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Extra cellular matrix

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525322/a-systemic-review-of-existing-serological-possibilities-to-diagnose-canine-osteoarthritis-with-a-particular-focus-on-extracellular-matrix-proteoglycans-and-protein
#1
M Shahid, G Manchi, P Slunsky, O Naseer, A Fatima, B Leo, J Raila
Extra-cellular matrix (ECM) components are important and their stabilization is significant in maintaining normal healthy joint environment. In osteoarthritis (OA), ECM components are altered and indicate disease progression. The joint ECM is composed of proteoglycans (aggrecan, perlecan, inter α-trypsin inhibitor), glycoproteins (fibronectin, lubricin, COMP) and collagen types (most abundantly collagen type II) which represent structural and functional transformation during disease advancement. ECM investigation revealed significant biomarkers of OA that could be used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in different canine orthopedic diseases...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522400/impact-of-lysyl-oxidase-g473a-polymorphism-on-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#2
Sivakamasundari Pichu, Jayalalitha Sathiyamoorthy, Selvaraj Vimalraj, Vijay Viswanathan, Suvro Chatterjee
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extra-cellular matrix-modifying enzyme that has been linked to cell proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis and wound healing. This study was designed to examine the association of LOX gene polymorphism G473A, G>A, (rs1800449) located in exon 1 of the LOX gene in diabetic subjects with and without diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) and its impact of expression on DFU. Genotypic analysis of 906 samples showed a significant increase in the presence of 'A' allele in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and DFU when compared to that of control subjects...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521202/dual-growth-factor-loaded-nonmulberry-silk-fibroin-carbon-nanofiber-composite-3d-scaffolds-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-bone-regeneration
#3
Deboki Naskar, Ananta K Ghosh, Mahitosh Mandal, Piyali Das, Samit K Nandi, Subhas C Kundu
In recent years the potential application of nanocomposite biomaterials in tissue engineering field is gaining importance because of the combined features of all the individual components. A bottom-up approach is acquired in this study to recreate the bone microenvironment. The regenerated silk protein fibroin obtained from nonmulberry tropical tasar Antheraea mylitta species is reinforced with functionalized carbon nano fiber (CNF) and the composite sponges are fabricated using facile green aqueous based method...
May 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498728/a-family-affair-a-ral-exocyst-centered-network-links-ras-rac-rho-signaling-to-control-cell-migration
#4
Giulia Zago, Marco Biondini, Jacques Camonis, Maria Carla Parrini
Cell migration is central to many developmental, physiologic and pathological processes, including cancer progression. The Ral GTPases (RalA and RalB) which act down-stream the Ras oncogenes, are key players in the coordination between membrane trafficking and actin polymerization. A major direct effector of Ral, the exocyst complex, works in polarized exocytosis and is at the center of multiple protein-protein interactions that support cell migration by promoting protrusion formation, front-rear polarization, and extra-cellular matrix degradation...
May 12, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483699/mechanical-phenotyping-of-cells-and-extracellular-matrix-as-grade-and-stage-markers-of-lung-tumor-tissues
#5
Valeria Panzetta, Ida Musella, Ida Rapa, Marco Volante, Paolo A Netti, Sabato Fusco
The mechanical cross-talk between cells and the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) regulates the properties, functions and healthiness of the tissues. When this is disturbed it changes the mechanical state of the tissue components, singularly or together, and cancer, along with other diseases, may start and progress. However, the bi-univocal mechanical interplay between cells and the ECM is still not properly understood. In this study we show how a microrheology technique gives us the opportunity to evaluate the mechanics of cells and the ECM at the same time...
May 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482435/-expression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-a-degenerative-human-intervertebral-disc-model
#6
X F Wang, A P Zhang, Z Y Sun, C Liu, L H Kuang, J W Tian
Objective: To investigate the changes in the expression of NF-κB signaling pathway in human degenerative intervertebral discs. Methods: From October 2014 to March 2016, 55 nucleus pulposus of surgical patients with degenerative human intervertebral disc were collected for study in Department of Orthopedic Surgey, Hospital of Zaozhuang Mining Corporation, and Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai General Hospital Affiliated Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine.The collected nucleus pulposus tissues were divided into two groups: experimental group(30) and control group(25)...
