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Heuristics AND "cognitive biases"

Kwok M Ho
Predicting long-term outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is difficult, but accurate assessment is paramount for both families of the patients and medical decision- making, as well as quality assurance or research purposes. Many important prognostic factors for patients with severe TBI have been identified, but most - if not all - including the Glasgow Coma Score and magnetic resonance imaging are not accurate enough to be used alone to predict patient outcomes. Clinicians should also be wary about how their predictions and decision-making can be affected by heuristics and cognitive biases...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Jason N Itri, Sohil H Patel
OBJECTIVE: The field of cognitive science has provided important insights into mental processes underlying the interpretation of imaging examinations. Despite these insights, diagnostic error remains a major obstacle in the goal to improve quality in radiology. In this article, we describe several types of cognitive bias that lead to diagnostic errors in imaging and discuss approaches to mitigate cognitive biases and diagnostic error. CONCLUSION: Radiologists rely on heuristic principles to reduce complex tasks of assessing probabilities and predicting values into simpler judgmental operations...
March 12, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Ahsen Hussain, James Oestreicher
Diagnostic errors have a significant impact on health care outcomes and patient care. The underlying causes and development of diagnostic error are complex with flaws in health care systems, as well as human error, playing a role. Cognitive biases and a failure of decision-making shortcuts (heuristics) are human factors that can compromise the diagnostic process. We describe these mechanisms, their role with the clinician, and provide clinical scenarios to highlight the various points at which biases may emerge...
January 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Tommi Tervonen, Heather Gelhorn, Sumitra Sri Bhashyam, Jiat-Ling Poon, Katharine S Gries, Anne Rentz, Kevin Marsh
PURPOSE: Multiple criteria decision analysis swing weighting (SW) and discrete choice experiments (DCE) are appropriate methods for capturing patient preferences on treatment benefit-risk trade-offs. This paper presents a qualitative comparison of the 2 methods. METHODS: We review and critically assess similarities and differences of SW and DCE based on 6 aspects: comprehension by study participants, cognitive biases, sample representativeness, ability to capture heterogeneity in preferences, reliability and validity, and robustness of the results...
December 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Daniel D Matlock, Jacqueline Jones, Carolyn T Nowels, Amy Jenkins, Larry A Allen, Jean S Kutner
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that patients with primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) often misunderstand the ICD. Advances in behavioral economics demonstrate that some misunderstandings may be due to cognitive biases. We aimed to explore the influence of cognitive bias on ICD decision making. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a qualitative framework analysis including 9 cognitive biases: affect heuristic, affective forecasting, anchoring, availability, default effects, halo effects, optimism bias, framing effects, and state dependence...
November 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Lambros Roumbanis
This article focuses on anchoring effects in the process of peer reviewing research proposals. Anchoring effects are commonly seen as the result of flaws in human judgment, as cognitive biases that stem from specific heuristics that guide people when they involve their intuition in solving a problem. Here, the cognitive biases will be analyzed from a sociological point of view, as interactional and aggregated phenomena. The article is based on direct observations of ten panel groups evaluating research proposals in the natural and engineering sciences for the Swedish Research Council...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
Brandon G Coleman, Thomas M Johnson, Kenneth J Erley, Richard Topolski, Michael Rethman, Douglas D Lancaster
In recent years, evidence-based dentistry has become the ideal for research, academia, and clinical practice. However, barriers to implementation are many, including the complexity of interpreting conflicting evidence as well as difficulties in accessing it. Furthermore, many proponents of evidence-based care seem to assume that good evidence consistently exists and that clinicians can and will objectively evaluate data so as to apply the best evidence to individual patients' needs. The authors argue that these shortcomings may mislead many clinicians and that students should be adequately prepared to cope with some of the more complex issues surrounding evidence-based practice...
October 2016: Journal of Dental Education
Ramona Ludolph, Ahmed Allam, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND: One of people's major motives for going online is the search for health-related information. Most consumers start their search with a general search engine but are unaware of the fact that its sorting and ranking criteria do not mirror information quality. This misconception can lead to distorted search outcomes, especially when the information processing is characterized by heuristic principles and resulting cognitive biases instead of a systematic elaboration. As vaccination opponents are vocal on the Web, the chance of encountering their non‒evidence-based views on immunization is high...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Alireza Soltani, Peyman Khorsand, Clara Guo, Shiva Farashahi, Janet Liu
Decision making often requires simultaneously learning about and combining evidence from various sources of information. However, when making inferences from these sources, humans show systematic biases that are often attributed to heuristics or limitations in cognitive processes. Here we use a combination of experimental and modelling approaches to reveal neural substrates of probabilistic inference and corresponding biases. We find systematic deviations from normative accounts of inference when alternative options are not equally rewarding; subjects' choice behaviour is biased towards the more rewarding option, whereas their inferences about individual cues show the opposite bias...
2016: Nature Communications
M M Barrus, J G Hosking, P J Cocker, C A Winstanley
Cognitive biases may play a significant role in disorders of decision making such as pathological gambling and addiction. Understanding the neurobiology of these biases could lead to more effective pharmacological and therapeutic treatments for disorders in which aberrant decision making is prominent. The rodent Betting Task (rBT) was designed to measure one commonly observed decision-making heuristic in rodents, namely "escalation of commitment" in which subjects become more risk averse as the stakes increase, even if the odds of success remain constant...
