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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785730/evidence-of-australian-bat-lyssavirus-infection-in-diverse-australian-bat-taxa
#1
Hume Ernest Field
Historically, Australia was considered free of rabies and rabieslike viruses. Thus, the identification of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) in 1996 in a debilitated bat found by a member of the public precipitated both public health consternation and a revision of lyssavirus taxonomy. Subsequent observational studies sought to elaborate the occurrence and frequency of ABLV infection in Australian bats. This paper describes the taxonomic diversity of bat species showing evidence of ABLV infection to better inform public health considerations...
May 21, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781673/rabies-of-canid-biotype-in-wild-dog-lycaon-pictus-and-spotted-hyaena-crocuta-crocuta-in-madikwe-game-reserve-south-africa-in-2014-2015-diagnosis-possible-origins-and-implications-for-control
#2
Claude T Sabeta, Drienie Janse van Rensburg, Baby Phahladira, Debra Mohale, Robert F Harrison-White, Carlien Esterhuyzen, June H Williams
Both domestic and wild carnivore species are commonly diagnosed with rabies virus (RABV) infection in South Africa. Although the majority of confirmed rabies cases in wild carnivore species are reported from the yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata), the rest are from other wild carnivores including the highly endangered wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Lyssavirus infection was confirmed in two wild dogs and a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Madikwe Game Reserve, North West province in South Africa, in 2014 and 2015, using a direct fluorescent antibody test and immunohistochemistry...
April 26, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768505/multi-site-evaluation-of-the-ln34-pan-lyssavirus-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-for-post-mortem-rabies-diagnostics
#3
Crystal M Gigante, Lisa Dettinger, James W Powell, Melanie Seiders, Rene Edgar Condori Condori, Richard Griesser, Kenneth Okogi, Maria Carlos, Kendra Pesko, Mike Breckenridge, Edson Michael M Simon, Maria Yna Joyce V Chu, April D Davis, Scott J Brunt, Lillian Orciari, Pamela Yager, William C Carson, Claire Hartloge, Jeremiah T Saliki, Susan Sanchez, Mojgan Deldari, Kristina Hsieh, Ashutosh Wadhwa, Kimberly Wilkins, Veronica Yung Peredo, Patricia Rabideau, Nina Gruhn, Rolain Cadet, Shrikrishna Isloor, Sujith S Nath, Tomy Joseph, Jinxin Gao, Ryan Wallace, Mary Reynolds, Victoria A Olson, Yu Li
Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease that requires fast, accurate diagnosis to prevent disease in an exposed individual. The current gold standard for post-mortem diagnosis of human and animal rabies is the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test. While the DFA test has proven sensitive and reliable, it requires high quality antibody conjugates, a skilled technician, a fluorescence microscope and diagnostic specimen of sufficient quality. The LN34 pan-lyssavirus real-time RT-PCR assay represents a strong candidate for rabies post-mortem diagnostics due to its ability to detect RNA across the diverse Lyssavirus genus, its high sensitivity, its potential for use with deteriorated tissues, and its simple, easy to implement design...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745870/isolation-antigenicity-and-immunogenicity-of-lleida-bat-lyssavirus
#4
Ashley C Banyard, David Selden, Guanghui Wu, Leigh Thorne, Daisy Jennings, Denise Marston, Stefan Finke, Conrad M Freuling, Thomas Müller, Juan E Echevarría, Anthony R Fooks
The lyssaviruses are an important group of viruses that cause a fatal encephalitis termed rabies. The prototypic lyssavirus, rabies virus, is predicted to cause more than 60 000 human fatalities annually. The burden of disease for the other lyssaviruses is undefined. The original reports for the recently described highly divergent Lleida bat lyssavirus were based on the detection of virus sequence alone. The successful isolation of live Lleida bat lyssavirus from the carcass of the original bat and in vitro characterization of this novel lyssavirus are described here...
