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Shu-Chia Hu, Chao-Lung Hsu, Ming-Shiuh Lee, Yang-Chang Tu, Jen-Chieh Chang, Chieh-Hao Wu, Shu-Hwae Lee, Lu-Jen Ting, Kwok-Rong Tsai, Ming-Chu Cheng, Wen-Jane Tu, Wei-Cheng Hsu
A putative new lyssavirus was found in 2 Japanese pipistrelles (Pipistrellus abramus) in Taiwan in 2016 and 2017. The concatenated coding regions of the virus showed 62.9%-75.1% nucleotide identities to the other 16 species of lyssavirus, suggesting that it may be representative of a new species of this virus.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jennifer S Evans, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Hubert Buczkowski, Leigh Thorne, Anthony R Fooks, Ashley C Banyard
Lyssaviruses constitute a diverse range of viruses with the ability to cause fatal encephalitis known as rabies. Existing human rabies vaccines and post exposure prophylaxes (PEP) are based on inactivated preparations of, and neutralising antibody preparations directed against, classical rabies viruses, respectively. Whilst these prophylaxes are highly efficient at neutralising and preventing a productive infection with rabies virus, their ability to neutralise other lyssaviruses is thought to be limited. The remaining 15 virus species within the lyssavirus genus have been divided into at least three phylogroups that generally predict vaccine protection...
March 15, 2018: Viruses
Richard Suu-Ire, Lineke Begeman, Ashley C Banyard, Andrew C Breed, Christian Drosten, Elisa Eggerbauer, Conrad M Freuling, Louise Gibson, Hooman Goharriz, Daniel L Horton, Daisy Jennings, Ivan V Kuzmin, Denise Marston, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu, Silke Riesle Sbarbaro, David Selden, Emma L Wise, Thijs Kuiken, Anthony R Fooks, Thomas Müller, James L N Wood, Andrew A Cunningham
Rabies is a fatal neurologic disease caused by lyssavirus infection. People are infected through contact with infected animals. The relative increase of human rabies acquired from bats calls for a better understanding of lyssavirus infections in their natural hosts. So far, there is no experimental model that mimics natural lyssavirus infection in the reservoir bat species. Lagos bat virus is a lyssavirus that is endemic in straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Africa. Here we compared the susceptibility of these bats to three strains of Lagos bat virus (from Senegal, Nigeria, and Ghana) by intracranial inoculation...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Christine R Fisher, Daniel G Streicker, Matthias J Schnell
Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses, most often rabies virus. Despite control efforts, sporadic outbreaks in wildlife populations are largely unpredictable, underscoring our incomplete knowledge of what governs viral transmission and spread in reservoir hosts. Furthermore, the evolutionary history of rabies virus and related lyssaviruses remains largely unclear. Robust surveillance efforts combined with diagnostics and disease modelling are now providing insights into the epidemiology and evolution of rabies virus...
February 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Andrei A Deviatkin, Alexander N Lukashev
Recombination is a common event in RNA viruses; however, in the rabies virus there have been only a few reports of isolated recombination events. Comprehensive analysis found traces of recent recombination events within Arctic, Arctic-like and Africa 1b rabies virus groups, as well as recombination between distinct lyssaviruses. Recombination breakpoints were not linked to gene boundaries and could be detected all over the genome. However, there was no evidence that recombination is an important factor in the genetic variability of the rabies virus...
February 22, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
T Nokireki, N Tammiranta, U-M Kokkonen, T Kantala, T Gadd
A tentative novel member of the genus Lyssavirus, designated as Kotalahti bat lyssavirus, was detected in a Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) in Finland. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the virus differs from other known lyssaviruses, being closely related to Khujand virus, Aravan virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus and European bat lyssavirus 2.
February 15, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Neil M Vora, Lillian A Orciari, J Bradford Bertumen, Inger Damon, James A Ellison, Vance G Fowler, Richard Franka, Brett W Petersen, P S Satheshkumar, Stephen M Schexnayder, Todd G Smith, Ryan M Wallace, Susan Weinstein, Carl Williams, Pamela Yager, Michael Niezgoda
Rabies is an acute encephalitis that is nearly always fatal. It is caused by infection with viruses of the genus Lyssavirus, the most common of which is Rabies lyssavirus. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) defines a confirmed human rabies case as an illness compatible with rabies that meets at least one of five different laboratory criteria.* Four of these criteria do not depend on the patient's rabies vaccination status; however, the remaining criterion, "identification of Lyssavirus-specific antibody (i...
