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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240779/impact-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-on-hypothalamic-transcriptome-in-neonatal-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
Sanna Barrand, Tamsyn M Crowley, Ryan J Wood-Bradley, Kirstie A De Jong, James A Armitage
Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during early development has been shown to impact the formation of hypothalamic neurocircuitry, thereby contributing to imbalances in appetite and energy homeostasis and increasing the risk of obesity in subsequent generations. Early in postnatal life, the neuronal projections responsible for energy homeostasis develop in response to appetite-related peptides such as leptin. To date, no study characterises the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur in response to exposure to high fat diet during this critical window...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240242/the-9p21-locus-a-potential-therapeutic-target-and-prognostic-marker-in-breast-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Mahdi Rivand, Mohammad-Sadegh Khorrami, Hamid Fiuji, Soodabeh Shahidsales, Malihe Hasanzadeh, Mir Hadi Jazayeri, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Gordon A Ferns, Nafiseh Saghafi, Amir Avan
Breast cancer is an important cause of cancer related mortality in women. Despite extensive efforts to identify valid biomarkers for risk stratification, there are relatively few with proven clinical utility. It is recognized that genetic factors play a major role in determining susceptibility to breast cancer. Recent genome-wide-association-studies and gene expression analysis have demonstrated that a locus on chromosome 9p21, which contains three genes; CDKN2B (encoding p15ink4b), CDKN2A (encoding p16ink4a and p14ARF) and the 3' end of CDKN2BAS [an antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL)] are associated with an increased risk of this malignancy...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221472/odontoblast-like-differentiation-and-mineral-formation-of-pulpsphere-derived-cells-on-human-root-canal-dentin-in-vitro
#3
Jörg Neunzehn, Sandra Pötschke, Christian Hannig, Hans-Peter Wiesmann, Marie-Theres Weber
BACKGROUND: The revitalization or regeneration of the dental pulp is a preferable goal in current endodontic research. In this study, human dental pulp cell (DPC) spheres were applied to human root canal samples to evaluate their potential adoption for physiological tissue-like regeneration of the dental root canal by odontoblastic differentiation as well as cell-induced mineral formation. METHODS: DPC were cultivated into three-dimensional cell spheres and seeded on human root canal specimens...
December 8, 2017: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211717/force-loading-explains-spatial-sensing-of-ligands-by-cells
#4
Roger Oria, Tina Wiegand, Jorge Escribano, Alberto Elosegui-Artola, Juan Jose Uriarte, Cristian Moreno-Pulido, Ilia Platzman, Pietro Delcanale, Lorenzo Albertazzi, Daniel Navajas, Xavier Trepat, José Manuel García-Aznar, Elisabetta Ada Cavalcanti-Adam, Pere Roca-Cusachs
Cells can sense the density and distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules by means of individual integrin proteins and larger, integrin-containing adhesion complexes within the cell membrane. This spatial sensing drives cellular activity in a variety of normal and pathological contexts. Previous studies of cells on rigid glass surfaces have shown that spatial sensing of ECM ligands takes place at the nanometre scale, with integrin clustering and subsequent formation of focal adhesions impaired when single integrin-ligand bonds are separated by more than a few tens of nanometres...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204825/stem-cell-microenvironments-and-beyond
#5
Alexander Birbrair
Endogenous stem cells are indispensable to keep tissue homeostasis due to their unique ability to generate more specialized cell types in an organized way depending on the body needs. Precise control over stem cell differentiation is essential for organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, also called niches, which maintain them in an undifferentiated and self-renewing state. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of stem cell maintenance are key to the regulation of homeostasis and likely contribute to several disorders when altered during adulthood...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187911/oval-cells-contribute-to-fibrogenesis-of-marginal-liver-grafts-under-stepwise-regulation-of-aldose-reductase-and-notch-signaling
#6
Xiao-Bing Liu, Chung-Mau Lo, Qiao Cheng, Kevin Tak-Pan Ng, Yan Shao, Chang-Xian Li, Sookja K Chung, Irene Oi Lin Ng, Jun Yu, Kwan Man
Background and Aims: Expanded donor criteria poses increased risk for late phase complications such as fibrosis that lead to graft dysfunction in liver transplantation. There remains a need to elucidate the precise mechanisms of post-transplant liver damage in order to improve the long-term outcomes of marginal liver grafts. In this study, we aimed to examine the role of oval cells in fibrogenic development of marginal liver grafts and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Using an orthotopic rat liver transplantation model and human post-transplant liver biopsy tissues, the dynamics of oval cells in marginal liver grafts was evaluated by the platform integrating immuno-labeling techniques and ultrastructure examination...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180475/distinct-tp63-isoform-driven-transcriptional-signatures-predict-tumor-progression-and-clinical-outcomes
#7
Hussein Abbas, Ngoc Hoang Bao Bui, Kimal Rajapakshe, Justin Wong, Preethi Gunaratne, Kenneth Y Tsai, Cristian Coarfa, Elsa R Flores
TP63 is required to maintain stem cell pluripotency and suppresses the metastatic potential of cancer cells through multiple mechanisms. These functions are differentially regulated by individual isoforms, necessitating a deeper understanding of how the distinct transcriptional programs controlled by these isoforms affect cancer progression and outcomes. In this study, we conducted a pan-cancer analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify transcriptional networks regulated by TAp63 and ΔNp63 using transcriptomes derived from epidermal cells of TAp63-/- and ΔNp63-/- mice...
