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Clock genes

Stefano Schiaffino, Bert Blaauw, Kenneth A Dyar
The circadian oscillations of muscle genes are controlled either directly by the intrinsic muscle clock or by extrinsic factors, such as feeding, hormonal signals, or neural influences, which are in turn regulated by the central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. A unique feature of circadian rhythms in skeletal muscle is motor neuron-dependent contractile activity, which can affect the oscillation of a number of muscle genes independently of the muscle clock. The role of the intrinsic muscle clock has been investigated using different Bmal1 knockout (KO) models...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
Anoeska Agatha Alida van de Moosdijk, Renée van Amerongen
Cell growth and differentiation are often driven by subtle changes in gene expression. Many challenges still exist in detecting these changes, particularly in the context of a complex, developing tissue. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) allows relatively high-throughput evaluation of multiple genes and developmental time points. Proper quantification of gene expression levels by qRT-PCR requires normalization to one or more reference genes. Traditionally, these genes have been selected based on their presumed "housekeeping" function, with the implicit assumption that they are stably expressed over the entire experimental set...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rachel A Johnston, Kristina L Paxton, Frank R Moore, Robert K Wayne, Thomas B Smith
The annual migration of a bird can involve thousands of kilometers of non-stop flight, requiring accurately timed seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling this endogenous programme can provide functional and evolutionary insights into the circannual biological clock and the potential of migratory species to adapt to changing environments. Under naturally-timed photoperiod conditions, we maintained captive Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) and performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of the ventral hypothalamus and optic chiasma to evaluate transcriptome-wide gene expression changes of individuals in migratory condition...
October 16, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Łukasz Mokros, Michał Seweryn Karbownik, Katarzyna Nowakowska-Domagała, Janusz Szemraj, Łukasz Wieteska, Karol Woźniak, Andrzej Witusik, Adam Antczak, Tadeusz Pietras
Background: There is barely any evidence of antipsychotic drugs affecting the molecular clockwork in human, yet it is suggested that clock genes are associated with dopaminergic transmission, i.e. the main target of this therapeutics. We decided to verify if haloperidol and olanzapine affect expression of CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1 and CRY1 in a human central nervous system cell line model. Methods: U-87MG human glioblastoma cell line was used as an experimental model. The cells were incubated with or without haloperidol and olanzapine in the concentration of 5 and 20 μM for 24 h...
November 1, 2016: Biological Rhythm Research
Juan E Uribe, Suzanne T Williams, José Templado, Barbara Buge, Rafael Zardoya
The subfamily Cantharidinae Gray, 1857 (Trochoidea: Trochidae) includes 23 recognized genera and over 200 known living species. These marine top shell snails are microphagous grazers that generally live in shallow rocky shores and in macroalgae and seagrass beds of sub-tropical and temperate waters from the Central and Western Indo-Pacific biogeographic regions to the Mediterranean Sea and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies revising the family Trochidae supported the monophyly of the subfamily Cantharidinae and its sister group relationship to the subfamily Stomatellinae...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Naoya Matsunaga, Eriko Ikeda, Keisuke Kakimoto, Miyako Watanabe, Naoya Shindo, Akito Tsuruta, Hisako Ikeyama, Kengo Hamamura, Kazuhiro Higashi, Tomohiro Yamashita, Hideaki Kondo, Yuya Yoshida, Masaki Matsuda, Takashi Ogino, Kazutaka Tokushige, Kazufumi Itcho, Yoko Furuichi, Takaharu Nakao, Kaori Yasuda, Atsushi Doi, Toshiaki Amamoto, Hironori Aramaki, Makoto Tsuda, Kazuhide Inoue, Akio Ojida, Satoru Koyanagi, Shigehiro Ohdo
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem, and novel therapies to treat CKD are urgently needed. Here, we show that inhibition of G0/G1 switch 2 (G0s2) ameliorates renal inflammation in a mouse model of CKD. Renal expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2) was increased in response to p65 activation in the kidneys of wild-type 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) mice. Moreover, 5/6Nx Clk/Clk mice, which carry homozygous mutations in the gene encoding circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), did not exhibit aggravation of apoptosis or induction of F4/80-positive cells...
October 6, 2016: EBioMedicine
Thomas Broggini, Lisa Schnell, Ali Ghoochani, José María Mateos, Michael Buchfelder, Kurt Wiendieck, Michael K Schäfer, Ilker Y Eyupoglu, Nicolai E Savaskan
The Plasticity Related Gene family covers five, brain-specific, transmembrane proteins (PRG1-5, also termed LPPR1-5) that operate in neuronal plasticity during development, aging and brain trauma. Here we investigated the role of the PRG family on axonal and filopodia outgrowth. Comparative analysis revealed the strongest outgrowth induced by PRG3 (LPPR1). During development, PRG3 is ubiquitously located at the tip of neuronal processes and at the plasma membrane and declines with age. In utero electroporation of PRG3 induced dendritic protrusions and accelerated spine formations in cortical pyramidal neurons...