February 9, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Sandra Pérez-Agüeros, Joanna María Ortiz-Alcántara, Fabiola Garcés-Ayala, Edgar Mendieta-Condado, Elizabeth González-Durán, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Martin Melo-Munguía, Susana Chávez-López, Albert Sandoval-Borja, Mauricio Gómez-Sierra, Rita Terán-Toledo, David Martínez-Solís, Israel Animas-Vargas, Beatriz Escamilla-Ríos, Belem Torres-Longoria, Irma López-Martínez, Lucía Hernández-Rivas, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, José Ernesto Ramírez-González
Rabies virus (RABV), a member of the genus Lyssavirus, causes encephalitis that is almost always fatal following the onset of clinical signs. Here, we report the complete codifying sequence of an RABV isolated from a dog in Mexico. Molecular data showed that this strain belongs to the Chiapas lineage.
January 25, 2018: Genome Announcements
Susanne Fischer, Conrad M Freuling, Thomas Müller, Florian Pfaff, Ulrich Bodenhofer, Dirk Höper, Mareike Fischer, Denise A Marston, Anthony R Fooks, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Franz J Conraths, Timo Homeier-Bachmann
Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses, and is one of the oldest known zoonoses. In recent years, more than 21,000 nucleotide sequences of rabies viruses (RABV), from the prototype species rabies lyssavirus, have been deposited in public databases. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses in combination with metadata suggest geographic distributions of RABV. However, these analyses somewhat experience technical difficulties in defining verifiable criteria for cluster allocations in phylogenetic trees inviting for a more rational approach...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lorraine M McElhinney, Denise A Marston, Emma L Wise, Conrad M Freuling, Hervé Bourhy, Reto Zanoni, Torfinn Moldal, Engbert A Kooi, Antonie Neubauer-Juric, Tiina Nokireki, Thomas Müller, Anthony R Fooks
Bat rabies cases in Europe are mainly attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) and European Bat Lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2). Prior to the death of a bat worker in Finland in 1985, very few bat rabies cases were reported. Enhanced surveillance in the two subsequent years (1986-1987) identified 263 cases (more than a fifth of all reported cases to date). Between 1977 and 2016, 1183 cases of bat rabies were reported, with the vast majority (>97%) being attributed to EBLV-1. In contrast, there have been only 39 suspected cases of EBLV-2, of which 34 have been confirmed by virus typing and presently restricted to just two bat species; Myotis daubentonii and Myotis dasycneme...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
J S Evans, D Selden, G Wu, E Wright, D L Horton, A R Fooks, A C Banyard
Lyssavirus infection has a near 100 % case fatality rate following the onset of clinical disease, and current rabies vaccines confer protection against all reported phylogroup I lyssaviruses. However, there is little or no protection against more divergent lyssaviruses and so investigation into epitopes within the glycoprotein (G) that dictate a neutralizing response against divergent lyssaviruses is warranted. Importantly, the facilities required to work with these pathogens, including wild-type and mutated forms of different lyssaviruses, are scarcely available and, as such, this type of study is inherently difficult to perform...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Dhaval H Vagheshwari, Bharat B Bhanderi, Rafyuddin A Mathakiya, Mayurdhvaj K Jhala
The present study was undertaken with an aim of characterization of rabies virus (genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae under the order Mononegavirales) by sequencing of partial nucleoprotein (N) gene of rabies virus and phylogenetic analysis to know the genotype and lineage of rabies virus present in Gujarat state of India. A total of 32 samples (18 brain samples and 14 saliva samples) were aseptically collected from live and dead animals (viz. dog, buffalo, cow, goat, donkey and hyena) for rabies virus detection...
September 2017: Virusdisease
Tzu-Yuan Chao, Shiqi Ren, Enyun Shen, Susan Moore, Shou-Feng Zhang, Li Chen, Charles E Rupprecht, Eric Tsao
Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease that is preventable in humans by appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, current PEP relies on polyclonal immune globulin products purified from pooled human (HRIG) or equine (ERIG) plasma that are either in chronic shortage or in association with safety concerns. Here, we present the development of an antibody cocktail, SYN023, made of two novel monoclonal antibodies (MAb) CTB011 and CTB012 that could serve as safer and more cost-effective alternatives to the current RIG products...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Alexandre Servat, Marine Wasniewski, Matthieu Gaillard, Christophe Borel, Florence Cliquet
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses which can affect all mammals, including human and bats. In Europe, bat rabies cases are attributed to five different lyssavirus species, the majority of rabid bats being attributed to European bat 1 lyssavirus (EBLV-1), circulating mainly in serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus). In France, rabies in bats is under surveillance since 1989, with 77 positive cases reported between 1989 and 2016. CASE PRESENTATION: In the frame of the bat rabies surveillance, an unusual mortality of serotine bats was reported in 2009 in a village in North-East France...
