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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440811/evaluation-of-circadian-phenotypes-utilizing-fibroblasts-from-patients-with-circadian-rhythm-sleep-disorders
#1
A Hida, Y Ohsawa, S Kitamura, K Nakazaki, N Ayabe, Y Motomura, K Matsui, M Kobayashi, A Usui, Y Inoue, H Kusanagi, Y Kamei, K Mishima
We evaluated the circadian phenotypes of patients with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) and non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), two different circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs) by measuring clock gene expression rhythms in fibroblast cells derived from individual patients. Bmal1-luciferase (Bmal1-luc) expression rhythms were measured in the primary fibroblast cells derived from skin biopsy samples of patients with DSWPD and N24SWD, as well as control subjects. The period length of the Bmal1-luc rhythm (in vitro period) was distributed normally and was 22...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440582/phytochrome-interacting-factors-mediate-metabolic-control-of-the-circadian-system-in-arabidopsis
#2
Ekaterina Shor, Inyup Paik, Shlomit Kangisser, Rachel Green, Enamul Huq
The circadian (c. 24 h) system has a central role in regulating the timing and coordination of photosynthesis, and in turn photosynthesis and photosynthetic products which are controlled by the circadian clock feedback to affect the circadian oscillator that generates rhythms. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which this feedback occurs. One group of likely candidates for signal transduction to the circadian clock are the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family of transcription factors which have been shown to be involved in numerous signaling pathways in Arabidopsis...
April 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439257/high-resolution-recording-of-the-circadian-oscillator-in-primary-mouse-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cell-culture
#3
Volodymyr Petrenko, Yvan Gosmain, Charna Dibner
Circadian clocks have been developed in evolution as an anticipatory mechanism allowing for adaptation to the constantly changing light environment due to rotation of the Earth. This mechanism is functional in all light-sensitive organisms. There is a considerable body of evidence on the tight connection between the circadian clock and most aspects of physiology and metabolism. Clocks, operative in the pancreatic islets, have caught particular attention in the last years due to recent reports on their critical roles in regulation of insulin secretion and etiology of type 2 diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435104/drosophila-pink1-and-parkin-loss-of-function-mutants-display-a-range-of-non-motor-parkinson-s-disease-phenotypes
#4
Hannah Julienne, Edgar Buhl, David S Leslie, James J L Hodge
Parkinson's disease (PD) is more commonly associated with its motor symptoms and the related degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that PD patients also display a wide range of non-motor symptoms, including memory deficits and disruptions of their sleep-wake cycles. These have a large impact on their quality of life, and often precede the onset of motor symptoms, but their etiology is poorly understood. The fruit fly Drosophila has already been successfully used to model PD, and has been used extensively to study relevant non-motor behaviours in other contexts, but little attention has yet been paid to modelling non-motor symptoms of PD in this genetically tractable organism...
April 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434813/rhythmic-expressed-clock-regulates-the-transcription-of-proliferating-cellular-nuclear-antigen-in-teleost-retina
#5
Hang Song, Defeng Wang, Felipe De Jesus Perez, Rongrong Xie, Zhipeng Liu, Chun-Chun Chen, Meijuan Yu, Liudi Yuan, Russell D Fernald, Sheng Zhao
Teleost fish continues to grow their eyes throughout life with the body size. In Astatotilapia burtoni, the fish retina increases by adding new retinal cells at the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) and in the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Cell proliferation at both sites exhibits a daily rhythm in number of dividing cells. To understand how this diurnal rhythm of new cell production is controlled in retinal progenitor cells, we studied the transcription pattern of clock genes in retina, including clock1a, clock1b, bmal1a (brain and muscle ARNT-Like), and per1b (period1b)...
