape mutants resistant to monoclonal antibody (Mab) neutralization was attempted by a selection strategy employing four distinct rabies virus strains: the extensively passaged Evelyn Rokitnicki Abelseth (ERA) strain and three field isolates representing two bat-associated variants and the Western Canada skunk variant (WSKV)...
July 15, 2016: Virus Research
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