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Heuristics AND "cognitive biases"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694289/preparing-dental-students-and-residents-to-overcome-internal-and-external-barriers-to-evidence-based-practice
#1
Brandon G Coleman, Thomas M Johnson, Kenneth J Erley, Richard Topolski, Michael Rethman, Douglas D Lancaster
In recent years, evidence-based dentistry has become the ideal for research, academia, and clinical practice. However, barriers to implementation are many, including the complexity of interpreting conflicting evidence as well as difficulties in accessing it. Furthermore, many proponents of evidence-based care seem to assume that good evidence consistently exists and that clinicians can and will objectively evaluate data so as to apply the best evidence to individual patients' needs. The authors argue that these shortcomings may mislead many clinicians and that students should be adequately prepared to cope with some of the more complex issues surrounding evidence-based practice...
October 2016: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255736/manipulating-google-s-knowledge-graph-box-to-counter-biased-information-processing-during-an-online-search-on-vaccination-application-of-a-technological-debiasing-strategy
#2
Ramona Ludolph, Ahmed Allam, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND: One of people's major motives for going online is the search for health-related information. Most consumers start their search with a general search engine but are unaware of the fact that its sorting and ranking criteria do not mirror information quality. This misconception can lead to distorted search outcomes, especially when the information processing is characterized by heuristic principles and resulting cognitive biases instead of a systematic elaboration. As vaccination opponents are vocal on the Web, the chance of encountering their non‒evidence-based views on immunization is high...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27116102/neural-substrates-of-cognitive-biases-during-probabilistic-inference
#3
Alireza Soltani, Peyman Khorsand, Clara Guo, Shiva Farashahi, Janet Liu
Decision making often requires simultaneously learning about and combining evidence from various sources of information. However, when making inferences from these sources, humans show systematic biases that are often attributed to heuristics or limitations in cognitive processes. Here we use a combination of experimental and modelling approaches to reveal neural substrates of probabilistic inference and corresponding biases. We find systematic deviations from normative accounts of inference when alternative options are not equally rewarding; subjects' choice behaviour is biased towards the more rewarding option, whereas their inferences about individual cues show the opposite bias...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912278/inactivation-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-reduces-irrational-choice-on-a-rodent-betting-task
#4
Michael M Barrus, Jay G Hosking, Paul J Cocker, Catharine A Winstanley
Cognitive biases may play a significant role in disorders of decision making such as pathological gambling and addiction. Understanding the neurobiology of these biases could lead to more effective pharmacological and therapeutic treatments for disorders in which aberrant decision making is prominent. The rat Betting Task (rBT) was designed to measure one commonly-observed decision-making heuristic in rodents, namely "escalation of commitment" in which subjects become more risk averse as the stakes increase, even if the odds of success remain constant...
February 18, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26822365/cognitive-neuroscience-of-cognitive-retraining-for-addiction-medicine-from-mediating-mechanisms-to-questions-of-efficacy
#5
Thomas E Gladwin, Corinde E Wiers, Reinout W Wiers
Cognitive retraining or cognitive bias modification (CBM) involves having subjects repeatedly perform a computerized task designed to reduce the impact of automatic processes that lead to harmful behavior. We first discuss the theory underlying CBM and provide a brief overview of important research progress in its application to addiction. We then focus on cognitive- and neural-mediating mechanisms. We consider recent criticism of both CBM and its theoretical foundations. Evaluations of CBM could benefit from considering theory-driven factors that may determine variations in efficacy, such as motivation...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26635677/measuring-individual-differences-in-decision-biases-methodological-considerations
#6
Balazs Aczel, Bence Bago, Aba Szollosi, Andrei Foldes, Bence Lukacs
Individual differences in people's susceptibility to heuristics and biases (HB) are often measured by multiple-bias questionnaires consisting of one or a few items for each bias. This research approach relies on the assumptions that (1) different versions of a decision bias task measure are interchangeable as they measure the same cognitive failure; and (2) that some combination of these tasks measures the same underlying construct. Based on these assumptions, in Study 1 we developed two versions of a new decision bias survey for which we modified 13 HB tasks to increase their comparability, construct validity, and the participants' motivation...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26599688/beyond-rational-decision-making-modelling-the-influence-of-cognitive-biases-on-the-dynamics-of-vaccination-coverage
#7
Marina Voinson, Sylvain Billiard, Alexandra Alvergne
BACKGROUND: Theoretical studies predict that it is not possible to eradicate a disease under voluntary vaccination because of the emergence of non-vaccinating "free-riders" when vaccination coverage increases. A central tenet of this approach is that human behaviour follows an economic model of rational choice. Yet, empirical studies reveal that vaccination decisions do not necessarily maximize individual self-interest. Here we investigate the dynamics of vaccination coverage using an approach that dispenses with payoff maximization and assumes that risk perception results from the interaction between epidemiology and cognitive biases...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26468871/lesson-from-a-case-of-cervical-meningioma-misdiagnosed-as-parkinsonism
#8
Chang Hyun Nam, Beomseok Jeon
INTRODUCTION: Lesion localization based on patient's manifestation is a fundamental step in making a neurological diagnosis. However, it has been reported that diagnosticians are vulnerable to the effects of various cognitive biases during diagnostic processes. CASE REPORT: A 69-year-old man with right-hand stiffness visited the Movement Disorder Clinic with the history of periodic limb movement syndrome and restless leg syndrome. His sensory and deep tendon reflex examination results were normal...