October 15, 2016: Aging
Daniel Poveda-Martínez, Chrystian C Sosa, Katherine Chacón-Vargas, Víctor Hugo García-Merchán
Characidium is a Neotropical fish genus. Its distribution ranges from eastern Panama to northern Argentina, and it is an important component of the Neotropical ichthyofauna present in the major rivers of South America. We here provide an approximation to the dispersal and historical distributions of Characidium. The biogeographic history of five species of the genus was analyzed through nuclear RAG-2 and mitochondrial 16S genes and a time-calibrated phylogenetic analysis using three outgroup species. A biogeographical reconstruction was performed to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and infer the historical events that impacted the geographic distributions of Characidium species...
2016: PloS One
Malini Riddle, Erica Mezias, Duncan Foley, Joseph LeSauter, Rae Silver
The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), locus of the master circadian clock, bears many neuronal types. At the cellular-molecular level, the clock is comprised of feedback loops involving "clock" genes including Period1 and Period2, and their protein products, PERIOD1 and PERIOD2 (PER1/2). In the canonical model of circadian oscillation, the PER1/2 proteins oscillate together. While their rhythmic expression in the SCN as a whole has been described, the possibility of regional differences is unknown...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Susanne A Bengesser, Eva Z Reininghaus, Nina Lackner, Armin Birner, Frederike T Fellendorf, Martina Platzer, Nora Kainzbauer, Bernhard Tropper, Christa Hörmanseder, Robert Queissner, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer, Sandra J Wallner-Liebmann, Robert Fuchs, Erwin Petek, Christian Windpassinger, Mario Schnalzenberger, Bernd Reininghaus, Bernd Evert, Andreas Waha
OBJECTIVES: The clock gene ARNTL is associated with the transcription activation of monoamine oxidase A according to previous literature. Thus, we hypothesised that methylation of ARNTL may differ between bipolar disorder (BD) and controls. METHODS: The methylation status of one CpG island covering the first exon of ARNTL (PS2) and one site in the 5' region of ARNTL (cg05733463) were analysed in patients with BD (n = 151) versus controls (n = 66). Methylation analysis was performed by bisulphite-conversion of DNA from fasting blood with the EpiTect Bisulfite Kit, PCR and pyrosequencing...
October 14, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Amandine Chaix, Amir Zarrinpar, Satchidananda Panda
Circadian clocks are cell-autonomous timing mechanisms that organize cell functions in a 24-h periodicity. In mammals, the main circadian oscillator consists of transcription-translation feedback loops composed of transcriptional regulators, enzymes, and scaffolds that generate and sustain daily oscillations of their own transcript and protein levels. The clock components and their targets impart rhythmic functions to many gene products through transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational mechanisms...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
Jing-Fen Wu, Huang-Lung Tsai, Ignasius Joanito, Yi-Chen Wu, Chin-Wen Chang, Yi-Hang Li, Ying Wang, Jong Chan Hong, Jhih-Wei Chu, Chao-Ping Hsu, Shu-Hsing Wu
A double-negative feedback loop formed by the morning genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and the evening gene TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) contributes to regulation of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. A 24-h circadian cycle starts with the peak expression of CCA1 at dawn. Although CCA1 is targeted by multiple transcriptional repressors, including PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9), PRR7, PRR5 and CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), activators of CCA1 remain elusive. Here we use mathematical modelling to infer a co-activator role for LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) in CCA1 expression...
October 13, 2016: Nature Communications
Michael Bennardo, Faisal J Alibhai, Elena V Tsimakouridze, Nirmala Chinnappareddy, Peter Podobed, Cristine J Reitz, W Glen Pyle, Jeremy A Simpson, Tami A Martino
Diurnal or circadian rhythms are fundamentally important for healthy cardiovascular physiology, and play a role in timing of onset and tolerance to myocardial infarction (MI) in patients. Whether time of day of MI triggers different molecular and cellular responses that can influence myocardial remodelling is not known. This study was designed to test whether time of day of MI triggers different gene expression, humoral, and innate inflammatory responses that contribute to cardiac repair after MI. Mice were infarcted by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (MI model) within a 2 hour time window either shortly after lights on or lights off, and the early remodelling responses at 8 hours post infarction were examined...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Theresa L B Edelman, Katherine A McCulloch, Angela Barr, Christian Frøkjær-Jensen, Erik M Jorgensen, Ann E Rougvie
The Caenorhabditis elegans heterochronic gene pathway regulates the relative timing of events during post-embryonic development. lin-42, the worm homolog of the circadian clock gene period, is a critical element of this pathway. lin-42 function has been defined by a set of hypomorphic alleles that cause precocious phenotypes, in which later developmental events, such as the terminal differentiation of hypodermal cells, occur too early. A subset of alleles also reveals a significant role for lin-42 in molting; larval stages are lengthened and ecdysis often fails in these mutant animals...