May 10, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691859/survey-of-rabies-vaccination-status-of-queensland-veterinarians-and-veterinary-students
#5
D Mendez, L Foyle, R Cobbold, R Speare
BACKGROUND: To determine the rabies vaccination status of Queensland veterinarians and veterinary students and their perception of zoonotic risk from Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire surveys. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent by post in 2011 to veterinary surgeons registered in Queensland, to final-year veterinary students at James Cook University via SurveyMonkey® in 2013 and to final-year veterinary students at James Cook University and University of Queensland via SurveyMonkey® in 2014...
May 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684025/first-cases-of-european-bat-lyssavirus-type-1-in-iberian-serotine-bats-implications-for-the-molecular-epidemiology-of-bat-rabies-in-europe
#6
Patricia Mingo-Casas, Virginia Sandonís, Elena Obón, José M Berciano, Sonia Vázquez-Morón, Javier Juste, Juan E Echevarría
Previous studies have shown that EBLV-1 strains exclusively hosted by Eptesicus isabellinus bats in the Iberian Peninsula cluster in a specific monophyletic group that is related to the EBLV-1b lineage found in the rest of Europe. More recently, enhanced passive surveillance has allowed the detection of the first EBLV-1 strains associated to Eptesicus serotinus south of the Pyrenees. The aim of this study is the reconstruction of the EBLV-1 phylogeny and phylodynamics in the Iberian Peninsula in the context of the European continent...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621841/australian-bat-lyssavirus
#7
Tony Merritt, Kathryn Taylor, Keren Cox-Witton, Hume Field, Kate Wingett, Diana Mendez, Michelle Power, David Durrheim
BACKGROUND: Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) causes human illness that is indistinguishable from classical rabies. All Australian bats have the potential to carry and transmit ABLV, and potentially risky human exposures to bats are common. ABLV infection has resulted in three human deaths in Australia since 1996. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to equip general practitioners (GPs) to assist in the prevention and management of potential ABLV exposures in Australia, including complex clinical scenarios that are not fully addressed in current national guidelines...
March 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615985/analysis-of-mouse-brain-transcriptome-after-experimental-duvenhage-virus-infection-shows-activation-of-innate-immune-response-and-pyroptotic-cell-death-pathway
#8
Penelope Koraka, Byron E E Martina, Henk-Jan van den Ham, Fatiha Zaaraoui-Boutahar, Wilfred van IJcken, Jouke Roose, Geert van Amerongen, Arno Andeweg, Albertus D M E Osterhaus
Rabies is an important neglected disease, characterized by invariably fatal encephalitis. Several studies focus on understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of the prototype lyssavirus rabies virus (RABV) infection, and little is known about the pathogenesis of rabies caused by other lyssaviruses. We sought to characterize the host response to Duvenhage virus infection and compare it with responses observed during RABV infection by gene expression profiling of brains of mice with the respective infections. We found in both infections differentially expressed genes leading to increased expression of type I interferons (IFNs), chemokines, and proinflammatory cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606193/possible-transmission-of-irkut-virus-from-dogs-to-humans
#9
Teng Chen, Fa Ming Miao, Ye Liu, Shou Feng Zhang, Fei Zhang, Nan Li, Rong Liang Hu
Lyssaviruses, including Rabies virus, Duvenhage virus, European bat lyssavirus 1, European bat lyssavirus 2, Australian bat lyssavirus, and Irkut virus (IRKV), have caused human fatalities, but infection of IRKV in dogs has not been previously reported. In China, a dead dog that previously bit a human was determined to be infected with IRKV. Pathogenicity tests revealed that IRKVs can cause rabies-like disease in dogs and cats after laboratory infection. The close relationship between humans and pets, such as dogs and cats, may generate a new spillover-spreading route for IRKV infection...
