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Extra cellular matrix

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468965/versatility-of-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-commendable-targets-for-anti-tumor-therapy
#1
Ghulam Jilany Khan, Li Sun, Sara Khan, Shengtao Yuan, He Nongyue
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tumor growth, development, progression, metastasis, invasion and resistivity against drugs, solely depends on the recruitment of surrounding cells, extra cellular matrix and tumor microenvironment (TME). TME is directly as well as indirectly associated with cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF). The interactions of CAF with tumor surrounding cells, their origination, activation, transformation and ability to recruit other non-tumor cells for the clemency of tumor, are very complex and under active research since long...
February 19, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458111/ppar%C3%AE-modulation-rescues-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-oxidation-defects-in-the-mdx-model-of-muscular-dystrophy
#2
Eric L Bell, Robert W Shine, Peter Dwyer, Lyndsay Olson, Jennifer Truong, Ross Fredenburg, Matthew Goddeeris, Dominique Stickens, Effie Tozzo
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive, fatal X-linked disease that is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle wasting due to the absence of dystrophin, which is an a essential protein that bridges the inner cytoskeleton and extra-cellular matrix. This study set out to characterize the mitochondria in primary muscle satellite cell derived myoblasts from mdx mice and wild type control mice. Compared to wild type derived cells the mdx derived cells have reduced mitochondrial bioenergetics and have fewer mitochondria...
February 16, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454947/guide-to-electrospinning-denatured-whole-chain-collagen-from-hoki-fish-using-benign-solvents
#3
Deborah Le Corre-Bordes, Kathleen Hofman, Bronwyn Hall
Tissue engineering requires the design and manufacture of biomimetic scaffolds. Collagen-derived nanofibrous scaffolds have been intensively studied because collagen, in the form of fibrils, is one of the main components of the extra cellular matrix (ECM). Several collagen materials have been used in electrospinning studies including mammalian extracted Type I collagen and gelatin formulations. Denatured whole chain collagen (DWCC) can be prepared by heat denaturing acid-soluble collagen extracted from cold-water fish skin...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421060/alginate-polymethacrylate-hybrid-hydrogels-for-potential-osteochondral-tissue-regeneration
#4
P Stagnaro, I Schizzi, R Utzeri, E Marsano, M Castellano
Porous scaffolds based on alginate-polymethacrylate hybrid hydrogels intended for bone and cartilage regeneration were prepared through controlled calcium ions diffusion from an agar mould. The double interconnected network of such materials combines into a single porous structure maintained by both noncovalent crosslinks (calcium ions for alginate) and covalent crosslinks (polymethacrylate crosslinked by the addition of mixtures of mono and bifunctional monomers). The alginate component ensures the appropriate micro-environment to mimic the extra-cellular matrix, whereas the polymethacrylate improves the mechanical performances of the hybrid hydrogels, helping to overcome the mechanical limitations of the alginate component...
April 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420170/jak-stat-pathway-induces-drosophila-follicle-elongation-by-a-gradient-of-apical-contractility
#5
Hervé Alégot, Pierre Pouchin, Olivier Bardot, Vincent Mirouse
Tissue elongation and its control by spatiotemporal signals is a major developmental question. Currently, it is thought that Drosophila ovarian follicular epithelium elongation requires the planar polarization of the basal domain cytoskeleton and of the extra-cellular matrix, associated with a dynamic process of rotation around the anteroposterior axis. Here we show, by careful kinetic analysis of fat2 mutants, that neither basal planar polarization nor rotation is required during a first phase of follicle elongation...
