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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303971/molecular-epidemiology-and-evolution-of-european-bat-lyssavirus-2
#1
REVIEW
Lorraine M McElhinney, Denise A Marston, Emma L Wise, Conrad M Freuling, Hervé Bourhy, Reto Zanoni, Torfinn Moldal, Engbert A Kooi, Antonie Neubauer-Juric, Tiina Nokireki, Thomas Müller, Anthony R Fooks
Bat rabies cases in Europe are mainly attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) and European Bat Lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2). Prior to the death of a bat worker in Finland in 1985, very few bat rabies cases were reported. Enhanced surveillance in the two subsequent years (1986-1987) identified 263 cases (more than a fifth of all reported cases to date). Between 1977 and 2016, 1183 cases of bat rabies were reported, with the vast majority (>97%) being attributed to EBLV-1. In contrast, there have been only 39 suspected cases of EBLV-2, of which 34 have been confirmed by virus typing and presently restricted to just two bat species; Myotis daubentonii and Myotis dasycneme...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300155/antigenic-site-changes-in-the-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-dictates-functionality-and-neutralizing-capability-against-divergent-lyssaviruses
#2
J S Evans, D Selden, G Wu, E Wright, D L Horton, A R Fooks, A C Banyard
Lyssavirus infection has a near 100 % case fatality rate following the onset of clinical disease, and current rabies vaccines confer protection against all reported phylogroup I lyssaviruses. However, there is little or no protection against more divergent lyssaviruses and so investigation into epitopes within the glycoprotein (G) that dictate a neutralizing response against divergent lyssaviruses is warranted. Importantly, the facilities required to work with these pathogens, including wild-type and mutated forms of different lyssaviruses, are scarcely available and, as such, this type of study is inherently difficult to perform...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291220/sequencing-and-sequence-analysis-of-partial-nucleoprotein-n-gene-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-rabies-virus-field-isolates-from-gujarat-state-india
#3
Dhaval H Vagheshwari, Bharat B Bhanderi, Rafyuddin A Mathakiya, Mayurdhvaj K Jhala
The present study was undertaken with an aim of characterization of rabies virus (genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae under the order Mononegavirales) by sequencing of partial nucleoprotein (N) gene of rabies virus and phylogenetic analysis to know the genotype and lineage of rabies virus present in Gujarat state of India. A total of 32 samples (18 brain samples and 14 saliva samples) were aseptically collected from live and dead animals (viz. dog, buffalo, cow, goat, donkey and hyena) for rabies virus detection...
September 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261658/syn023-a-novel-humanized-monoclonal-antibody-cocktail-for-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-rabies
#4
Tzu-Yuan Chao, Shiqi Ren, Enyun Shen, Susan Moore, Shou-Feng Zhang, Li Chen, Charles E Rupprecht, Eric Tsao
Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease that is preventable in humans by appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, current PEP relies on polyclonal immune globulin products purified from pooled human (HRIG) or equine (ERIG) plasma that are either in chronic shortage or in association with safety concerns. Here, we present the development of an antibody cocktail, SYN023, made of two novel monoclonal antibodies (MAb) CTB011 and CTB012 that could serve as safer and more cost-effective alternatives to the current RIG products...
December 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237469/bat-rabies-surveillance-in-france-first-report-of-unusual-mortality-among-serotine-bats
#5
Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Alexandre Servat, Marine Wasniewski, Matthieu Gaillard, Christophe Borel, Florence Cliquet
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses which can affect all mammals, including human and bats. In Europe, bat rabies cases are attributed to five different lyssavirus species, the majority of rabid bats being attributed to European bat 1 lyssavirus (EBLV-1), circulating mainly in serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus). In France, rabies in bats is under surveillance since 1989, with 77 positive cases reported between 1989 and 2016. CASE PRESENTATION: In the frame of the bat rabies surveillance, an unusual mortality of serotine bats was reported in 2009 in a village in North-East France...