November 27, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177441/de-novo-mutations-in-caudal-type-homeo-box-transcription-factor-2-cdx2-in-patients-with-persistent-cloaca
#8
Jacob S J Hsu, Manting So, Clara S M Tang, Karim Anwarul, Robert M Porsch, Carol Wong, Michelle Yu, Fanny Yeung, Huimin Xia, Ruizhong Zhang, Stacey S Cherny, Patrick H Y Chung, K Y Wong Kenneth, Pak C Sham, Ngoc Diem Ngo, Miaoxin Li, Paul K H Tam, Vincent C H Lui, Maria-Mercè Garcia-Barcelo
The cloaca is an embryonic cavity that is divided into the urogenital sinus and rectum upon differentiation of the cloacal epithelium triggered by tissue-specific transcription factors including CDX2. Defective differentiation leads to persistent cloaca in humans (PC), a phenotype recapitulated in Cdx2 mutant mice. PC is linked to hypo/hyper-vitaminosis A. Although no gene has ever been identified, there is a strong evidence for a genetic contribution to PC. We applied whole-exome sequencing and copy-number-variants analyses to 21 PC patients and their unaffected parents...
November 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175552/long-pentraxin-3-a-novel-multifaceted-player-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Arianna Giacomini, Gaia Cristina Ghedini, Marco Presta, Roberto Ronca
Since its discovery in 1992, long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) has been characterized as soluble patter recognition receptor, a key player of the innate immunity arm with non-redundant functions in pathogen recognition and inflammatory responses. As a component of the extra-cellular matrix milieu, PTX3 has been implicated also in wound healing/tissue remodeling, cardiovascular diseases, fertility, and infectious diseases. Consequently, PTX3 levels in biological fluids have been proposed as a fluid-phase biomarker in different pathological conditions...
November 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166708/-effects-of-astragalus-polysaccharide-on-cardiac-dysfunction-in-rabbits-with-severe-scald-injury
#10
L Zhong, J H Zhan, J H Luo, X Cheng
Objective: To investigate the effects of astragalus polysaccharide (AP) on cardiac dysfunction in rabbits with severe scald injury. Methods: Sixty-four New Zealand white rabbits were divided into pure scald group and AP group according to the random number table, with 32 rabbits in each group. Rabbits in the two groups were all inflicted with 30% total body surface area full-thickness scald on the back. Immediately after injury, rabbits in two groups were intraperitoneally injected with lactated Ringer's solution once for antishock...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163384/bacillus-subtilis-biofilm-development-a-computerized-study-of-morphology-and-kinetics
#11
Sarah Gingichashvili, Danielle Duanis-Assaf, Moshe Shemesh, John D B Featherstone, Osnat Feuerstein, Doron Steinberg
Biofilm is commonly defined as accumulation of microbes, embedded in a self-secreted extra-cellular matrix, on solid surfaces or liquid interfaces. In this study, we analyze several aspects of Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation using tools from the field of image processing. Specifically, we characterize the growth kinetics and morphological features of B. subtilis colony type biofilm formation and compare these in colonies grown on two different types of solid media. Additionally, we propose a model for assessing B...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152154/cortactin-in-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion
#12
REVIEW
Miao Yin, Wenqing Ma, Liguo An
Cortactin, a substrate of sarcoma (Src) kinases, is an actin-binding protein that is involved in cytoskeletal regulation, and is frequently overexpressed in cancer cells. Binding to the actin related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex stimulates cortactin activity, which promotes F-actin nucleation and assembly. Cortactin promotes cancer cell migration and invasion, and plays a pivotal role in invadopodia formation and extra cellular matrix degradation. Overexpression of cortactin, by amplification of the chromosomal band 11q13, increases tumor aggressiveness...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140140/the-physiological-mechanisms-of-effect-of-vitamins-and-amino-acids-on-tendon-and-muscle-healing-a-systematic-review
#13
Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse, Lindsy Kass
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate current literature via systematic review to ascertain whether amino acids/ vitamins provide any influence on musculotendinous healing, and by which physiological mechanisms Methods: EBSCO, PUBMED, Science Direct, Embase Classic/ Embase, and MEDLINE were searched using terms including "vitamins", "amino acids", "healing", "muscle" and "tendon". The primary search had 479 citations, 466 of which were excluded predominantly due to non-randomised design. Randomised human and animal studies investigating all supplement types/ forms of administration were included...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139177/a-structural-overview-of-mycobacterial-adhesins-key-biomarkers-for-diagnostics-and-therapeutics
#14
REVIEW
Flavia Squeglia, Alessia Ruggiero, Alfonso De Simone, Rita Berisio
Adherence, colonization, and survival of mycobacteria in host cells require surface adhesins, which are attractive pharmacotherapeutic targets. A large arsenal of pilus and non-pilus adhesins have been identified in mycobacteria. These adhesins are capable of interacting with host cells, including macrophages and epithelial cells and are essential to microbial pathogenesis. In the last decade, several structures of mycobacterial adhesins responsible for adhesion to either macrophages or extra cellular matrix proteins have been elucidated...