February 8, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402544/-facial-injections-of-hyaluronic-acid-based-fillers-for-malformations-preliminary-study-regarding-scar-tissue-improvement-and-cosmetic-betterment
#6
G Franchi, C Neiva-Vaz, A Picard, M-P Vazquez
BACKGROUND: Cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers have gained rapid acceptance for treating facial wrinkles, deep tissue folds and sunken areas due to aging. This study evaluates, in addition to space-filling properties, their effects on softness and elasticity as a secondary effect, following injection of 3 commercially available cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers (15mg/mL, 17,5mg/mL and 20mg/mL) in patients presenting with congenital or acquired facial malformations. PATIENTS ET METHODS: We started injecting gels of cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers in those cases in 2013; we performed 46 sessions of injections in 32 patients, aged from 13-32...
February 2, 2018: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399275/bioengineered-humanized-livers-as-better-three-dimensional-drug-testing-model-system
#7
Sandeep Kumar Vishwakarma, Avinash Bardia, Chandrakala Lakkireddy, Raju Nagarapu, Md Aejaz Habeeb, Aleem Ahmed Khan
AIM: To develop appropriate humanized three-dimensional ex-vivo model system for drug testing. METHODS: Bioengineered humanized livers were developed in this study using human hepatic stem cells repopulation within the acellularized liver scaffolds which mimics with the natural organ anatomy and physiology. Six cytochrome P-450 probes were used to enable efficient identification of drug metabolism in bioengineered humanized livers. The drug metabolism study in bioengineered livers was evaluated to identify the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity responses...
January 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351723/mitochondrial-uncoupling-proteins-subtle-regulators-of-cellular-redox-signaling
#8
Petr Jezek, Blanka Holendová, Keith D Garlid, Martin Jaburek
SIGNIFICANCE: Mitochondria are the energetic, metabolic, redox and information signaling centers of the cell. Substrate pressure, mitochondrial network dynamics and cristae morphology state are integrated by the protonmotive force Δp or its potential component, ΔΨ, which are attenuated by proton backflux into the matrix, termed uncoupling. The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP1-5) play an eminent role in the regulation of each of the above aspects, being involved in numerous physiological events including redox signaling...
January 19, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347914/in-depth-proteomic-analysis-of-boar-spermatozoa-through-shotgun-and-gel-based-methods
#9
Jean M Feugang, Shengfa F Liao, Scott T Willard, Peter L Ryan
BACKGROUND: Mature spermatozoa contain numerous epididymal and seminal plasma proteins, which full identification through high-throughput technologies may allow for a better understanding of the sperm biology. Therefore, we conducted a global proteomic analysis of boar spermatozoa through shotgun and gel-based methodologies. RESULTS: The total proteins were extracted from mature spermatozoa and subjecsted to proteome analyses. Functional analyses of gene ontology representations and pathway enrichments were conducted on the shotgun dataset, followed by immunology and gene expression validations...
January 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341480/cutis-laxa-and-excessive-bone-growth-due-to-de-novo-mutations-in-ptdss1
#10
Juliette Piard, James Lespinasse, Marketa Vlckova, Martin A Mensah, Sorin Iurian, Martina Simandlova, Marcela Malikova, Oliver Bartsch, Massimiliano Rossi, Marion Lenoir, Frédérique Nugues, Stefan Mundlos, Uwe Kornak, Philip Stanier, Sérgio B Sousa, Lionel Van Maldergem
The cutis laxa syndromes are multisystem disorders that share loose redundant inelastic and wrinkled skin as a common hallmark clinical feature. The underlying molecular defects are heterogeneous and 13 different genes have been involved until now, all of them being implicated in elastic fiber assembly. We provide here molecular and clinical characterization of three unrelated patients with a very rare phenotype associating cutis laxa, facial dysmorphism, severe growth retardation, hyperostotic skeletal dysplasia, and intellectual disability...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313189/supportive-properties-of-basement-membrane-layer-of-human-amniotic-membrane-enable-development-of-tissue-engineering-applications
#11
Sonia Iranpour, Nasser Mahdavi-Shahri, Raheleh Miri, Halimeh Hasanzadeh, Hamid Reza Bidkhori, Hojjat Naderi-Meshkin, Ehsan Zahabi, Maryam M Matin
Human amniotic membrane (HAM) has been widely used as a natural scaffold in tissue engineering due to many of its unique biological properties such as providing growth factors, cytokines and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. This study aimed at finding the most suitable and supportive layer of HAM as a delivery system for autologous or allogeneic cell transplantation. Three different layers of HAM were examined including basement membrane, epithelial and stromal layers. In order to prepare the basement membrane, de-epithelialization was performed using 0...
