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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646918/diurnal-cycling-of-rhizosphere-bacterial-communities-is-associated-with-shifts-in-carbon-metabolism
#1
Christopher Staley, Abigail P Ferrieri, Malak M Tfaily, Yaya Cui, Rosalie K Chu, Ping Wang, Jared B Shaw, Charles K Ansong, Heather Brewer, Angela D Norbeck, Meng Markillie, Fernanda do Amaral, Thalita Tuleski, Tomás Pellizzaro, Beverly Agtuca, Richard Ferrieri, Susannah G Tringe, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Gary Stacey, Michael J Sadowsky
BACKGROUND: The circadian clock regulates plant metabolic functions and is an important component in plant health and productivity. Rhizosphere bacteria play critical roles in plant growth, health, and development and are shaped primarily by soil communities. Using Illumina next-generation sequencing and high-resolution mass spectrometry, we characterized bacterial communities of wild-type (Col-0) Arabidopsis thaliana and an acyclic line (OX34) ectopically expressing the circadian clock-associated cca1 transcription factor, relative to a soil control, to determine how cycling dynamics affected the microbial community...
June 24, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645331/circadian-clock-gene-polymorphisms-in-relation-to-sleep-patterns-and-obesity-in-african-americans-findings-from-the-jackson-heart-study
#2
Pia Riestra, Samson Y Gebreab, Ruihua Xu, Rumana J Khan, Amadou Gaye, Adolfo Correa, Nancy Min, Mario Sims, Sharon K Davis
BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms regulate key biological processes and the dysregulation of the intrinsic clock mechanism affects sleep patterns and obesity onset. The CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles protein kaput) gene encodes a core transcription factor of the molecular circadian clock influencing diverse metabolic pathways, including glucose and lipid homeostasis. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between CLOCK single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and body mass index (BMI)...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638438/real-time-monitoring-of-ptahmgb-activity-in-poplar-transactivation-assays
#3
José M Ramos-Sánchez, Paolo M Triozzi, Alicia Moreno-Cortés, Daniel Conde, Mariano Perales, Isabel Allona
BACKGROUND: Precise control of gene expression is essential to synchronize plant development with the environment. In perennial plants, transcriptional regulation remains poorly understood, mainly due to the long time required to perform functional studies. Transcriptional reporters based on luciferase have been useful to study circadian and diurnal regulation of gene expression, both by transcription factors and chromatin remodelers. The high mobility group proteins are considered transcriptional chaperones that also modify the chromatin architecture...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637769/potential-contribution-of-tandem-circadian-enhancers-to-nonlinear-oscillations-in-clock-gene-expression
#4
Isao T Tokuda, Akihiko Okamoto, Ritsuko Matsumura, Toru Takumi, Makoto Akashi
Limit cycle oscillations require the presence of nonlinear processes. Although mathematical studies have long suggested that multiple nonlinear processes are required for autonomous circadian oscillation in clock gene expression, the underlying mechanism remains controversial. Here, we experimentally show that cell-autonomous circadian transcription of a mammalian clock gene requires a functionally interdependent tandem E-box motif; the lack of either of the two E-boxes results in arrhythmic transcription. Although previous studies have indicated the role of the tandem motifs in increasing circadian amplitude, enhancing amplitude does not explain the mechanism for limit cycle oscillations in transcription...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632163/melatonin-as-a-novel-interventional-candidate-for-fragile-x-syndrome-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#5
REVIEW
Jinyoung Won, Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Sookyoung Park, Tae Ho Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Yonggeun Hong
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). FXS with ASD results from the loss of fragile X mental retardation (fmr) gene products, including fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which triggers a variety of physiological and behavioral abnormalities. This disorder is also correlated with clock components underlying behavioral circadian rhythms and, thus, a mutation of the fmr gene can result in disturbed sleep patterns and altered circadian rhythms. As a result, FXS with ASD individuals may experience dysregulation of melatonin synthesis and alterations in melatonin-dependent signaling pathways that can impair vigilance, learning, and memory abilities, and may be linked to autistic behaviors such as abnormal anxiety responses...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630025/the-clock-is-ticking-ageing-of-the-circadian-system-from-physiology-to-cell-cycle
#6
REVIEW
Eva Terzibasi-Tozzini, Antonio Martinez-Nicolas, Alejandro Lucas-Sánchez
The circadian system is the responsible to organise the internal temporal order in relation to the environment of every process of the organisms producing the circadian rhythms. These rhythms have a fixed phase relationship among them and with the environment in order to optimise the available energy and resources. From a cellular level, circadian rhythms are controlled by genetic positive and negative auto-regulated transcriptional and translational feedback loops, which generate 24hour rhythms in mRNA and protein levels of the clock components...
