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"Rational decisions" AND "cognitive biases"

Shashi S Seshia, G Bryan Young, Michael Makhinson, Preston A Smith, Kent Stobart, Pat Croskerry
INTRODUCTION: Although patient safety has improved steadily, harm remains a substantial global challenge. Additionally, safety needs to be ensured not only in hospitals but also across the continuum of care. Better understanding of the complex cognitive factors influencing health care-related decisions and organizational cultures could lead to more rational approaches, and thereby to further improvement. HYPOTHESIS: A model integrating the concepts underlying Reason's Swiss cheese theory and the cognitive-affective biases plus cascade could advance the understanding of cognitive-affective processes that underlie decisions and organizational cultures across the continuum of care...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Samuel G Campbell, Pat Croskerry, David A Petrie
Cognitive bias can be a serious impediment to rational decision-making by health leaders. We use a hypothetical case study to introduce some basic concepts of bias with examples of mitigation strategies. We argue that the effect of biases should be considered when making every significant administrative decision.
September 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
Marc L Copersino
Fundamental to cognitive models of addiction is the gradual strengthening of automatic, urge-related responding that develops in tandem with the diminution of self-control-related processes aimed at inhibiting impulses. Recent conceptualizations of addiction also include a third set of cognitive processes related to self-awareness and superordinate regulation of self-control and other higher brain function. This review describes new human research evidence and theoretical developments related to the multicausal strengthening of urge-related responding and failure of self-control in addiction, and the etiology of disrupted self-awareness and rational decision-making associated with continued substance use...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Marina Voinson, Sylvain Billiard, Alexandra Alvergne
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142990.].
2016: PloS One
Marina Voinson, Sylvain Billiard, Alexandra Alvergne
BACKGROUND: Theoretical studies predict that it is not possible to eradicate a disease under voluntary vaccination because of the emergence of non-vaccinating "free-riders" when vaccination coverage increases. A central tenet of this approach is that human behaviour follows an economic model of rational choice. Yet, empirical studies reveal that vaccination decisions do not necessarily maximize individual self-interest. Here we investigate the dynamics of vaccination coverage using an approach that dispenses with payoff maximization and assumes that risk perception results from the interaction between epidemiology and cognitive biases...
2015: PloS One
Tim W Fawcett, Benja Fallenstein, Andrew D Higginson, Alasdair I Houston, Dave E W Mallpress, Pete C Trimmer, John M McNamara
Models and experiments on adaptive decision-making typically consider highly simplified environments that bear little resemblance to the complex, heterogeneous world in which animals (including humans) have evolved. These studies reveal an array of so-called cognitive biases and puzzling features of behaviour that seem irrational in the specific situation presented to the decision-maker. Here we review an emerging body of work that highlights spatiotemporal heterogeneity and autocorrelation as key properties of most real-world environments that may help us understand why these biases evolved...
March 2014: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
(no author information available yet)
Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive development and cognitive evolution. Laurie R. Santos links many branches of psychological inquiry in her research, including animal behavior, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, judgment and decision making, and social psychology...
November 2012: American Psychologist
Claudio Lucchiari, Gabriella Pravettoni
RATIONALE: Diagnostic reasoning is a critical aspect of clinical performance, having a high impact on quality and safety of care. Although diagnosis is fundamental in medicine, we still have a poor understanding of the factors that determine its course. According to traditional understanding, all information used in diagnostic reasoning is objective and logically driven. However, these conditions are not always met. Although we would be less likely to make an inaccurate diagnosis when following rational decision making, as described by normative models, the real diagnostic process works in a different way...
February 2012: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Torsten Marcus Breden, Jochen Vollmann
This article gives a brief introduction to the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-T) and critically examines its theoretical presuppositions. On the basis of empirical, methodological and ethical critique it is emphasised that the cognitive bias that underlies the MacCAT-T assessment needs to be modified. On the one hand it has to be admitted that the operationalisation of competence in terms of value-free categories, e.g. rational decision abilities, guarantees objectivity to a great extent; but on the other hand it bears severe problems...
December 2004: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
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