January 8, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240779/impact-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-on-hypothalamic-transcriptome-in-neonatal-sprague-dawley-rats
#12
Sanna Barrand, Tamsyn M Crowley, Ryan J Wood-Bradley, Kirstie A De Jong, James A Armitage
Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during early development has been shown to impact the formation of hypothalamic neurocircuitry, thereby contributing to imbalances in appetite and energy homeostasis and increasing the risk of obesity in subsequent generations. Early in postnatal life, the neuronal projections responsible for energy homeostasis develop in response to appetite-related peptides such as leptin. To date, no study characterises the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur in response to exposure to high fat diet during this critical window...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240242/the-9p21-locus-a-potential-therapeutic-target-and-prognostic-marker-in-breast-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Mahdi Rivand, Mohammad-Sadegh Khorrami, Hamid Fiuji, Soodabeh Shahidsales, Malihe Hasanzadeh, Mir Hadi Jazayeri, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Gordon A Ferns, Nafiseh Saghafi, Amir Avan
Breast cancer is an important cause of cancer related mortality in women. Despite extensive efforts to identify valid biomarkers for risk stratification, there are relatively few with proven clinical utility. It is recognized that genetic factors play a major role in determining susceptibility to breast cancer. Recent genome-wide-association-studies and gene expression analysis have demonstrated that a locus on chromosome 9p21, which contains three genes; CDKN2B (encoding p15ink4b), CDKN2A (encoding p16ink4a and p14ARF) and the 3' end of CDKN2BAS [an antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL)] are associated with an increased risk of this malignancy...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221472/odontoblast-like-differentiation-and-mineral-formation-of-pulpsphere-derived-cells-on-human-root-canal-dentin-in-vitro
#14
Jörg Neunzehn, Sandra Pötschke, Christian Hannig, Hans-Peter Wiesmann, Marie-Theres Weber
BACKGROUND: The revitalization or regeneration of the dental pulp is a preferable goal in current endodontic research. In this study, human dental pulp cell (DPC) spheres were applied to human root canal samples to evaluate their potential adoption for physiological tissue-like regeneration of the dental root canal by odontoblastic differentiation as well as cell-induced mineral formation. METHODS: DPC were cultivated into three-dimensional cell spheres and seeded on human root canal specimens...
December 8, 2017: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211717/force-loading-explains-spatial-sensing-of-ligands-by-cells
#15
Roger Oria, Tina Wiegand, Jorge Escribano, Alberto Elosegui-Artola, Juan Jose Uriarte, Cristian Moreno-Pulido, Ilia Platzman, Pietro Delcanale, Lorenzo Albertazzi, Daniel Navajas, Xavier Trepat, José Manuel García-Aznar, Elisabetta Ada Cavalcanti-Adam, Pere Roca-Cusachs
Cells can sense the density and distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules by means of individual integrin proteins and larger, integrin-containing adhesion complexes within the cell membrane. This spatial sensing drives cellular activity in a variety of normal and pathological contexts. Previous studies of cells on rigid glass surfaces have shown that spatial sensing of ECM ligands takes place at the nanometre scale, with integrin clustering and subsequent formation of focal adhesions impaired when single integrin-ligand bonds are separated by more than a few tens of nanometres...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204825/stem-cell-microenvironments-and-beyond
#16
Alexander Birbrair