December 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218847/potential-exposure-to-australian-bat-lyssavirus-is-unlikely-to-prevent-future-bat-handling-among-adults-in-south-east-queensland
#6
M K Young, S Banu, B J McCall, S Vlack, H Carroll, S Bennett, R Davison, D Francis
Despite ongoing public health messages about the risks associated with bat contact, the number of potential exposures to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) due to intentional handling by members of the general public in Queensland has remained high. We sought to better understand the reasons for intentional handling among these members of the public who reported their potential exposure to inform future public health messages. We interviewed adults who resided in a defined geographic area in South East Queensland and notified potential exposure to ABLV due to intentional handling of bats by telephone between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013...
December 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188797/rabies
#7
REVIEW
Anthony R Fooks, Florence Cliquet, Stefan Finke, Conrad Freuling, Thiravat Hemachudha, Reeta S Mani, Thomas Müller, Susan Nadin-Davis, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Henry Wilde, Ashley C Banyard
Rabies is a life-threatening neglected tropical disease: tens of thousands of cases are reported annually in endemic countries (mainly in Africa and Asia), although the actual numbers are most likely underestimated. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is caused by infection with viruses of the Lyssavirus genus, which are transmitted via the saliva of an infected animal. Dogs are the most important reservoir for rabies viruses, and dog bites account for >99% of human cases. The virus first infects peripheral motor neurons, and symptoms occur after the virus reaches the central nervous system...
November 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182939/the-lyssavirus-host-specificity-conundrum-rabies-virus-the-exception-not-the-rule
#8
REVIEW
Denise A Marston, Ashley C Banyard, Lorraine M McElhinney, Conrad M Freuling, Stefan Finke, Xavier de Lamballerie, Thomas Müller, Anthony R Fooks
Lyssaviruses are a diverse range of viruses which all cause the disease rabies. Of the 16 recognized species, only rabies viruses (RABV) have multiple host reservoirs. Although lyssaviruses are capable of infecting all mammals, onward transmission in a new host population requires adaptation of the virus, in a number of stages with both host and virus factors determining the outcome. Due to an absence of recorded non-RABV host shifts, RABV data is extrapolated to draw conclusions for all lyssaviruses. In this article, we have focused on evidence of host shifts in the same insectivorous bat reservoir species in North America (RABV) and Europe (EBLV-1, EBLV-2 and BBLV)...
November 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165566/host-genetic-variation-does-not-determine-spatio-temporal-patterns-of-european-bat-1-lyssavirus
#9
Cécile Troupin, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Simon Dellicour, Isabelle Casademont, Lauriane Kergoat, Anthony Lepelletier, Laurent Dacheux, Guy Baele, Elodie Monchâtre-Leroy, Florence Cliquet, Philippe Lemey, Hervé Bourhy
The majority of bat rabies cases in Europe are attributed to European bat 1 lyssavirus (EBLV-1), circulating mainly in serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus). Two subtypes have been defined (EBLV-1a and EBLV-1b), each associated with a different geographical distribution. In this study, we undertake a comprehensive sequence analysis based on eighty newly obtained EBLV-1 nearly complete genome sequences from nine European countries over a 45-year period to infer selection pressures, rates of nucleotide substitution and evolutionary time scale of these two subtypes in Europe...
November 20, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149215/longitudinal-survey-of-two-serotine-bat-eptesicus-serotinus-maternity-colonies-exposed-to-eblv-1-european-bat-lyssavirus-type-1-assessment-of-survival-and-serological-status-variations-using-capture-recapture-models
#10
Emmanuelle Robardet, Christophe Borel, Marie Moinet, Dorothée Jouan, Marine Wasniewski, Jacques Barrat, Franck Boué, Elodie Montchâtre-Leroy, Alexandre Servat, Olivier Gimenez, Florence Cliquet, Evelyne Picard-Meyer
This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122670/infection-of-neuroblastoma-cells-by-rabies-virus-is-modulated-by-the-virus-titer
#11
Natalia Langenfeld Fuoco, Sandriana Dos Ramos Silva, Elaine Raniero Fernandes, Fernanda Guedes Luiz, Orlando Garcia Ribeiro, Iana Suly Santos Katz
Rabies is a lethal viral infection that can affect almost all mammals, including humans. To better understand the replication of Rabies lyssavirus, we investigated if the viral load in brains naturally infected with rabies influences viral internalization and viral growth kinetics in neuroblastoma cells, and if the viral load affects mortality in mice after intradermal infection. We noted that high initial viral loads in brains (group II) were unfavourable for increasing viral titers during serial passages in neuroblastoma cells when compared to low initial viral loads in brains (group I)...
