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Drug induced neurological disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447035/novel-therapeutic-approaches-rett-syndrome-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-technology
#1
REVIEW
Mohan Gomathi, Vellingiri Balachandar
Recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology target screening and discovering of therapeutic agents for the possible cure of human diseases. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are the right kind of platform for testing potency of specific active compounds. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine developed between 2,500 and 500 BC, is a science involving the intelligent formulations of herbs and minerals. It can serve as a "goldmine" for novel neuroprotective agents used for centuries to treat neurological disorders...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433105/symptomatic-treatment-of-neurologic-symptoms-in-wilson-disease
#2
Tomasz Litwin, Petr Dušek, Anna Członkowska
Wilson disease (WD) is a potentially treatable neurodegenerative disorder. In the majority of cases, treatment with drugs that induce a negative copper balance (usually chelators or zinc salts) leads to improvements in liver function and neurologic signs. However, some patients show severe neurologic symptoms at diagnosis, such as tremor, dystonia, parkinsonism, and chorea. In this patient group, some neurologic deficits may persist despite adequate treatment, and further neurologic deterioration may be observed after treatment initiation...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429899/neurotransmitter-systems-neuroanatomical-pathology-and-cell-death-in-schizophrenia-update-and-perspectives
#3
Hazael Avila-Rojas, Hugo Sandoval-Zamora, Iván Pérez-Neri
Schizophrenia is a thought disorder characterized by delusional thinking which may be accompanied by hallucinations involving any sensory modality. Schizophrenia may be associated with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Also, it may be induced by drugs. In spite of the similarity in psychoses symptomatology, it is unknown if it involves the same underlying neurobiologic mechanisms in those cases. Schizophrenic patients exhibit not only neuroanatomical alterations, but also, distortion of several neurotransmitter systems...
June 2016: Investigación Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421199/valproic-acid-protects-primary-dopamine-neurons-from-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity-involvement-of-gsk3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-by-akt-and-erk-through-the-mitochondrial-intrinsic-apoptotic-pathway
#4
Chi Zhang, Xianrui Yuan, Zhongliang Hu, Songlin Liu, Haoyu Li, Ming Wu, Jian Yuan, Zijin Zhao, Jun Su, Xiangyu Wang, Yiwei Liao, Qing Liu
Valproic acid (VPA), a drug widely used to treat manic disorder and epilepsy, has recently shown neuroprotective effects in several neurological diseases, particularly in Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal of the present study was to confirm VPA's dose-dependent neuroprotective propensities in the MPP(+) model of PD in primary dopamine (DA) neurons and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms using specific mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- (PI3K-) Akt signaling inhibitors...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412920/neuropsychiatric-and-general-interactions-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-with-drugs-of-abuse-and-medicines
#5
Ana Lucia Arellano, Esther Papaseit, Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. The two most important natural cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The THC content of cannabis has been increasing during the last years and recently appeared in the market a series of synthetic cannabinoids with potent agonist activity. Recreational users frequently combine cannabis with other drugs of abuse as alcohol, amphetamines and derivatives, nicotine and cocaine. In addition these subjects can be taking medicines for acute and chronic medical conditions...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389336/the-activity-of-selective-sigma-1-receptor-ligands-in-seizure-models-in-vivo
#6
Edijs Vavers, Baiba Svalbe, Lasma Lauberte, Ilmars Stonans, Ilga Misane, Maija Dambrova, Liga Zvejniece
Sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) is a ligand-regulated protein which, since its discovery, has been widely studied as a novel target to treat neurological disorders, including seizures. However, the roles and mechanisms of Sig1R in the regulation of seizures are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to test and compare effects of often used selective Sig1R ligands in models of experimentally induced seizures. The anti-seizure activities and interactions of selective Sig1R agonist PRE-084, selective Sig1R antagonist NE-100 and novel positive allosteric Sig1R modulator E1R were evaluated in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and (+)-bicuculline (BIC)-induced seizure models in mice...