May 9, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465248/roles-of-exosomes-in-the-normal-and-diseased-eye
#7
REVIEW
Mikael Klingeborn, W Michael Dismuke, Catherine Bowes Rickman, W Daniel Stamer
Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles that are released by cells in a controlled fashion and mediate a plethora of extra- and intercellular activities. Some key functions of exosomes include cell-cell communication, immune modulation, extracellular matrix turnover, stem cell division/differentiation, neovascularization and cellular waste removal. While much is known about their role in cancer, exosome function in the many specialized tissues of the eye is just beginning to undergo rigorous study. Here we review current knowledge of exosome function in the visual system in the context of larger bodies of data from other fields, in both health and disease...
April 29, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454279/anticancer-activity-of-nelumbo-nucifera-stamen-extract-in-human-colon-cancer-hct-116-cells-in-vitro
#8
Xin Zhao, Xia Feng, Cun Wang, Deguang Peng, Kai Zhu, Jia-Le Song
The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer activities of Nelumbo nucifera (Ba lotus) stamen ethanol crude extract (BLSEE) in human colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells. MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay were employed to investigate the anticancer mechanisms of BLSEE (100, 200 and 400 µg/ml) in HCT-116 cells. BLSEE reduced HCT-116 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. BLSEE treatment also significantly increased the sub-G1 population in HCT-116 cells (P=0...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437179/mechanically-oriented-3d-collagen-hydrogel-for-directing-neurite-growth
#9
Merav Antman-Passig, Shahar Levy, Chaim Gartenberg, Hadas Schori, Orit Shefi
Recent studies in the field of neuro-tissue engineering have demonstrated the promising effects of aligned contact guidance cue to scaffolds of enhancement and direction of neuronal growth. In vivo, neurons grow and develop neurites in a complex three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding. Studies have utilized hydrogel scaffolds derived from ECM molecules to better simulate natural growth. While many efforts have been made to control neuronal growth on 2D surfaces, the development of 3D scaffolds with an elaborate oriented topography to direct neuronal growth still remains a challenge...
May 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414242/discovery-of-2-2-ethyl-6-4-2-3-hydroxyazetidin-1-yl-2-oxoethyl-piperazin-1-yl-8-methylimidazo-1-2-a-pyridin-3-yl-methylamino-4-4-fluorophenyl-thiazole-5-carbonitrile-glpg1690-a-first-in-class-autotaxin-inhibitor-undergoing-clinical-evaluation-for-the-treatment
#10
Nicolas Desroy, Christopher Housseman, Xavier Bock, Agnès Joncour, Natacha Bienvenu, Laëtitia Cherel, Virginie Labeguere, Emilie Rondet, Christophe Peixoto, Jean-Marie Grassot, Olivier Picolet, Denis Annoot, Nicolas Triballeau, Alain Monjardet, Emanuelle Wakselman, Veronique Roncoroni, Sandrine Le Tallec, Roland Blanque, Celine Cottereaux, Nele Vandervoort, Thierry Christophe, Patrick Mollat, Marieke Lamers, Marielle Auberval, Boska Hrvacic, Jovica Ralic, Line Oste, Ellen van der Aar, Reginald Brys, Bertrand Heckmann
Autotaxin is a circulating enzyme with a major role in the production of lysophosphatic acid (LPA) species in blood. A role for the autotaxin/LPA axis has been suggested in many disease areas including pulmonary fibrosis. Structural modifications of the known autotaxin inhibitor lead compound 1, to attenuate hERG inhibition, remove CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition, and improve pharmacokinetic properties, led to the identification of clinical candidate GLPG1690 (11). Compound 11 was able to cause a sustained reduction of LPA levels in plasma in vivo and was shown to be efficacious in a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model in mice and in reducing extracellular matrix deposition in the lung while also reducing LPA 18:2 content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413347/a-biochemo-mechano-coupled-computational-model-combining-membrane-transport-and-pericellular-proteolysis-in-tissue-mechanics
#11
A-T Vuong, A D Rauch, W A Wall