February 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553328/lyssavirus-in-japanese-pipistrelle-taiwan
#10
Shu-Chia Hu, Chao-Lung Hsu, Ming-Shiuh Lee, Yang-Chang Tu, Jen-Chieh Chang, Chieh-Hao Wu, Shu-Hwae Lee, Lu-Jen Ting, Kwok-Rong Tsai, Ming-Chu Cheng, Wen-Jane Tu, Wei-Cheng Hsu
A putative new lyssavirus was found in 2 Japanese pipistrelles (Pipistrellus abramus) in Taiwan in 2016 and 2017. The concatenated coding regions of the virus showed 62.9%-75.1% nucleotide identities to the other 16 species of lyssavirus, suggesting that it may be representative of a new species of this virus.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543715/utilisation-of-chimeric-lyssaviruses-to-assess-vaccine-protection-against-highly-divergent-lyssaviruses
#11
Jennifer S Evans, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Hubert Buczkowski, Leigh Thorne, Anthony R Fooks, Ashley C Banyard
Lyssaviruses constitute a diverse range of viruses with the ability to cause fatal encephalitis known as rabies. Existing human rabies vaccines and post exposure prophylaxes (PEP) are based on inactivated preparations of, and neutralising antibody preparations directed against, classical rabies viruses, respectively. Whilst these prophylaxes are highly efficient at neutralising and preventing a productive infection with rabies virus, their ability to neutralise other lyssaviruses is thought to be limited. The remaining 15 virus species within the lyssavirus genus have been divided into at least three phylogroups that generally predict vaccine protection...
March 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505617/pathogenesis-of-bat-rabies-in-a-natural-reservoir-comparative-susceptibility-of-the-straw-colored-fruit-bat-eidolon-helvum-to-three-strains-of-lagos-bat-virus
#12
Richard Suu-Ire, Lineke Begeman, Ashley C Banyard, Andrew C Breed, Christian Drosten, Elisa Eggerbauer, Conrad M Freuling, Louise Gibson, Hooman Goharriz, Daniel L Horton, Daisy Jennings, Ivan V Kuzmin, Denise Marston, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu, Silke Riesle Sbarbaro, David Selden, Emma L Wise, Thijs Kuiken, Anthony R Fooks, Thomas Müller, James L N Wood, Andrew A Cunningham
Rabies is a fatal neurologic disease caused by lyssavirus infection. People are infected through contact with infected animals. The relative increase of human rabies acquired from bats calls for a better understanding of lyssavirus infections in their natural hosts. So far, there is no experimental model that mimics natural lyssavirus infection in the reservoir bat species. Lagos bat virus is a lyssavirus that is endemic in straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Africa. Here we compared the susceptibility of these bats to three strains of Lagos bat virus (from Senegal, Nigeria, and Ghana) by intracranial inoculation...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479072/the-spread-and-evolution-of-rabies-virus-conquering-new-frontiers
#13
REVIEW
Christine R Fisher, Daniel G Streicker, Matthias J Schnell
Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses, most often rabies virus. Despite control efforts, sporadic outbreaks in wildlife populations are largely unpredictable, underscoring our incomplete knowledge of what governs viral transmission and spread in reservoir hosts. Furthermore, the evolutionary history of rabies virus and related lyssaviruses remains largely unclear. Robust surveillance efforts combined with diagnostics and disease modelling are now providing insights into the epidemiology and evolution of rabies virus...
April 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477551/recombination-in-the-rabies-virus-and-other-lyssaviruses
#14
Andrei A Deviatkin, Alexander N Lukashev
Recombination is a common event in RNA viruses; however, in the rabies virus there have been only a few reports of isolated recombination events. Comprehensive analysis found traces of recent recombination events within Arctic, Arctic-like and Africa 1b rabies virus groups, as well as recombination between distinct lyssaviruses. Recombination breakpoints were not linked to gene boundaries and could be detected all over the genome. However, there was no evidence that recombination is an important factor in the genetic variability of the rabies virus...
June 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446230/tentative-novel-lyssavirus-in-a-bat-in-finland
#15
T Nokireki, N Tammiranta, U-M Kokkonen, T Kantala, T Gadd
A tentative novel member of the genus Lyssavirus, designated as Kotalahti bat lyssavirus, was detected in a Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) in Finland. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the virus differs from other known lyssaviruses, being closely related to Khujand virus, Aravan virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus and European bat lyssavirus 2.