November 6, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084223/molecular-characterization-and-phylogenetic-relatedness-of-dog-derived-rabies-viruses-circulating-in-cameroon-between-2010-and-2016
#12
Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Jean Blaise Momo, Laura Besong, Sévérin Loul, Richard Njouom
Rabies is enzootic among dog populations in some parts of Cameroon and the risk of human rabies is thought to be steadily high in these regions. However, the molecular epidemiology of circulating Rabies Virus (RABV) has been hardly considered in Cameroon as well as in most neighboring central African countries. To address this fundamental gap, 76 nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences of dog-derived RABV were obtained from 100 brain specimens sampled in Cameroon from 2010 to 2016. Studied sequences were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses with reference strains retrieved from databases...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029727/the-recently-discovered-bokeloh-bat-lyssavirus-insights-into-its-genetic-heterogeneity-and-spatial-distribution-in-europe-and-the-population-genetics-of-its-primary-host
#13
Elisa Eggerbauer, Cécile Troupin, Karsten Passior, Florian Pfaff, Dirk Höper, Antonie Neubauer-Juric, Stephanie Haberl, Christiane Bouchier, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Hervé Bourhy, Thomas Müller, Laurent Dacheux, Conrad M Freuling
In 2010, a novel lyssavirus named Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) was isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) in Germany. Two further viruses were isolated in the same country and in France in recent years, all from the same bat species and all found in moribund or dead bats. Here we report the description and the full-length genome sequence of five additional BBLV isolates from Germany (n=4) and France (n=1). Interestingly, all of them were isolated from the Natterer's bat, except one from Germany, which was found in a common Pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus), a widespread and abundant bat species in Europe...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969696/efficacy-of-rabies-vaccines-in-dogs-and-cats-and-protection-in-a-mouse-model-against-european-bat-lyssavirus-type-2
#14
Tiina Nokireki, Miia Jakava-Viljanen, Anna-Maija Virtala, Liisa Sihvonen
BACKGROUND: Rabies is preventable by pre- and/or post-exposure prophylaxis consisting of series of rabies vaccinations and in some cases the use of immunoglobulins. The success of vaccination can be estimated either by measuring virus neutralising antibodies or by challenge experiment. Vaccines based on rabies virus offer cross-protection against other lyssaviruses closely related to rabies virus. The aim was to assess the success of rabies vaccination measured by the antibody response in dogs (n = 10,071) and cats (n = 722), as well as to investigate the factors influencing the response to vaccination when animals failed to reach a rabies antibody titre of ≥ 0...
October 2, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959255/immunological-control-of-viral-infections-in-bats-and-the-emergence-of-viruses-highly-pathogenic-to-humans
#15
Tony Schountz, Michelle L Baker, John Butler, Vincent Munster
Bats are reservoir hosts of many important viruses that cause substantial disease in humans, including coronaviruses, filoviruses, lyssaviruses, and henipaviruses. Other than the lyssaviruses, they do not appear to cause disease in the reservoir bats, thus an explanation for the dichotomous outcomes of infections of humans and bat reservoirs remains to be determined. Bats appear to have a few unusual features that may account for these differences, including evidence of constitutive interferon (IFN) activation and greater combinatorial diversity in immunoglobulin genes that do not undergo substantial affinity maturation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946904/second-case-of-european-bat-lyssavirus-type-2-detected-in-a-daubenton-s-bat-in-finland
#16
Tiina Nokireki, Tarja Sironen, Teemu Smura, Veera Karkamo, Liisa Sihvonen, Tuija Gadd
European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) was detected in Finland in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) found in the municipality of Inkoo (60°02'45″N, 024°00'20″E). The bat showed neurological signs and was later found dead. The laboratory analysis revealed the presence of lyssavirus, and the virus was characterized as EBLV-2. This isolation of EBLV-2 was the second time that the virus has been detected in a Daubenton's bat in Finland. This provides additional proof that EBLV-2 is endemic in the Finnish Daubenton's bat population...