We present a computational model for the interaction of surface- and volume-bound scalar transport and reaction processes with a deformable porous medium. The application in mind is pericellular proteolysis, i.e. the dissolution of the solid phase of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as a response to the activation of certain chemical species at the cell membrane and in the vicinity of the cell. A poroelastic medium model represents the extra cellular scaffold and the interstitial fluid flow, while a surface-bound transport model accounts for the diffusion and reaction of membrane-bound chemical species...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374979/matrix-metalloproteinase-mmp-2-activity-is-associated-with-divergent-regulation-of-calponin-1-in-conductance-and-resistance-arteries-in-hypertension-induced-early-vascular-dysfunction-and-remodelling
#12
Juliana M Parente, Camila A Pereira, Gustavo H Oliveira-Paula, José Eduardo Tanus-Santos, Rita C Tostes, Michele M Castro
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 participates in hypertension-induced maladaptive vascular remodelling by degrading extra and intracellular proteins. The consequent extracellular matrix rearrangement and phenotype switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) lead to increased cellular migration and proliferation. As calponin-1 degradation by MMP-2 may lead to VSMC proliferation during hypertension, the hypothesis of this study is that increased MMP-2 activity contributes to early hypertension-induced maladaptive remodelling in conductance and resistance arteries via regulation of calponin-1...
April 4, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372287/organ-reconstruction-dream-or-reality-for%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-future
#13
J-F Stoltz, L Zhang, J S Ye, N De Isla
The relevance of research on reconstructed organs is justified by the lack of organs available for transplant and the growing needs for the ageing population. The development of a reconstructed organ involves two parallel complementary steps: de-cellularization of the organ with the need to maintain the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix and vascular network and re-cellularization of the scaffold with stem cells or resident cells.Whole organ engineering for liver, heart, lung or kidneys, is particularly difficult because of the structural complexity of organs and heterogeneity of cells...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371753/a-microfluidic-platform-for-drug-screening-in-a-3d-cancer-microenvironment
#14
Hardik J Pandya, Karan Dhingra, Devbalaji Prabhakar, Vineethkrishna Chandrasekar, Siva Kumar Natarajan, Anish S Vasan, Ashish Kulkarni, Hadi Shafiee
Development of resistance to chemotherapy treatments is a major challenge in the battle against cancer. Although a vast repertoire of chemotherapeutics is currently available for treating cancer, a technique for rapidly identifying the right drug based on the chemo-resistivity of the cancer cells is not available and it currently takes weeks to months to evaluate the response of cancer patients to a drug. A sensitive, low-cost diagnostic assay capable of rapidly evaluating the effect of a series of drugs on cancer cells can significantly change the paradigm in cancer treatment management...
August 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367247/fibronectin-how-its-aberrant-expression-in-tumors-may-improve-therapeutic-targeting
#15
REVIEW
Jennifer Peyling Wang, Abigail Hielscher
Fibronectin is a matrix glycoprotein which has not only been found to be over-expressed in several cancers, but has been shown to participate in several steps of tumorigenesis. The purpose of this review is to illustrate how aberrant fibronectin expression influences tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and therapy resistance. In particular, this review will focus on the interactions between cell receptor ligands and fibronectin and how this interaction influences downstream signaling events that aid tumor progression...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365358/rapid-and-short-term-extra-cellular-matrix-mediated-in-vitro-culturing-of-tumor-and-non-tumor-human-primary-prostate-cells-from-fresh-radical-prostatectomy-tissue
#16
Ashok C Chander, Michael S Manak, Jonathan S Varsanik, Brad J Hogan, Vladimir Mouraviev, Stephen M Zappala, Grannum R Sant, David M Albala
OBJECTIVE: To culture prostate cells from fresh biopsy core samples from radical prostatectomy tissue. Further, given the genetic heterogeneity of prostate cells, the ability to culture single cells from primary prostate tissue may be of importance towards enabling single-cell characterization of primary prostate tissue via molecular and cellular phenotypic biomarkers. METHODS: 260 consecutive tissue samples from radical prostatectomies (RP) were collected between October 2014 and January 2016, transported at 4(o) C in serum free media to an off-site central laboratory, dissociated, and cultured...