April 20, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434151/cbf2a-cbf4b-genomic-region-copy-numbers-alongside-the-circadian-clock-play-key-regulatory-mechanisms-driving-expression-of-fr-h2-cbfs
#6
Taniya Dhillon, Kengo Morohashi, Eric J Stockinger
The C-Repeat Binding Factors (CBFs) are DNA-binding transcriptional activators that were identified using Arabidopsis thaliana. In barley, Hordeum vulgare, a cluster of CBF genes reside at FROST RESISTANCE-H2, one of two loci having major effects on winter-hardiness. FR-H2 was revealed in a population derived from the winter barley 'Nure' and the spring barley 'Trèmois'. 'Nure' harbors two to three copies of CBF2A and CBF4B as a consequence of tandem iteration of the genomic region encompassing these genes whereas 'Trèmois' harbors single copies, and these copy number differences are associated with their transcript level differences...
April 22, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433925/low-dose-pollutant-mixture-triggers-metabolic-disturbances-in-female-mice-leading-to-common-and-specific-features-as-compared-to-a-high-fat-diet
#7
Emmanuel Labaronne, Claudie Pinteur, Nathalie Vega, Sandra Pesenti, Benoit Julien, Emmanuelle Meugnier-Fouilloux, Hubert Vidal, Danielle Naville, Brigitte Le Magueresse-Battistoni
Environmental pollutants are potential etiologic factors of obesity and diabetes that reach epidemic proportions worldwide. However, it is important to determine if pollutants could exert metabolic defects without directly inducing obesity. The metabolic disturbances triggered in nonobese mice lifelong exposed to a mixture of low-dose pollutants (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxine, polychlorinated biphenyl 153, diethylhexyl-phthalate, and bisphenol A) were compared with changes provoked by a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet not containing the pollutant mixture...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431121/starbeast2-brings-faster-species-tree-inference-and-accurate-estimates-of-substitution-rates
#8
Huw A Ogilvie, Remco R Bouckaert, Alexei J Drummond
Fully Bayesian multispecies coalescent (MSC) methods like *BEAST estimate species trees from multiple sequence alignments. Today thousands of genes can be sequenced for a given study, but using that many genes with *BEAST is intractably slow. An alternative is to use heuristic methods which compromise accuracy or completeness in return for speed. A common heuristic is concatenation, which assumes that the evolutionary history of each gene tree is identical to the species tree. This is an inconsistent estimator of species tree topology, a worse estimator of divergence times, and induces spurious substitution rate variation when incomplete lineage sorting is present...
April 14, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431105/extinction-vs-rapid-radiation-the-juxtaposed-evolutionary-histories-of-coelotine-spiders-support-the-eocene-oligocene-orogenesis-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#9
Zhe Zhao, Shuqiang Li
Evolutionary biology has long been concerned with how changing environments affect and drive the spatiotemporal development of organisms. Coelotine spiders (Agelenidae: Coelotinae) are common species in the temperate and subtropical areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Their long evolutionary history and the extremely imbalanced distribution of species richness suggest that Eurasian environments, especially since the Cenozoic, are the drivers of their diversification. We use phylogenetics, molecular dating, ancestral area reconstructions, diversity, and ecological niche analyses to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of 286 coelotine species from throughout the region...
April 20, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423013/mapping-the-co-localization-of-the-circadian-proteins-per2-and-bmal1-with-enkephalin-and-substance-p-throughout-the-rodent-forebrain
#10
Ariana Frederick, Jory Goldsmith, Nuria de Zavalia, Shimon Amir
Despite rhythmic expression of clock genes being found throughout the central nervous system, very little is known about their function outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Determining the pattern of clock gene expression across neuronal subpopulations is a key step in understanding their regulation and how they may influence the functions of various brain structures. Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, we quantified the co-expression of the clock proteins BMAL1 and PER2 with two neuropeptides, Substance P (SubP) and Enkephalin (Enk), expressed in distinct neuronal populations throughout the forebrain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421465/the-role-of-the-molecular-clock-in-skeletal-muscle-and-what-it-is-teaching-us-about-muscle-bone-crosstalk
#11
REVIEW
Lance A Riley, Karyn A Esser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes what has been learned about the interaction between skeletal muscle and bone from mouse models in which BMAL1, a core molecular clock protein has been deleted. Additionally, we highlight several genes which change following loss of BMAL1. The protein products from these genes are secreted from muscle and have a known effect on bone homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Circadian rhythms have been implicated in regulating systems homeostasis through a series of transcriptional-translational feedback loops termed the molecular clock...