September 25, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854792/large-protein-as-a-potential-target-for-use-in-rabies-diagnostics
#17
I S Santos Katz, M H Dias, I F Lima, L B Chaves, O G Ribeiro, K C Scheffer, L K Iwai
Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease that remains a serious threat to public health worldwide. The rabies lyssavirus (RABV) genome encodes five structural proteins, multifunctional and significant for pathogenicity. The large protein (L) presents well-conserved genomic regions, which may be a good alternative to generate informative datasets for development of new methods for rabies diagnosis. This paper describes the development of a technique for the identification of L protein in several RABV strains from different hosts, demonstrating that MS-based proteomics is a potential method for antigen identification and a good alternative for rabies diagnosis...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841446/the-phenotype-of-the-rabv-glycoprotein-determines-cellular-and-global-virus-load-in-the-brain-and-is-decisive-for-the-pace-of-the-disease
#18
M A R Bertoune, B Nickl, T Krieger, L Wohlers, G A Bonaterra, B Dietzschold, E Weihe, M Bette
The Rabies lyssavirus glycoprotein (RABV-G) is largely responsible for the neuroinvasiveness of the virus and the induction of antiviral immune responses. To study the effects of RABV-G we compared the G of the attenuated RABV variant SPBN with that of the pathogenic DOG4 strain. Infection via the olfactory route caused 100% mortality in mice with both virus variants. Of note, with the attenuated SPBN, progression of the disease was accelerated, microglia response less pronounced and IL-6 expression higher than in the presence of RABV-G from the pathogenic DOG4...
November 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768857/molecular-function-analysis-of-rabies-virus-rna-polymerase-l-protein-by-using-an-l-gene-deficient-virus
#19
Kento Nakagawa, Yuki Kobayashi, Naoto Ito, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Kazuma Okada, Machiko Makino, Hideo Goto, Tatsuki Takahashi, Makoto Sugiyama
While the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L protein of rabies virus (RABV), a member of the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, has potential to be a therapeutic target for rabies, the molecular functions of this protein have remained largely unknown. In this study, to obtain a novel experimental tool for molecular function analysis of the RABV L protein, we established by using a reverse genetics approach an L gene-deficient RABV (Nishi-ΔL/Nluc), which infects, propagates, and correspondingly produces NanoLuc luciferase in cultured neuroblastoma cells transfected to express the L protein...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737119/passive-surveillance-of-united-kingdom-bats-for-lyssaviruses-2005-2015
#20
E L Wise, D A Marston, A C Banyard, H Goharriz, D Selden, N Maclaren, T Goddard, N Johnson, L M McElhinney, A Brouwer, J N Aegerter, G C Smith, D L Horton, A C Breed, A R Fooks
Passive surveillance for lyssaviruses in UK bats has been ongoing since 1987 and has identified 13 cases of EBLV-2 from a single species; Myotis daubentonii. No other lyssavirus species has been detected. Between 2005 and 2015, 10 656 bats were submitted, representing 18 species, creating a spatially and temporally uneven sample of British bat fauna. Uniquely, three UK cases originate from a roost at Stokesay Castle in Shropshire, England, where daily checks for grounded and dead bats are undertaken and bat carcasses have been submitted for testing since 2007...
September 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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