June 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420464/potential-confounding-of-diagnosis-of-rabies-in-patients-with-recent-receipt-of-intravenous-immune-globulin
#16
Neil M Vora, Lillian A Orciari, J Bradford Bertumen, Inger Damon, James A Ellison, Vance G Fowler, Richard Franka, Brett W Petersen, P S Satheshkumar, Stephen M Schexnayder, Todd G Smith, Ryan M Wallace, Susan Weinstein, Carl Williams, Pamela Yager, Michael Niezgoda
Rabies is an acute encephalitis that is nearly always fatal. It is caused by infection with viruses of the genus Lyssavirus, the most common of which is Rabies lyssavirus. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) defines a confirmed human rabies case as an illness compatible with rabies that meets at least one of five different laboratory criteria.* Four of these criteria do not depend on the patient's rabies vaccination status; however, the remaining criterion, "identification of Lyssavirus-specific antibody (i...
February 9, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371371/genome-sequence-of-a-rabies-virus-isolated-from-a-dog-in-chiapas-mexico-2013
#17
Sandra Pérez-Agüeros, Joanna María Ortiz-Alcántara, Fabiola Garcés-Ayala, Edgar Mendieta-Condado, Elizabeth González-Durán, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Martin Melo-Munguía, Susana Chávez-López, Albert Sandoval-Borja, Mauricio Gómez-Sierra, Rita Terán-Toledo, David Martínez-Solís, Israel Animas-Vargas, Beatriz Escamilla-Ríos, Belem Torres-Longoria, Irma López-Martínez, Lucía Hernández-Rivas, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, José Ernesto Ramírez-González
Rabies virus (RABV), a member of the genus Lyssavirus , causes encephalitis that is almost always fatal following the onset of clinical signs. Here, we report the complete codifying sequence of an RABV isolated from a dog in Mexico. Molecular data showed that this strain belongs to the Chiapas lineage.
January 25, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357361/defining-objective-clusters-for-rabies-virus-sequences-using-affinity-propagation-clustering
#18
Susanne Fischer, Conrad M Freuling, Thomas Müller, Florian Pfaff, Ulrich Bodenhofer, Dirk Höper, Mareike Fischer, Denise A Marston, Anthony R Fooks, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Franz J Conraths, Timo Homeier-Bachmann
Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses, and is one of the oldest known zoonoses. In recent years, more than 21,000 nucleotide sequences of rabies viruses (RABV), from the prototype species rabies lyssavirus, have been deposited in public databases. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses in combination with metadata suggest geographic distributions of RABV. However, these analyses somewhat experience technical difficulties in defining verifiable criteria for cluster allocations in phylogenetic trees inviting for a more rational approach...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303971/molecular-epidemiology-and-evolution-of-european-bat-lyssavirus-2
#19
REVIEW
Lorraine M McElhinney, Denise A Marston, Emma L Wise, Conrad M Freuling, Hervé Bourhy, Reto Zanoni, Torfinn Moldal, Engbert A Kooi, Antonie Neubauer-Juric, Tiina Nokireki, Thomas Müller, Anthony R Fooks
Bat rabies cases in Europe are mainly attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) and European Bat Lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2). Prior to the death of a bat worker in Finland in 1985, very few bat rabies cases were reported. Enhanced surveillance in the two subsequent years (1986-1987) identified 263 cases (more than a fifth of all reported cases to date). Between 1977 and 2016, 1183 cases of bat rabies were reported, with the vast majority (>97%) being attributed to EBLV-1. In contrast, there have been only 39 suspected cases of EBLV-2, of which 34 have been confirmed by virus typing and presently restricted to just two bat species; Myotis daubentonii and Myotis dasycneme ...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300155/antigenic-site-changes-in-the-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-dictates-functionality-and-neutralizing-capability-against-divergent-lyssaviruses
#20
J S Evans, D Selden, G Wu, E Wright, D L Horton, A R Fooks, A C Banyard
Lyssavirus infection has a near 100 % case fatality rate following the onset of clinical disease, and current rabies vaccines confer protection against all reported phylogroup I lyssaviruses. However, there is little or no protection against more divergent lyssaviruses and so investigation into epitopes within the glycoprotein (G) that dictate a neutralizing response against divergent lyssaviruses is warranted. Importantly, the facilities required to work with these pathogens, including wild-type and mutated forms of different lyssaviruses, are scarcely available and, as such, this type of study is inherently difficult to perform...
February 2018: Journal of General Virology
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