October 2015: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26290397/paranoid-thinking-cognitive-bias-and-dangerous-neighbourhoods-implications-for-perception-of-threat-and-expectations-of-victimisation
#9
Alexander Jack, Vincent Egan
BACKGROUND: Paranoid thinking is prevalent in the non-clinical population and cognitive mechanisms of heuristic reasoning and jumping to conclusions bias contributes to its formation and maintenance. AIMS: This study investigated the degree to which paranoia, perceived environmental risk, heuristic reasoning and jumping to conclusions bias (measured with the beads task) contribute to misinterpretation of neutral stimuli, and whether this informed judgements regarding vulnerability to threat and crime...
March 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26264208/in-my-end-is-my-beginning-developmental-trajectories-of-adverse-childhood-experiences-to-late-life-suicide
#10
REVIEW
Natalie J Sachs-Ericsson, Nicole C Rushing, Ian H Stanley, Julia Sheffler
OBJECTIVES: Converging evidence suggests that the sequelae of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) including childhood abuse (e.g., sexual, physical, emotional/verbal abuse, neglect) and other ACE (e.g., family dysfunction, parental loss, parental psychopathology, substance abuse, incarceration, and domestic violence) have pronounced effects on suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation, attempts, and death by suicide) in older age. There are fundamental changes in the developmental trajectory of biological, psychological and behavioral processes that result from ACE and that exert influence throughout the life span...
2016: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25967106/betting-decision-under-break-streak-pattern-evidence-from-casino-gaming
#11
Lawrence Hoc Nang Fong, Amy Siu Ian So, Rob Law
Cognitive bias is prevalent among gamblers, especially those with gambling problems. Grounded in the heuristics theories, this study contributes to the literature by examining a cognitive bias triggered by the break streak pattern in the casino setting. We postulate that gamblers tend to bet on the latest outcome when there is a break-streak pattern. Moreover, three determinants of the betting decision under break-streak pattern, including the streak length of the alternative outcome, the frequency of the latest outcome, and gender, were identified and examined in this study...
March 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25617703/stanovich-s-arguments-against-the-adaptive-rationality-project-an-assessment
#12
Andrea Polonioli
This paper discusses Stanovich's appeal to individual differences in reasoning and decision-making to undermine the "adaptive rationality" project put forth by Gigerenzer and his co-workers. I discuss two different arguments based on Stanovich's research. First, heterogeneity in the use of heuristics seems to be at odds with the adaptationist background of the project. Second, the existence of correlations between cognitive ability and susceptibility to cognitive bias suggests that the "standard picture of rationality" (Stein, 1996, 4) is normatively adequate...
February 2015: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25388036/the-inherence-heuristic-a-basis-for-psychological-essentialism
#13
COMMENT
Susan A Gelman, Meredith Meyer
Cimpian & Salomon (C&S) provide evidence that psychological essentialism rests on a domain-general attention to inherent causes. We suggest that the inherence heuristic may itself be undergirded by a more foundational cognitive bias, namely, a realist assumption about environmental regularities. In contrast, when considering specific representations, people may be more likely to activate attention to non-inherent, contingent, and historical links.