March 14, 2017: Neuroscience
Thomas E Gladwin, Corinde E Wiers, Reinout W Wiers
Cognitive retraining or cognitive bias modification (CBM) involves having subjects repeatedly perform a computerized task designed to reduce the impact of automatic processes that lead to harmful behavior. We first discuss the theory underlying CBM and provide a brief overview of important research progress in its application to addiction. We then focus on cognitive- and neural-mediating mechanisms. We consider recent criticism of both CBM and its theoretical foundations. Evaluations of CBM could benefit from considering theory-driven factors that may determine variations in efficacy, such as motivation...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
Balazs Aczel, Bence Bago, Aba Szollosi, Andrei Foldes, Bence Lukacs
Individual differences in people's susceptibility to heuristics and biases (HB) are often measured by multiple-bias questionnaires consisting of one or a few items for each bias. This research approach relies on the assumptions that (1) different versions of a decision bias task measure are interchangeable as they measure the same cognitive failure; and (2) that some combination of these tasks measures the same underlying construct. Based on these assumptions, in Study 1 we developed two versions of a new decision bias survey for which we modified 13 HB tasks to increase their comparability, construct validity, and the participants' motivation...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Marina Voinson, Sylvain Billiard, Alexandra Alvergne
BACKGROUND: Theoretical studies predict that it is not possible to eradicate a disease under voluntary vaccination because of the emergence of non-vaccinating "free-riders" when vaccination coverage increases. A central tenet of this approach is that human behaviour follows an economic model of rational choice. Yet, empirical studies reveal that vaccination decisions do not necessarily maximize individual self-interest. Here we investigate the dynamics of vaccination coverage using an approach that dispenses with payoff maximization and assumes that risk perception results from the interaction between epidemiology and cognitive biases...
2015: PloS One
Chang Hyun Nam, Beomseok Jeon
INTRODUCTION: Lesion localization based on patient's manifestation is a fundamental step in making a neurological diagnosis. However, it has been reported that diagnosticians are vulnerable to the effects of various cognitive biases during diagnostic processes. CASE REPORT: A 69-year-old man with right-hand stiffness visited the Movement Disorder Clinic with the history of periodic limb movement syndrome and restless leg syndrome. His sensory and deep tendon reflex examination results were normal...
October 2015: Neurologist
Alexander Jack, Vincent Egan
BACKGROUND: Paranoid thinking is prevalent in the non-clinical population and cognitive mechanisms of heuristic reasoning and jumping to conclusions bias contributes to its formation and maintenance. AIMS: This study investigated the degree to which paranoia, perceived environmental risk, heuristic reasoning and jumping to conclusions bias (measured with the beads task) contribute to misinterpretation of neutral stimuli, and whether this informed judgements regarding vulnerability to threat and crime...
March 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Natalie J Sachs-Ericsson, Nicole C Rushing, Ian H Stanley, Julia Sheffler
OBJECTIVES: Converging evidence suggests that the sequelae of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) including childhood abuse (e.g., sexual, physical, emotional/verbal abuse, neglect) and other ACE (e.g., family dysfunction, parental loss, parental psychopathology, substance abuse, incarceration, and domestic violence) have pronounced effects on suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation, attempts, and death by suicide) in older age. There are fundamental changes in the developmental trajectory of biological, psychological and behavioral processes that result from ACE and that exert influence throughout the life span...
2016: Aging & Mental Health
Lawrence Hoc Nang Fong, Amy Siu Ian So, Rob Law
Cognitive bias is prevalent among gamblers, especially those with gambling problems. Grounded in the heuristics theories, this study contributes to the literature by examining a cognitive bias triggered by the break streak pattern in the casino setting. We postulate that gamblers tend to bet on the latest outcome when there is a break-streak pattern. Moreover, three determinants of the betting decision under break-streak pattern, including the streak length of the alternative outcome, the frequency of the latest outcome, and gender, were identified and examined in this study...
March 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
Andrea Polonioli
This paper discusses Stanovich's appeal to individual differences in reasoning and decision-making to undermine the "adaptive rationality" project put forth by Gigerenzer and his co-workers. I discuss two different arguments based on Stanovich's research. First, heterogeneity in the use of heuristics seems to be at odds with the adaptationist background of the project. Second, the existence of correlations between cognitive ability and susceptibility to cognitive bias suggests that the "standard picture of rationality" (Stein, 1996, 4) is normatively adequate...
February 2015: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Susan A Gelman, Meredith Meyer
Cimpian & Salomon (C&S) provide evidence that psychological essentialism rests on a domain-general attention to inherent causes. We suggest that the inherence heuristic may itself be undergirded by a more foundational cognitive bias, namely, a realist assumption about environmental regularities. In contrast, when considering specific representations, people may be more likely to activate attention to non-inherent, contingent, and historical links.
October 2014: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Jonathan St B T Evans
Wason (1960) published a relatively short experimental paper, in which he introduced the 2-4-6 problem as a test of inductive reasoning. This paper became one of the most highly cited to be published in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology and is significant for a number of reasons. First, the 2-4-6 task itself was ingenious and yielded evidence of error and bias in the intelligent participants who attempted it. Research on the 2-4-6 problem continues to the present day. More importantly, it was Wason's first paper on reasoning and one which made strong claims for bias and irrationality in a period dominated by rationalist writers like Piaget...
October 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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