December 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
M K Young, S Banu, B J McCall, S Vlack, H Carroll, S Bennett, R Davison, D Francis
Despite ongoing public health messages about the risks associated with bat contact, the number of potential exposures to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) due to intentional handling by members of the general public in Queensland has remained high. We sought to better understand the reasons for intentional handling among these members of the public who reported their potential exposure to inform future public health messages. We interviewed adults who resided in a defined geographic area in South East Queensland and notified potential exposure to ABLV due to intentional handling of bats by telephone between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013...
February 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Anthony R Fooks, Florence Cliquet, Stefan Finke, Conrad Freuling, Thiravat Hemachudha, Reeta S Mani, Thomas Müller, Susan Nadin-Davis, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Henry Wilde, Ashley C Banyard
Rabies is a life-threatening neglected tropical disease: tens of thousands of cases are reported annually in endemic countries (mainly in Africa and Asia), although the actual numbers are most likely underestimated. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is caused by infection with viruses of the Lyssavirus genus, which are transmitted via the saliva of an infected animal. Dogs are the most important reservoir for rabies viruses, and dog bites account for >99% of human cases. The virus first infects peripheral motor neurons, and symptoms occur after the virus reaches the central nervous system...
November 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Denise A Marston, Ashley C Banyard, Lorraine M McElhinney, Conrad M Freuling, Stefan Finke, Xavier de Lamballerie, Thomas Müller, Anthony R Fooks
Lyssaviruses are a diverse range of viruses which all cause the disease rabies. Of the 16 recognized species, only rabies viruses (RABV) have multiple host reservoirs. Although lyssaviruses are capable of infecting all mammals, onward transmission in a new host population requires adaptation of the virus, in a number of stages with both host and virus factors determining the outcome. Due to an absence of recorded non-RABV host shifts, RABV data is extrapolated to draw conclusions for all lyssaviruses. In this article, we have focused on evidence of host shifts in the same insectivorous bat reservoir species in North America (RABV) and Europe (EBLV-1, EBLV-2 and BBLV)...
November 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
Cécile Troupin, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Simon Dellicour, Isabelle Casademont, Lauriane Kergoat, Anthony Lepelletier, Laurent Dacheux, Guy Baele, Elodie Monchâtre-Leroy, Florence Cliquet, Philippe Lemey, Hervé Bourhy
The majority of bat rabies cases in Europe are attributed to European bat 1 lyssavirus (EBLV-1), circulating mainly in serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus). Two subtypes have been defined (EBLV-1a and EBLV-1b), each associated with a different geographical distribution. In this study, we undertake a comprehensive sequence analysis based on 80 newly obtained EBLV-1 nearly complete genome sequences from nine European countries over a 45-year period to infer selection pressures, rates of nucleotide substitution, and evolutionary time scale of these two subtypes in Europe...
November 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Emmanuelle Robardet, Christophe Borel, Marie Moinet, Dorothée Jouan, Marine Wasniewski, Jacques Barrat, Franck Boué, Elodie Montchâtre-Leroy, Alexandre Servat, Olivier Gimenez, Florence Cliquet, Evelyne Picard-Meyer
This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Natalia Langenfeld Fuoco, Sandriana Dos Ramos Silva, Elaine Raniero Fernandes, Fernanda Guedes Luiz, Orlando Garcia Ribeiro, Iana Suly Santos Katz
Rabies is a lethal viral infection that can affect almost all mammals, including humans. To better understand the replication of Rabies lyssavirus, we investigated if the viral load in brains naturally infected with rabies influences viral internalization and viral growth kinetics in neuroblastoma cells, and if the viral load affects mortality in mice after intradermal infection. We noted that high initial viral loads in brains (group II) were unfavourable for increasing viral titers during serial passages in neuroblastoma cells when compared to low initial viral loads in brains (group I)...
January 2018: Antiviral Research
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