June 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625763/effects-of-tectonics-and-large-scale-climatic-changes-on-the-evolutionary-history-of-hyalomma-ticks
#7
Arthur F Sands, Dmitry A Apanaskevich, Sonja Matthee, Ivan G Horak, Alan Harrison, Shahid Karim, Mohammad K Mohammad, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Rupika S Rajakaruna, Maria M Santos-Silva, Conrad A Matthee
HyalommaKoch, 1844 are ixodid ticks that infest mammals, birds and reptiles, to which 27 recognized species occur across the Afrotropical, Palearctic and Oriental regions. Despite their medical and veterinary importance, the evolutionary history of the group is enigmatic. To investigate various taxonomic hypotheses based on morphology, and also some of the mechanisms involved in the diversification of the genus, we sequenced and analysed data derived from two mtDNA fragments, three nuclear DNA genes and 47 morphological characters...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625682/are-circadian-rhythms-new-pathways-to-understand-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
M-M Geoffray, A Nicolas, M Speranza, N Georgieff
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder. ASD is probably the result of intricate interactions between genes and environment altering progressively the development of brain structures and functions. Circadian rhythms are a complex intrinsic timing system composed of almost as many clocks as there are body cells. They regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes such as the sleep- wake rhythm. ASD is often associated with sleep disorders and low levels of melatonin...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625476/feedback-loops-interlocked-at-competitive-binding-sites-amplify-and-facilitate-genetic-oscillations
#9
Koichiro Uriu, Hajime Tei
Positive and negative feedback loops are often present in regulatory networks for genetic oscillations. Relative time scales and integration of these feedback loops are key to robust oscillations in expression levels. Using examples from the circadian clock and synthetic genetic oscillators, we study positive and negative feedback loops interlocked at competitive binding sites. In the mammalian circadian clock, a key clock gene Bmal1 is regulated by the activator ROR and the repressor REV-ERB. Conversely, Bmal1 activates both of them, forming interlocked feedback loops...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624585/contributions-of-the-lateral-habenula-to-circadian-timekeeping
#10
REVIEW
Beatriz Baño-Otálora, Hugh D Piggins
Over the past 20years, substantive research has firmly implicated the lateral habenula in myriad neural processes including addiction, depression, and sleep. More recently, evidence has emerged suggesting that the lateral habenula is a component of the brain's intrinsic daily or circadian timekeeping system. This system centers on the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus that is synchronized to the external world through environmental light information received directly from the eye...
June 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622766/translational-contributions-to-tissue-specificity-in-rhythmic-and-constitutive-gene-expression
#11
Violeta Castelo-Szekely, Alaaddin Bulak Arpat, Peggy Janich, David Gatfield
BACKGROUND: The daily gene expression oscillations that underlie mammalian circadian rhythms show striking differences between tissues and involve post-transcriptional regulation. Both aspects remain poorly understood. We have used ribosome profiling to explore the contribution of translation efficiency to temporal gene expression in kidney and contrasted our findings with liver data available from the same mice. RESULTS: Rhythmic translation of constantly abundant messenger RNAs (mRNAs) affects largely non-overlapping transcript sets with distinct phase clustering in the two organs...
June 16, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622368/minimal-genetic-change-in-vibrio-cholerae-in-mozambique-over-time-multilocus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-and-whole-genome-sequencing
#12
Marcelino Garrine, Inácio Mandomando, Delfino Vubil, Tacilta Nhampossa, Sozinho Acacio, Shan Li, Joseph N Paulson, Mathieu Almeida, Daryl Domman, Nicholas R Thomson, Pedro Alonso, Oscar Colin Stine
Although cholera is a major public health concern in Mozambique, its transmission patterns remain unknown. We surveyed the genetic relatedness of 75 Vibrio cholerae isolates from patients at Manhiça District Hospital between 2002-2012 and 3 isolates from river using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). MLVA revealed 22 genotypes in two clonal complexes and four unrelated genotypes. WGS revealed i) the presence of recombination, ii) 67 isolates descended monophyletically from a single source connected to Wave 3 of the Seventh Pandemic, and iii) four clinical isolates lacking the cholera toxin gene...
June 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620312/thermodynamics-in-gliomas-interactions-between-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-and-ppar-gamma
#13
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Gliomas cells are the site of numerous metabolic and thermodynamics abnormalities with an increasing entropy rate which is characteristic of irreversible processes driven by changes in Gibbs energy, heat production, intracellular acidity, membrane potential gradient, and ionic conductance. We focus our review on the opposing interactions observed in glioma between the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR gamma and their metabolic and thermodynamic implications. In gliomas, WNT/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated while PPAR gamma is downregulated...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620087/daily-activity-of-the-housefly-musca-domestica-is-influenced-by-temperature-independent-of-3-utr-period-gene-splicing
#14
Olga Bazalova, David Dolezel
Circadian clocks orchestrate daily activity patterns and free running periods of locomotor activity under constant conditions. While the first often depends on temperature, the latter is temperature-compensated over a physiologically relevant range. Here, we explored the locomotor activity of the temperate housefly, Musca domestica Under low temperatures, activity was centered round a major and broad afternoon peak, while high temperatures resulted in activity throughout the photophase with a mild mid-day depression, which was especially pronounced in males exposed to long photoperiods...