March 29, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358123/molecular-therapy-for-degenerative-disc-disease-clues-from-secretome-analysis-of-the-notochordal-cell-rich-nucleus-pulposus
#17
Ajay Matta, M Zia Karim, David E Isenman, W Mark Erwin
Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is associated with spinal pain often leading to long-term disability. However, the non-chondrodystrophic canine intervertebral disc is protected from the development of DDD, ostensibly due to its retention of notochordal cells (NC) in the nucleus pulposus (NP). In this study, we hypothesized that secretome analysis of the NC-rich NP will lead to the identification of key proteins that delay the onset of DDD. Using mass-spectrometry, we identified 303 proteins including components of TGFβ- and Wnt-signaling, anti-angiogeneic factors and proteins that inhibit axonal ingrowth in the bioactive fractions of serum free, notochordal cell derived conditioned medium (NCCM)...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357075/de-novo-systemic-deleterious-amino-acid-substitutions-are-common-in-large-cytoskeleton-related-protein-coding-regions
#18
Rebecca J Stoll, Grace R Thompson, Mohammad D Samy, George Blanck
Human mutagenesis is largely random, thus large coding regions, simply on the basis of probability, represent relatively large mutagenesis targets. Thus, we considered the possibility that large cytoskeletal-protein related coding regions (CPCRs), including extra-cellular matrix (ECM) coding regions, would have systemic nucleotide variants that are not present in common SNP databases. Presumably, such variants arose recently in development or in recent, preceding generations. Using matched breast cancer and blood-derived normal datasets from the cancer genome atlas, CPCR single nucleotide variants (SNVs) not present in the All SNPs(142) or 1000 Genomes databases were identified...
February 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298487/tgf-%C3%AE-triggers-rapid-fibrillogenesis-via-a-novel-t%C3%AE-rii-dependent-fibronectin-trafficking-mechanism
#19
Archana Varadaraj, Laura M Jenkins, Priyanka Singh, Anindya Chanda, John Snider, N Y Lee, Ayelet R Amsalem-Zafran, Marcelo Ehrlich, Yoav I Henis, Karthikeyan Mythreye
Fibronectin (FN) is a critical regulator of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling through its availability and stepwise polymerization for fibrillogenesis. Availability of FN is regulated by its synthesis and turnover, and fibrillogenesis is a multistep, integrin-dependent process essential for cell migration, proliferation, and tissue function. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is an established regulator of ECM remodeling via transcriptional control of ECM proteins. Here we show that TGF-β, through increased FN trafficking in a transcription- and SMAD-independent manner, is a direct and rapid inducer of the fibrillogenesis required for TGF-β-induced cell migration...
May 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287547/spatiotemporal-analysis-of-cytokinetic-events-in-fission-yeast
#20
Bin Wei, Brian S Hercyk, Julius Habiyaremye, Maitreyi Das
Cytokinesis, the final step in cell division is critical for maintaining genome integrity. Proper cytokinesis is important for cell differentiation and development. Cytokinesis involves a series of events that are well coordinated in time and space. Cytokinesis involves the formation of an actomyosin ring at the division site, followed by ring constriction, membrane furrow formation and extra cellular matrix remodeling. The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) is a well-studied model system that has revealed with substantial clarity the initial events in cytokinesis...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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