April 18, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420965/dopamine-a-modulator-of-circadian-rhythms-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
REVIEW
Kirill S Korshunov, Laura J Blakemore, Paul Q Trombley
Circadian rhythms are daily rhythms that regulate many biological processes - from gene transcription to behavior - and a disruption of these rhythms can lead to a myriad of health risks. Circadian rhythms are entrained by light, and their 24-h oscillation is maintained by a core molecular feedback loop composed of canonical circadian ("clock") genes and proteins. Different modulators help to maintain the proper rhythmicity of these genes and proteins, and one emerging modulator is dopamine. Dopamine has been shown to have circadian-like activities in the retina, olfactory bulb, striatum, midbrain, and hypothalamus, where it regulates, and is regulated by, clock genes in some of these areas...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419375/transcriptional-profiling-of-cholinergic-neurons-from-basal-forebrain-identifies-changes-in-expression-of-genes-between-sleep-and-wake-mrna-profiling-in-basal-forebrain-with-sleep-sleep-deprivation
#13
Elena V Nikonova, Jason DA Gilliland, Keith Q Tanis, Alexei A Podtelezhnikov, Alison M Rigby, Raymond J Galante, Eva M Finney, David J Stone, John J Renger, Allan I Pack, Christopher J Winrow
Study objective: To assess differences in gene expression in cholinergic basal forebrain cells between sleeping and sleep deprived mice sacrificed at the same time of day. Methods: Tg(ChAT-eGFP)86Gsat mice expressing eGFP under control of the choline acetyltransferase (Chat) promoter were utilized to guide laser capture of cholinergic cells in basal forebrain. mRNA expression levels in these cells were profiled using microarrays. Gene expression in eGFP(+) neurons was compared (1) to that in eGFP(-) neurons and to adjacent white matter, (2) between 7:00 am (lights on) and 7:00 pm (lights off), (3) between sleep deprived and sleeping animals at 0, 3, 6, 9 hrs from lights on...
April 13, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418034/light-and-circadian-controlled-genes-respond-to-a-broad-light-spectrum-in-puffer-fish-derived-fugu-eye-cells
#14
Keiko Okano, Shoichi Ozawa, Hayao Sato, Sawa Kodachi, Masaharu Ito, Toshiaki Miyadai, Akihiro Takemura, Toshiyuki Okano
Some cell lines retain intrinsic phototransduction pathways to control the expression of light-regulated genes such as the circadian clock gene. Here we investigated the photosensitivity of a Fugu eye, a cell line established from the eye of Takifugu rubripes, to examine whether such a photosensitive nature is present. Microarray analysis identified 15 genes that showed blue light-dependent change at the transcript level. We investigated temporal profiles of the light-induced genes, as well as Cry and Per, under light-dark, constant light (LL), and constant dark (DD) conditions by quantitative RT-PCR...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417351/detrimental-effect-of-maternal-and-post-weaning-high-fat-diet-on-the-reproductive-function-in-the-adult-female-offspring-rat-roles-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-and-the-ovarian-circadian-clock
#15
Yu-Ju Lin, Ching-Chou Tsai, Li-Tung Huang, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, Mao-Meng Tiao, Hong-Ren Yu, Chih-Cheng Chen, You-Lin Tain
PURPOSE: We evaluate the impact of maternal and post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on ovarian follicular population, steroidogenesis, and gene expression with a focus on the circadian clock system and insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) in adult offspring ovaries, and to elucidate whether a maternal and post-weaning diet confers similar risks. METHODS: Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal chow (C) diet or HF diet for 5 weeks before mating, during gestation, and lactation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416676/dissociation-of-per1-and-bmal1-circadian-rhythms-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-in-parallel-with-behavioral-outputs
#16
Daisuke Ono, Sato Honma, Yoshihiro Nakajima, Shigeru Kuroda, Ryosuke Enoki, Ken-Ichi Honma