Endogenous stem cells are indispensable to keep tissue homeostasis due to their unique ability to generate more specialized cell types in an organized way depending on the body needs. Precise control over stem cell differentiation is essential for organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, also called niches, which maintain them in an undifferentiated and self-renewing state. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of stem cell maintenance are key to the regulation of homeostasis and likely contribute to several disorders when altered during adulthood...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187911/oval-cells-contribute-to-fibrogenesis-of-marginal-liver-grafts-under-stepwise-regulation-of-aldose-reductase-and-notch-signaling
#17
Xiao-Bing Liu, Chung-Mau Lo, Qiao Cheng, Kevin Tak-Pan Ng, Yan Shao, Chang-Xian Li, Sookja K Chung, Irene Oi Lin Ng, Jun Yu, Kwan Man
Background and Aims: Expanded donor criteria poses increased risk for late phase complications such as fibrosis that lead to graft dysfunction in liver transplantation. There remains a need to elucidate the precise mechanisms of post-transplant liver damage in order to improve the long-term outcomes of marginal liver grafts. In this study, we aimed to examine the role of oval cells in fibrogenic development of marginal liver grafts and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Using an orthotopic rat liver transplantation model and human post-transplant liver biopsy tissues, the dynamics of oval cells in marginal liver grafts was evaluated by the platform integrating immuno-labeling techniques and ultrastructure examination...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180475/distinct-tp63-isoform-driven-transcriptional-signatures-predict-tumor-progression-and-clinical-outcomes
#18
Hussein Abbas, Ngoc Hoang Bao Bui, Kimal Rajapakshe, Justin Wong, Preethi Gunaratne, Kenneth Y Tsai, Cristian Coarfa, Elsa R Flores
TP63 is required to maintain stem cell pluripotency and suppresses the metastatic potential of cancer cells through multiple mechanisms. These functions are differentially regulated by individual isoforms, necessitating a deeper understanding of how the distinct transcriptional programs controlled by these isoforms affect cancer progression and outcomes. In this study, we conducted a pan-cancer analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify transcriptional networks regulated by TAp63 and ΔNp63 using transcriptomes derived from epidermal cells of TAp63-/- and ΔNp63-/- mice...
November 27, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177441/de-novo-mutations-in-caudal-type-homeo-box-transcription-factor-2-cdx2-in-patients-with-persistent-cloaca
#19
Jacob S J Hsu, Manting So, Clara S M Tang, Karim Anwarul, Robert M Porsch, Carol Wong, Michelle Yu, Fanny Yeung, Huimin Xia, Ruizhong Zhang, Stacey S Cherny, Patrick H Y Chung, K Y Wong Kenneth, Pak C Sham, Ngoc Diem Ngo, Miaoxin Li, Paul K H Tam, Vincent C H Lui, Maria-Mercè Garcia-Barcelo
The cloaca is an embryonic cavity that is divided into the urogenital sinus and rectum upon differentiation of the cloacal epithelium triggered by tissue-specific transcription factors including CDX2. Defective differentiation leads to persistent cloaca in humans (PC), a phenotype recapitulated in Cdx2 mutant mice. PC is linked to hypo/hyper-vitaminosis A. Although no gene has ever been identified, there is a strong evidence for a genetic contribution to PC. We applied whole-exome sequencing and copy-number-variants analyses to 21 PC patients and their unaffected parents...
November 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175552/long-pentraxin-3-a-novel-multifaceted-player-in-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Arianna Giacomini, Gaia Cristina Ghedini, Marco Presta, Roberto Ronca
Since its discovery in 1992, long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) has been characterized as soluble patter recognition receptor, a key player of the innate immunity arm with non-redundant functions in pathogen recognition and inflammatory responses. As a component of the extra-cellular matrix milieu, PTX3 has been implicated also in wound healing/tissue remodeling, cardiovascular diseases, fertility, and infectious diseases. Consequently, PTX3 levels in biological fluids have been proposed as a fluid-phase biomarker in different pathological conditions...
November 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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