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Extra cellular matrix

Anji Anura, Debanjan Das, Mousumi Pal, Ranjan Rashmi Paul, Soumen Das, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee
Oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSF), a potentially malignant disorder, exhibits extensive remodeling of extra-cellular matrix in the form of sub-epithelial fibrosis which is a possible sequel of assaults from different oral habit related irritants. It has been assumed that micro/nanobio-mechanical imbalance experienced in the oral mucosa due to fibrosis may be deterministic for malignant potential (7-13%) of this pathosis. Present study explores changes in mechanobiological attributes of sub-epithelial connective tissue of OSF and the normal counterpart...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Krithiga Shridhar, Aastha Aggarwal, Gagandeep Kaur Walia, Smriti Gulati, A V Geetha, D Prabhakaran, Preet K Dhillon, Preetha Rajaraman
BACKGROUND: Oral cancers are preceded by oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD). Understanding genetic susceptibility for OPMD risk could provide an opportunity for risk assessment of oral cancer through early disease course. We conducted a review of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) studies for OPMD risk. METHODS: We identified all relevant studies examining associations of SNPs with OPMD (leukoplakia, erythroplakia and oral sub-mucous fibrosis) conducted world-wide between January, 2000 and February, 2016 using a combined keyword search on PubMed...
October 2016: Oral Oncology
Denis Barritault, Pascal Desgranges, Anne Meddahi-Pellé, Jean-Marie Denoix, Jean-Louis Saffar
Matrix therapy is an innovative, minimally invasive approach in the field of regenerative medicine, that aims to promote tissue regeneration by reconstructing the cellular microenvironment following tissue injury. This approach has significant therapeutic potential in the treatment of pathologies characterized by tissue inflammation and damage, or following injury, conditions which can be incapacitating and cost-consuming. Heparan sulfate mimics, termed ReGeneraTing Agents (RGTAs) have emerged as a unifying approach to treat these diverse pathologies...
September 20, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Sumbul Afroz, Jeevan Giddaluru, Mohd Manzar Abbas, Nooruddin Khan
Dengue Viruses (DENVs) cause one of the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases affecting millions of people worldwide. Identification of genes involved in DENV pathogenesis would help in deciphering molecular mechanisms responsible for the disease progression. Here, we carried out a meta-analysis of publicly available gene expression data of dengue patients and further validated the meta-profile using in-vitro infection in THP-1 cells. Our findings reveal that DENV infection modulates expression of several genes and signalling pathways including interferons, detoxification of ROS and viral assembly...
2016: Scientific Reports
Diana Braunholz, Mohammad Saki, Franziska Niehr, Merve Öztürk, Berta Borràs Puértolas, Robert Konschak, Volker Budach, Ingeborg Tinhofer
In solid tumours millions of cells are shed into the blood circulation each day. Only a subset of these circulating tumour cells (CTCs) survive, many of them presumable because of their potential to form multi-cellular clusters also named spheroids. Tumour cells within these spheroids are protected from anoikis, which allows them to metastasize to distant organs or re-seed at the primary site. We used spheroid cultures of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines as a model for such CTC clusters for determining the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cluster formation ability and cell survival after detachment from the extra-cellular matrix...
2016: PloS One
Liske M Kotzé-Hörstmann, Dheshnie Keswell, Kevin Adams, Thandiwe Dlamini, Julia H Goedecke
Black South African women are more insulin resistant and have increased gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue hypertrophy than white South African women. We tested the hypothesis that adipose tissue hypoxia and extracellular matrix gene expression in gluteal and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is higher in black than white women, and associates with reduced insulin sensitivity in black women. Insulin sensitivity (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test), gluteal and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA levels of hypoxia- and extracellular matrix-related genes were measured in normal-weight and obese premenopausal black (n = 30) and white (n = 26) South African women at baseline, and in black women, at 5-year follow-up (n = 10)...