The temporal order of physiology and behavior in mammals is primarily regulated by the circadian pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Taking advantage of bioluminescence reporters, we monitored the circadian rhythms of the expression of clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 in the SCN of freely moving mice and found that the rate of phase shifts induced by a single light pulse was different in the two rhythms. The Per1-luc rhythm was phase-delayed instantaneously by the light presented at the subjective evening in parallel with the activity onset of behavioral rhythm, whereas the Bmal1-ELuc rhythm was phase-delayed gradually, similar to the activity offset...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414715/transcriptional-regulatory-logic-of-the-diurnal-cycle-in-the-mouse-liver
#17
Jonathan Aryeh Sobel, Irina Krier, Teemu Andersin, Sunil Raghav, Donatella Canella, Federica Gilardi, Alexandra Styliani Kalantzi, Guillaume Rey, Benjamin Weger, Frédéric Gachon, Matteo Dal Peraro, Nouria Hernandez, Ueli Schibler, Bart Deplancke, Felix Naef
Many organisms exhibit temporal rhythms in gene expression that propel diurnal cycles in physiology. In the liver of mammals, these rhythms are controlled by transcription-translation feedback loops of the core circadian clock and by feeding-fasting cycles. To better understand the regulatory interplay between the circadian clock and feeding rhythms, we mapped DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in the mouse liver during a diurnal cycle. The intensity of DNase I cleavages cycled at a substantial fraction of all DHSs, suggesting that DHSs harbor regulatory elements that control rhythmic transcription...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412756/effects-of-circadian-clock-genes-and-environmental-factors-on-cognitive-aging-in-old-adults-in-a-taiwanese-population
#18
Eugene Lin, Po-Hsiu Kuo, Yu-Li Liu, Albert C Yang, Chung-Feng Kao, Shih-Jen Tsai
Previous animal studies have indicated associations between circadian clock genes and cognitive impairment . In this study, we assessed whether 11 circadian clockgenes are associated with cognitive aging independently and/or through complex interactions in an old Taiwanese population. We also analyzed the interactions between environmental factors and these genes in influencing cognitive aging. A total of 634 Taiwanese subjects aged over 60 years from the Taiwan Biobank were analyzed. Mini-Mental State Examinations (MMSE) were administered to all subjects, and MMSE scores were used to evaluate cognitive function...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412365/vaccinia-related-kinase-3-vrk3-sets-the-circadian-period-and-amplitude-by-affecting-the-subcellular-localization-of-clock-proteins-in-mammalian-cells
#19
Nayoung Park, Ji-Eun Song, Seongsu Jeong, Thanh Thi Tran, Hyuk Wan Ko, Eun Young Kim
In the eukaryotic circadian clock machinery, negative feedback repression of CLOCK (CLK) and BMAL1 transcriptional activity by PERIOD (PER) and CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) underlies the basis for 24 h rhythmic gene expression. Thus, precise regulation of the time-dependent nuclear entry of circadian repressors is crucial to generating normal circadian rhythms. Here, we sought to identify novel kinase(s) that regulate nuclear entry of mammalian CRY1 (mCRY1) with an unbiased screening using red fluorescent protein (RFP)-tagged human kinome expression plasmids in mammalian cells...
April 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412321/egcg-ameliorates-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-associating-with-the-circadian-clock
#20
Yashi Mi, Guoyuan Qi, Rong Fan, Xiaohua Ji, Zhigang Liu, Xuebo Liu
In response to the daily light-dark (LD) cycle, organisms on Earth have evolved with the approximately 24-h endogenous oscillations to coordinate behavioral and physiological processes, including feeding, sleep, and metabolism homeostasis. Circadian desynchrony triggered by an energy-dense diet rich in fats and fructose is intimately connected with a series of metabolic disorders. Previous studies revealed that (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could mitigate metabolic misalignment; however, only a few reports have focused on its potential effect on directly manipulating circadian rhythms to ameliorate metabolic syndrome...
April 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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