October 2014: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25158629/reasoning-biases-and-dual-processes-the-lasting-impact-of-wason-1960
#14
Jonathan St B T Evans
Wason (1960) published a relatively short experimental paper, in which he introduced the 2-4-6 problem as a test of inductive reasoning. This paper became one of the most highly cited to be published in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology and is significant for a number of reasons. First, the 2-4-6 task itself was ingenious and yielded evidence of error and bias in the intelligent participants who attempted it. Research on the 2-4-6 problem continues to the present day. More importantly, it was Wason's first paper on reasoning and one which made strong claims for bias and irrationality in a period dominated by rationalist writers like Piaget...
October 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25145577/cognitive-biases-and-heuristics-in-medical-decision-making-a-critical-review-using-a-systematic-search-strategy
#15
REVIEW
J S Blumenthal-Barby, Heather Krieger
BACKGROUND: The role of cognitive biases and heuristics in medical decision making is of growing interest. The purpose of this study was to determine whether studies on cognitive biases and heuristics in medical decision making are based on actual or hypothetical decisions and are conducted with populations that are representative of those who typically make the medical decision; to categorize the types of cognitive biases and heuristics found and whether they are found in patients or in medical personnel; and to critically review the studies based on standard methodological quality criteria...
May 2015: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24659192/psychological-strategies-for-winning-a-geopolitical-forecasting-tournament
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Barbara Mellers, Lyle Ungar, Jonathan Baron, Jaime Ramos, Burcu Gurcay, Katrina Fincher, Sydney E Scott, Don Moore, Pavel Atanasov, Samuel A Swift, Terry Murray, Eric Stone, Philip E Tetlock
Five university-based research groups competed to recruit forecasters, elicit their predictions, and aggregate those predictions to assign the most accurate probabilities to events in a 2-year geopolitical forecasting tournament. Our group tested and found support for three psychological drivers of accuracy: training, teaming, and tracking. Probability training corrected cognitive biases, encouraged forecasters to use reference classes, and provided forecasters with heuristics, such as averaging when multiple estimates were available...
May 1, 2014: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24488159/all-that-wheezes-is-not-asthma-cognitive-bias-in-pediatric-emergency-medical-decision-making
#17
Daniel B Park, Joseph V Dobson, Joseph D Losek
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to highlight the intimate role that cognitive biases play in clinical decision making in the pediatric emergency department and to recommend strategies to limit their negative impact on patient care outcomes. METHODS: This was a descriptive study of 3 cases of presumed asthma exacerbation evolving into alternate diagnoses. RESULTS: The role cognitive biases played in either delay to diagnosis or missed diagnosis contributing to patient morbidity are illustrated in each case...
February 2014: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24371131/-neuromolecular-mechanism-of-the-superiority-illusion
#18
REVIEW
Makiko Yamada
The majority of individuals evaluate themselves as above average. This is a cognitive bias called "the superiority illusion". This illusory self-evaluation helps us to have hopes for the future, and has been central to the process of human evolution. Possessing this illusion is also important for mental health, as depressed people appear to have a more realistic perception of themselves, dubbed "depressive realism". Our recent study revealed the spontaneous brain activity and central dopaminergic neurotransmission that generate this illusion, using resting-state fMRI and PET...
January 2014: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24159051/metacognitive-training-for-patients-with-schizophrenia-preliminary-evidence-for-a-targeted-single-module-programme
#19
Ryan P Balzan, Paul H Delfabbro, Cherrie A Galletly, Todd S Woodward
OBJECTIVE: Metacognitive training is an eight-module, group-based treatment programme for people with schizophrenia that targets the cognitive biases (i.e. problematic thinking styles) thought to contribute to the genesis and maintenance of delusions. The present article is an investigation into the efficacy of a shorter, more targeted, single-module metacognitive training programme, administered individually, which focuses specifically on improving cognitive biases that are thought to be driven by a 'hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches' mechanism (e...
December 2014: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23955466/teaching-about-how-doctors-think-a-longitudinal-curriculum-in-cognitive-bias-and-diagnostic-error-for-residents
#20
James B Reilly, Alexis R Ogdie, Joan M Von Feldt, Jennifer S Myers
BACKGROUND: Trends in medical education have reflected the patient safety movement's initial focus on systems. While the role of cognitive-based diagnostic errors has been increasingly recognised among safety experts, literature describing strategies to teach about this important problem is scarce. METHODS: 48 PGY-2 internal medicine residents participated in a three-part, 1-year curriculum in cognitive bias and diagnostic error. Residents completed a multiple-choice test designed to assess the recognition and knowledge of common heuristics and biases both before and after the curriculum...
December 2013: BMJ Quality & Safety
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