June 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619514/the-frequency-of-th17%C3%A2-cells-in-the-small-intestine-exhibits-a-day-night-variation-dependent-on-circadian-clock-activity
#15
Ha Pham Thu Le, Yuki Nakamura, Kyoko Oh-Oka, Kayoko Ishimaru, Shotaro Nakajima, Atsuhito Nakao
Interleukin-17-producing CD4(+) T helper (Th17) cells are a key immune lineage that protects against bacterial and fungal infections at mucosal surfaces. At steady state, Th17 cells are abundant in the small intestinal mucosa of mice. There are several mechanisms for regulating the population of Th17 cells in the small intestine, reflecting the importance of maintaining their numbers in the correct balance. Here we demonstrate the existence of a time-of-day-dependent variation in the frequency of Th17 cells in the lamina propria of the small intestine in wild-type mice, which was not observed in mice with a loss-of-function mutation of the core circadian gene Clock or in mice housed under aberrant light/dark conditions...
June 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617195/light-and-clock-control-of-genes-involved-in-detoxification
#16
G Carmona-Antoñanzas, M Santi, H Migaud, L M Vera
Circadian regulation of hepatic detoxification seems to be amongst the key roles of the biological clock. The liver is the major site for biotransformation, and in mammals, it contains several clock-controlled transcription factors such as proline and acidic amino acid-rich basic leucine zipper proteins (PAR bZIP) and basic-helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family that act as circadian regulators of detoxification genes. This investigation explored the existence of daily and circadian expression of transcription factors involved in detoxification, as well as the temporal profile of a set of their target genes in zebrafish liver...
June 15, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616659/isolation-and-functional-characterization-of-a-circadian-regulated-constans-homolog-gbco-from-ginkgo-biloba
#17
Jiaping Yan, Dun Mao, Xiaomeng Liu, Lanlan Wang, Feng Xu, Guiyuan Wang, Weiwei Zhang, Yongling Liao
This is the first report to clone and functionally characterize a flowering time gene GbCO in perennial gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. GbCO complements the co mutant of Arabidopsis, restoring normal early flowering. CONSTANS (CO) is a central regulator of photoperiod pathway, which channels inputs from light, day length, and circadian clock to promote the floral transition. In order to understand the role of CO in gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba, which has a long juvenile phase (15-20 years), a CO homolog (GbCO) was isolated and characterized from G...
June 14, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615472/neuronal-circadian-clock-protein-oscillations-are-similar-in-behaviourally-rhythmic-forager-honeybees-and-in-arrhythmic-nurses
#18
T Fuchikawa, K Beer, C Linke-Winnebeck, R Ben-David, A Kotowoy, V W K Tsang, G R Warman, E C Winnebeck, C Helfrich-Förster, G Bloch
Internal clocks driving rhythms of about a day (circadian) are ubiquitous in animals, allowing them to anticipate environmental changes. Genetic or environmental disturbances to circadian clocks or the rhythms they produce are commonly associated with illness, compromised performance or reduced survival. Nevertheless, some animals including Arctic mammals, open sea fish and social insects such as honeybees are active around-the-clock with no apparent ill effects. The mechanisms allowing this remarkable natural plasticity are unknown...
June 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613964/early-and-late-onset-preeclampsia-and-the-dna-methylation-of-circadian-clock-and-clock-controlled-genes-in-placental-and-newborn-tissues
#19
C B van den Berg, I Chaves, E M Herzog, S P Willemsen, G T J van der Horst, R P M Steegers-Theunissen
The placenta is important in providing a healthy environment for the fetus and plays a central role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE). Fetal and placental developments are influenced by epigenetic programming. There is some evidence that PE is controlled to an altered circadian homeostasis. In a nested case-control study embedded in the Rotterdam Periconceptional Cohort, we obtained placental tissue, umbilical cord leukocytes (UCL), and human umbilical venous endothelial cells of 13 early-onset PE, 16 late-onset PE and 83 controls comprising 36 uncomplicated and 47 complicated pregnancies, i...
June 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612703/evolutionary-analysis-of-whole-genome-sequences-confirms-inter-farm-transmission-of-aleutian-mink-disease-virus
#20
Emma E Hagberg, Anders G Pedersen, Lars E Larsen, Anders Krarup
Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a frequently encountered pathogen associated with mink farming. Previous phylogenetic analyses of AMDV have been based on shorter and more conserved parts of the genome, e.g. the partial NS1 gene. Such fragments are suitable for detection but are less useful for elucidating transmission pathways while sequencing entire viral genomes provides additional informative sites and often results in better-resolved phylogenies. We explore how whole-genome sequencing can benefit investigations of AMDV transmission by reconstructing the relationships between AMDV field samples from a Danish outbreak...
June 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
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