October 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Patrick Vancura, Tanja Wolloscheck, Kenkichi Baba, Gianluca Tosini, P Michael Iuvone, Rainer Spessert
The energy metabolism of the retina might comply with daily changes in energy demand and is impaired in diabetic retinopathy-one of the most common causes of blindness in Europe and the USA. The aim of this study was to investigate putative adaptation of energy metabolism in healthy and diabetic retina. Hence expression analysis of metabolic pathway genes was performed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, semi-quantitative western blot and immunohistochemistry. Transcriptional profiling of key enzymes of energy metabolism identified transcripts of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes, i...
2016: PloS One
Ryota Nakazato, Shogo Hotta, Daisuke Yamada, Miki Kou, Saki Nakamura, Yoshifumi Takahata, Hajime Tei, Rika Numano, Akiko Hida, Shigeki Shimba, Michihiro Mieda, Eiichi Hinoi, Yukio Yoneda, Takeshi Takarada
Similar to neurons, microglia have an intrinsic molecular clock. The master clock oscillator Bmal1 modulates interleukin-6 upregulation in microglial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Bmal1 can play a role in microglial inflammatory responses. We previously demonstrated that gliotransmitter ATP induces transient expression of the clock gene Period1 via P2X7 purinergic receptors in cultured microglia. In this study, we further investigated mechanisms underlying the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production by clock molecules in microglial cells...
October 11, 2016: Glia
Zsolt Nagy, Alexa Marta, Henriett Butz, Istvan Liko, Karoly Racz, Attila Patocs
Peripheral clocks are set by different nervous, hormonal and metabolic stimuli, and regulate the circadian expression of several genes. We investigated whether a peripheral clock could be induced in the human adrenocortical cell line H295R and whether glucocorticoid receptor isoforms (GRα and GRß) are involved in this clock system. After synchronization of cells with serum shock, the rhythmic oscillation of clock genes PER1, PER2, REV-ERBα, and ARNTL was confirmed. In addition, H295R cells even without serum shock showed rhythmic expression of PER1, PER2, CRY1 and ARNTL...
October 7, 2016: Steroids
Jing Men, Yongyang Huang, Jitendra Solanki, Xianxu Zeng, Aneesh Alex, Jason Jerwick, Zhan Zhang, Rudolph E Tanzi, Airong Li, Chao Zhou
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising research tool for brain imaging and developmental biology. Serving as a three-dimensional optical biopsy technique, OCT provides volumetric reconstruction of brain tissues and embryonic structures with micrometer resolution and video rate imaging speed. Functional OCT enables label-free monitoring of hemodynamic and metabolic changes in the brain in vitro and in vivo in animal models. Due to its non-invasiveness nature, OCT enables longitudinal imaging of developing specimens in vivo without potential damage from surgical operation, tissue fixation and processing, and staining with exogenous contrast agents...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Xiaoyue Pan, Christopher A Bradfield, M Mahmood Hussain
Circadian rhythms controlled by clock genes affect plasma lipids. Here we show that global ablation of Bmal1 in Apoe(-/-) and Ldlr(-/-) mice and its liver-specific ablation in Apoe(-/-) (L-Bmal1(-/-)Apoe(-/-)) mice increases, whereas overexpression of BMAL1 in L-Bmal1(-/-)Apoe(-/-) and Apoe(-/-)mice decreases hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. Bmal1 deficiency augments hepatic lipoprotein secretion and diminishes cholesterol excretion to the bile. Further, Bmal1 deficiency reduces expression of Shp and Gata4...
October 10, 2016: Nature Communications
Dalei Wu, Fraydoon Rastinejad
The mammalian basic helix-loop-helix-PER-ARNT-SIM (bHLH-PAS) transcription factors share common architectural features that include a bHLH DNA-binding domain and tandemly positioned PAS domains. The sixteen members of this family include the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α), ARNT (also known as HIF-1β), CLOCK and BMAL1. Most bHLH-PAS proteins have been genetically linked to variety of diseases in humans, including cancers, metabolic syndromes and psychiatric conditions. To function as transcription factors, the bHLH-PAS proteins must form heterodimeric complexes...
October 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
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