April 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386329/inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-lithium-chloride-contributes-to-the-integrity-of-blood-spinal-cord-barrier-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Zili He, Yulong Zhou, Qingqing Wang, Jiawei Li, Zengming Zheng, Jian Chen, Hongyu Zhang, Zhouguang Wang, Huazi Xu, Jian Xiao
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play important roles in the spinal cord injury (SCI), which including blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a clinical drug for bipolar mood disorders and contributes to neuroprotection. This study aims to investigate the effects of LiCl on BSCB disruption and the ER stress pathway induced by spinal cord injury. We examined the integrity of the BSCB with Evans Blue dye and macrophages extravasation, measured the microvessels loss, the junction proteins degeneration, the activation ER stress, and the locomotor function recovery...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368694/autoimmune-mediated-psychosis-a-case-of-susac-syndrome-in-a-drug-user
#8
Pablo Barrio, Mercè Balcells, Delón La Puma, Carles Gaig
OBJECTIVE: Susac syndrome, a rare disorder, is thought to be mediated by autoantibodies. One of the potential targets of these autoantibodies could be an antigen in the microvessels of the brain, the retina, and the inner ear leading to central nervous system (CNS) alterations, visual disturbances, and hearing deficits. Our aim is to expand clinicians' diagnostic options when facing psychosis due to medical conditions. METHODS: A case report was conducted for this study...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355406/syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-induced-by-the-phytotherapy-harpagophytum-procumbers-case-report
#9
Renata Reis Carvalho, Camila Dermínio Donadel, Arthur Fernandes Cortez, Vitor Ribeiro Gomes de Almeida Valviesse, Pedro Felipe de Almeida Vianna, Bruno Bordallo Corrêa
INTRODUCTION: The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the inability of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) suppression, compromising the mechanisms of water excretion and urinary concentration. It manifests as hyponatremia and its symptoms, especially neurological. There are many causes that trigger such disease, notably: central nervous system disorders, malignant neoplasm, drugs and others. CASE REPORT: A 65 years female hypertensive patient presented clinical and laboratory manifestations of hyponatremia due to SIADH...
March 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330421/the-proteinopathy-of-d169g-and-k263e-mutants-at-the-rna-recognition-motif-rrm-domain-of-tar-dna-binding-protein-tdp43-causing-neurological-disorders-a-computational-study
#10
Vishwambhar Vishnu Bhandare, Amutha Ramaswamy
One of the multitasking proteins, transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (tdp43) plays a key role in RNA regulation and the two pathogenic mutations such as D169G and K263E, located at the RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) of tdp43, are reported to cause neurological disorders such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Fronto Temporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). As the exploration of the proteinopathy demands both structural and functional characterization of mutants, a comparative analysis on the wild type and mutant tdp43 (D169G and K263E) and their complexes with RNA have been performed using computational approaches...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322973/imidazoline-i2-receptors-an-update
#11
REVIEW
Jun-Xu Li
Since first introduced more than two decades ago, the research in imidazoline I2 receptors has been steadily increasing. This review provides an update on the current status of I2 receptor pharmacology. Imidazoline I2 receptors or I2 binding sites refer to several (at least four) different proteins that bind to [(3)H]-idazoxan and [(3)H]-2-BFI with high affinity. The molecular identities of the proteins remain elusive. One of the proteins (45 kD) seems to be consistent with the identity of brain creatine kinase...
March 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322920/stem-cell-transplantation-therapy-for-multifaceted-therapeutic-benefits-after-stroke
#12
REVIEW
Ling Wei, Zheng Z Wei, Michael Qize Jiang, Osama Mohamad, Shan Ping Yu
One of the exciting advances in modern medicine and life science is cell-based neurovascular regeneration of damaged brain tissues and repair of neuronal structures. The progress in stem cell biology and creation of adult induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has significantly improved basic and pre-clinical research in disease mechanisms and generated enthusiasm for potential applications in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases including stroke. Endogenous neural stem cells and cultured stem cells are capable of self-renewal and give rise to virtually all types of cells essential for the makeup of neuronal structures...