September 14, 2016: Endocrine
Courey Averett, Arun Bhardwaj, Sumit Arora, Sanjeev K Srivastava, Mohammad Aslam Khan, Aamir Ahmad, Seema Singh, James E Carter, Moh'd Khushman, Ajay P Singh
The poor clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer (PC) is largely attributed to its aggressive nature and refractoriness to currently available therapeutic modalities. We previously reported antitumor efficacy of honokiol (HNK), a phytochemical isolated from various parts of Magnolia plant, against PC cells in short-term in vitro growth assays. Here, we report that HNK reduces plating efficiency and anchorage-independent growth of PC cells and suppresses their migration and invasiveness. Furthermore, significant inhibition of pancreatic tumor growth by HNK is observed in orthotopic mouse model along with complete-blockage of distant metastases...
September 8, 2016: Carcinogenesis
Xin Ye, Mark A McLean, Stephen G Sligar
Integrins are vital transmembrane receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions and signaling. Talin is a 270 kDa protein and is considered a key regulator of integrin activity. The interaction between talin and integrin is commonly regarded as the final step of inside-out activation. In the cytosol, talin adopts an autoinhibited conformation, in which the C-terminal rod domain binds the N-terminal head domain, preventing the interactions of the head domain with the membrane surface and the integrin cytoplasmic domain...
September 13, 2016: Biochemistry
Yi-Xun Liu
Follicular development and differentiation are sequential events which are tightly regulated by endocrine hormones, intraovarian regulators and cell-cell interactions. Balanced cell proliferation and apoptosis play an important role in the selection of dominant follicle. Primordial germ cell migration and homing within the gonadal ridge requires regulation by integrated signals, such as the oocyte-secreted polypeptide growth factors, the growth and differentiation factor 9, the bone morphogenetic proteins, stem cell factor (SCF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), the transcription factor Wilms' tumour 1 (Wt1), and involves the contact of primordial germ cells with extra-cellular matrix proteins and cellular substrates and attraction by the developing gonads...
August 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Francesco Oliva, Eleonora Piccirilli, Anna C Berardi, Umberto Tarantino, Nicola Maffulli
Tendinopathies have a multifactorial etiology driven by extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Recent studies have elucidated the importance of thyroid hormones in the alteration of tendons homeostasis and in the failure of tendon healing after injury. The effects of thyroid hormones are mediated by receptors (TR)-α and -β that seem to be ubiquitous. In particular, T3 and T4 play an antiapoptotic role on tenocytes, causing an increase in vital tenocytes isolated from tendons in vitro and a reduction of apoptotic ones; they are also able to influence extra cellular matrix proteins secretion in vitro from tenocytes, enhancing collagen production...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Cai Linyi, Kong Xiangli, Xie Jing
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of in vitro continuous passaging on the morphological phenotype and differentiation characteristics of mouse hyaline chondrocytes, as well as on the balance of the extracellular matrix (ECM). METHODS: Enzymatic digestion was conducted to isolate mouse hyaline chondrocytes, which expanded over five passages in vitro. Hematoxylin-eosin stain was used to show the changes in chondrocyte morphology. Semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the mRNA changes in the marker genes, routine genes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) in chondrocytes...
June 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
Bhuvaneswari Gurumurthy, Patrick C Bierdeman, Amol V Janorkar
OBJECTIVE: Collagen-based scaffolds for guided bone regeneration (GBR) are continuously improved to overcome the mechanical weaknesses of collagen. We have previously demonstrated superior mechanical characteristics of the elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) reinforced collagen composites. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of ELP-collagen composites to culture human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and allow them to undergo osteogenic differentiation. We hypothesized that hASCs would show a superior osteogenic differentiation in stiffer ELP-collagen composites compared to the neat collagen hydrogels...
October 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Takanori Kokubun, Naohiko Kanemura, Kenji Murata, Hideki Moriyama, Sadao Morita, Tetsuya Jinno, Hidetoshi Ihara, Kiyomi Takayanagi
BACKGROUND: The poor healing capacity of a completely ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been attributed to an insufficient vascular supply, cellular metabolism, and deficient premature scaffold formation because of the unique intra-articular environment. However, previous studies have focused on intra-articular factors without considering extra-articular factors, including the biomechanical aspects of ACL-deficient knees. HYPOTHESIS: Changing the joint kinematics of an ACL-ruptured knee will improve cellular biological responses and lead to spontaneous healing through the mechanotransduction mechanism...