November 15, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134229/decursin-and-decursinol-angelate-molecular-mechanism-and-therapeutic-potential-in-inflammatory-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Adeeb Shehzad, Sajida Parveen, Munibah Qureshi, Fazli Subhan, Young Sup Lee
Epidemiological studies have shown that inflammation plays a critical role in the development and progression of various chronic diseases, including cancers, neurological diseases, hepatic fibrosis, diabetic retinopathy, and vascular diseases. Decursin and decursinol angelate (DA) are pyranocoumarin compounds obtained from the roots of Angelica gigas. Several studies have described the anti-inflammatory effects of decursin and DA. Decursin and DA have shown potential anti-inflammatory activity by modulating growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, cellular enzymes including matrix metalloproteinases cyclooxygenase, and protein kinases such as extracellular receptor kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and protein kinase C...
November 13, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108328/mmp-3-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-increased-risk-of-osteoarthritis-in-chinese-men
#16
Wen Guo, Pengcheng Xu, Tianbo Jin, Jihong Wang, Dongsheng Fan, Zengtao Hao, Yuntao Ji, Shangfei Jing, Chaoqian Han, Jieli Du, Dong Jiang, Shuzheng Wen, Jianzhong Wang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common late-onset degenerative joint disease., It is characterized by progressive degradation of articular cartilage. We investigated the association between OA occurrence and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) gene involved in the breakdown of extra-cellular matrix proteins. The study included 100 male OA patients and 197 healthy men from the north area of China. Eight MMP-3 SNPs were genotyped. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to assess the association...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097309/emerging-tumor-spheroids-technologies-for-3d-in-vitro-cancer-modeling
#17
REVIEW
Tânia Rodrigues, Banani Kundu, Joana Silva-Correia, S C Kundu, Joaquim M Oliveira, Rui L Reis, Vitor M Correlo
Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Around 90% of deaths are caused by metastasis and just 10% by primary tumor. The advancement of treatment approaches is not at the same rhythm of the disease; making cancer a focal target of biomedical research. To enhance the understanding and promts the therapeutic delivery; concepts of tissue engineering are applied in the development of in vitro models that can bridge between 2D cell culture and animal models, mimicking tissue microenvironment...
October 30, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059499/oligomeric-proanthocyanidins-protect-myocardium-by-mitigating-left-ventricular-remodeling-in-isoproterenol-induced-post-myocardial-infarction
#18
Ashokkumar Rathinavel, Jamuna Sankar, M S Sakeena Sadullah, Sivasithamparam Niranjali Devaraj
Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a major pathophysiological process during post myocardial infarction (MI). The activation, differentiation and proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts regulate the expression of ECM proteins. The signalling by Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-4), an extra cellular ligand of the TGF-β family, has recently been identified as an essential pathway in regulating cardiovascular dysfunctions including myocardial fibrosis. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) are well known for their cardioprotective activity...
October 23, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053339/ecm-crosslinking-enhances-fibroblast-growth-and-protects-against-matrix-proteolysis-in-lung-fibrosis
#19
Christopher J Philp, Ivonne Siebeke, Debbie Clements, Suzanne Miller, Anthony Habgood, Alison E John, Vidya Navaratnam, Richard B Hubbard, Gisli Jenkins, Simon R Johnson
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterised by accumulation of extra cellular matrix (ECM) proteins and fibroblast proliferation. ECM cross-linking enzymes have been implicated in fibrotic diseases and we hypothesised that the ECM in IPF is abnormally cross-linked which enhances fibroblast growth and resistance to normal ECM turnover. We used a combination of in vitro ECM preparations and in vivo assays to examine the expression of cross-linking enzymes and the effect of their inhibitors on fibroblast growth and ECM turnover...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049722/a-ppar-gamma-agonist-rosiglitazone-suppresses-fibrotic-response-in-human-pterygium-fibroblasts-by-modulating-the-p38-mapk-pathway
#20
Selikem Abla Nuwormegbe, Joon Hyung Sohn, Sun Woong Kim
Purpose: Fibroblast activation may play an important role in pterygium progression. Synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) ligands have been shown to be effective antifibrotic agents against transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) induced fibrosis in several tissues. We aimed to investigate the antifibrotic effects of the PPAR-γ ligand rosiglitazone in pterygium fibroblasts and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Profibrotic activation was induced by TGF-β1 in primary cultured human pterygium fibroblasts and the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and extra cellular matrix proteins synthesis was detected by western blotting, real-time PCR, immunostaining, and flow cytometry...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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