March 18, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#13
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320941/potent-neuroprotection-after-stroke-afforded-by-a-double-knot-spider-venom-peptide-that-inhibits-acid-sensing-ion-channel-1a
#14
Irène R Chassagnon, Claudia A McCarthy, Yanni K-Y Chin, Sandy S Pineda, Angelo Keramidas, Mehdi Mobli, Vi Pham, T Michael De Silva, Joseph W Lynch, Robert E Widdop, Lachlan D Rash, Glenn F King
Stroke is the second-leading cause of death worldwide, yet there are no drugs available to protect the brain from stroke-induced neuronal injury. Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is the primary acid sensor in mammalian brain and a key mediator of acidosis-induced neuronal damage following cerebral ischemia. Genetic ablation and selective pharmacologic inhibition of ASIC1a reduces neuronal death following ischemic stroke in rodents. Here, we demonstrate that Hi1a, a disulfide-rich spider venom peptide, is highly neuroprotective in a focal model of ischemic stroke...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316031/transactivation-domain-of-human-c-myc-is-essential-to-alleviate-poly-q-mediated-neurotoxicity-in-drosophila-disease-models
#15
Kritika Raj, Surajit Sarkar
Polyglutamine (poly(Q)) disorders, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and spinocerebellar ataxias, represent a group of neurological disorders which arise due to an atypically expanded poly(Q) tract in the coding region of the affected gene. Pathogenesis of these disorders inside the cells begins with the assembly of these mutant proteins in the form of insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs), which progressively sequester several vital cellular transcription factors and other essential proteins, and finally leads to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260906/contemplating-stem-cell-therapy-for-epilepsy-induced-neuropsychiatric-symptoms
#16
REVIEW
Gautam Rao, Sherwin Mashkouri, David Aum, Paul Marcet, Cesar V Borlongan
Epilepsy is a debilitating disease that impacts millions of people worldwide. While unprovoked seizures characterize its cardinal symptom, an important aspect of epilepsy that remains to be addressed is the neuropsychiatric component. It has been documented for millennia in paintings and literature that those with epilepsy can suffer from bouts of aggression, depression, and other psychiatric ailments. Current treatments for epilepsy include the use of antiepileptic drugs and surgical resection. Antiepileptic drugs reduce the overall firing of the brain to mitigate the rate of seizure occurrence...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259862/-modeling-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-vitro-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-highlighting-findings-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-schizophrenia
#17
Edit Hathy, Sara Kalman, Agota Apati, Zsofia Nemoda, Janos M Rethelyi
Over the past decade we witnessed the birth of a new scientific area that lies at the borders of developmental biology, stem cell biology, basic and clinical neuroscience. In vitro disease modeling refers to the approach that exploits the capacity of stem cells for self-renewal and pluripotency by generating specific cell types that are relevant for a given disorder. Based on this method, neurological and psychiatric disorders can be investigated by differentiating stem cells into neurons in a dish, and studying the relevant neuronal populations affected in the pathophysiology of the disorder in terms of specific cellular phenotypes...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259175/pleiotrophin-regulates-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation
#18
Rosalía Fernández-Calle, Marta Vicente-Rodríguez, Esther Gramage, Jimena Pita, Carmen Pérez-García, Marcel Ferrer-Alcón, María Uribarri, María P Ramos, Gonzalo Herradón
BACKGROUND: Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a cytokine found highly upregulated in the brain in different disorders characterized by overt neuroinflammation such as neurodegenerative diseases, drug addiction, traumatic injury, and ischemia. In the present work, we have explored whether PTN modulates neuroinflammation and if Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), crucial in the initiation of an immune response, is involved. METHODS: In immunohistochemistry assays, we studied lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 7...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242362/intravenous-administration-of-mitochondria-for-treating-experimental-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Xianxun Shi, Ming Zhao, Chen Fu, Ailing Fu
Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with a large number of human diseases, including neurological and muscular degeneration, cardiovascular disorders, obesity, diabetes, aging and rare mitochondrial diseases. Replacement of dysfunctional mitochondria with functional exogenous mitochondria is proposed as a general principle to treat these diseases. Here we found that mitochondria isolated from human hepatoma cell could naturally enter human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, and when the mitochondria were intravenously injected into mice, all of the mice were survived and no obvious abnormality appeared...
February 24, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241130/nardostachys-jatamansi-targets-bdnf-trkb-to-alleviate-ketamine-induced-schizophrenia-like-symptoms-in-rats
#20
Anjali Janardhanan, Anjana Sadanand, Arambakkam Janardhanam Vanisree
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia, a common neurological disorder appearing in the late teens or early adulthood, is characterized by disorganized thinking, behaviour, and perception of emotions. Aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity is a major pathological event here due to dysfunction of dopamine and glutamate transmission at NMDA receptors. De-regulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), i.e., its signalling through the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, is a major feature of schizophrenia...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
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