August 9, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Adele Khavari, Magnus Nydén, David A Weitz, Allen J Ehrlicher
The mechanics of the cellular microenvironment can be as critical as biochemistry in directing cell behavior. Many commonly utilized materials derived from extra-cellular-matrix create excellent scaffolds for cell growth, however, evaluating the relative mechanical and biochemical effects independently in 3D environments has been difficult in frequently used biopolymer matrices. Here we present 3D sodium alginate hydrogel microenvironments over a physiological range of stiffness (E = 1.85 to 5.29 kPa), with and without RGD binding sites or collagen fibers...
2016: Scientific Reports
Amélie Darlix, Pierre-Jean Lamy, Evelyne Lopez-Crapez, Antoine Laurent Braccini, Nelly Firmin, Gilles Romieu, Simon Thézenas, William Jacot
Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cause of brain metastases (BM). Predictive factors for BM have been widely studied in metastatic BC; however, there is no known serum tumor marker to accurately predict BM. Elevated serum S100ß protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) could reflect the brain damages induced by BM. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is involved in tumor invasion and metastatic dissemination, including BM. Also, HER2-amplified BC were shown to have a particular tropism for central nervous system (CNS)...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Anne Camirand, David Goltzman, Ajay Gupta, Mohammadi Kaouass, Dibyendu Panda, Andrew Karaplis
Prolonged skeletal unloading through bedrest results in bone loss similar to that observed in elderly osteoporotic patients, but with an accelerated timeframe. This rapid effect on weight-bearing bones is also observed in astronauts who can lose up to 2% of their bone mass per month spent in Space. Despite the important implications for Spaceflight travelers and bedridden patients, the exact mechanisms involved in disuse osteoporosis have not been elucidated. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) regulates many physiological processes including skeletal development, and has been proposed as a mechanosensor...
2016: PloS One
Yogendra Pratap Singh, Nandana Bhardwaj, Biman B Mandal
An osteoarthritis pandemic has accelerated exploration of various biomaterials for cartilage reconstruction with a special emphasis on silk fibroin from mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea assamensis) silk worms. Retention of positive attributes of the agarose standard and nullification of its negatives are central to the current agarose/silk fibroin hydrogel design. In this study, hydrogels of mulberry and non-mulberry silk fibroin blended with agarose were fabricated and evaluated in vitro for two weeks for cartilaginous tissue formation...
August 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Aamir Ahmad, Zhiwei Wang, Dejuan Kong, Shadan Ali, Yiwei Li, Sanjeev Banerjee, Raza Ali, Fazlul H Sarkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Maarten Jaspers, A C H Pape, Ilja K Voets, Alan E Rowan, Giuseppe Portale, Paul H J Kouwer
Bundling of single polymer chains is a crucial process in the formation of biopolymer network gels that make up the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. This bundled architecture leads to gels with distinctive properties, including a large-pore-size gel formation at very low concentrations and mechanical responsiveness through nonlinear mechanics, properties that are rarely observed in synthetic hydrogels. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we study the bundle formation and hydrogelation process of polyisocyanide gels, a synthetic material that uniquely mimics the structure and mechanics of biogels...
August 8, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Amélie Darlix, Pierre-Jean Lamy, Evelyne Lopez-Crapez, Antoine Laurent Braccini, Nelly Firmin, Gilles Romieu, Simon Thezenas, William Jacot
BACKGROUND: Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) prognosis is highly variable, depending on various factors such as the biological subtype, the performance status, disease extension…. A better evaluation of a patient's prognostic factors could allow for a more accurate choice of treatments. The role of serum tumor markers remains, however, unclear in this population. Considering the recent interest in phenotypic changes and tumor heterogeneity during breast cancer progression, additional tumor markers could be interesting in this setting...
2016: BMC Cancer
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