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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425965/the-small-heat-shock-proteins-especially-hspb4-and-hspb5-are-promising-protectants-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Zhihui Zhu, Georg Reiser
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a group of proteins with molecular mass between 12 and 43 kDa. Currently, 11 members of this family have been classified, namely HspB1 to HspB11. HspB1, HspB2, HspB5, HspB6, HspB7, and HspB8, which are expressed in brain have been observed to be related to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Alexander's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Specifically, sHsps interact with misfolding and damaging protein aggregates, like Glial fibrillary acidic protein in AxD, β-amyloid peptides aggregates in Alzheimer's disease, Superoxide dismutase 1 in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cytosine-adenine-guanine/polyglutamine (CAG/PolyQ) in Huntington's disease, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, Spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy, to reduce the toxicity or increase the clearance of these protein aggregates...
February 6, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416499/a-metadata-analysis-of-oxidative-stress-etiology-in-preclinical-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-benefits-of-antioxidant-therapy
#2
Leila Bond, Kamren Bernhardt, Priyank Madria, Katherine Sorrentino, Hailee Scelsi, Cassie S Mitchell
Oxidative stress, induced by an imbalance of free radicals, incites neurodegeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In fact, a mutation in antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) accounts for 20% of familial ALS cases. However, the variance among individual studies examining ALS oxidative stress clouds corresponding conclusions. Therefore, we construct a comprehensive, temporal view of oxidative stress and corresponding antioxidant therapy in preclinical ALS by mining published quantitative experimental data and performing metadata analysis of 41 studies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378426/severe-toxicity-in-nonhuman-primates-and-piglets-following-high-dose-intravenous-administration-of-an-aav-vector-expressing-human-smn
#3
Christian Hinderer, Nathan Katz, Elizabeth Lynne Buza, Cecilia Dyer, Tamara Goode, Peter Bell, Laura Richman, James M Wilson
Neurotropic AAV serotypes such as AAV9 have been demonstrated to transduce spinal alpha motor neurons when administered intravenously at high doses. This observation led to the recent successful application of intravenous AAV9 delivery to treat infants with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an inherited deficiency of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein characterized by selective death of lower motor neurons. To evaluate the efficiency of motor neuron transduction with an AAV9 variant (AAVhu68) using this approach, we treated three juvenile nonhuman primates (NHPs; age 14 months) and three piglets (age 7-30 days) with an intravenous injection of an AAVhu68 vector carrying a human SMN transgene at a dose similar to that employed in the SMA clinical trial...
January 29, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260067/severe-bilateral-optic-nerve-and-retinal-hypoperfusion-in-a-patient-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-and-septic-shock
#4
Wei Gui, Erika Tanaka Friesen, Laura Bonelli, Ye Elaine Wang, Anthony C Arnold
Purpose: To report a case of bilateral central retinal artery occlusion with both anterior and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Observations: A 65-year-old Caucasian woman presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock. After treatment with vasopressors and prolonged prone positioning, she was noted to be bilaterally completely blind on hospitalization day 12. Evaluation revealed evidence of bilateral central retinal artery occlusion and bilateral ischemic optic neuropathy...
June 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249687/male-incontinence-the-etiology-or-basis-of-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Austin G Hester, Alexander Kretschmer, Gopal Badlani
CONTEXT: Elderly men are an increasing proportion of the aging population in the 21st century. Urinary incontinence reduces the quality of life and increases the burden of care for the aging population. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this review is to explore the etiopathology of common causes of incontinence in aging male patients. The focus is on the algorithm of the initial evaluation of these patients from both a primary care and a urologic standpoint. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A nonsystematic review of the literature was performed in September 2017...
December 14, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247987/suppression-of-inflammation-and-acquired-immunity-by-il-37
#6
REVIEW
Giulio Cavalli, Charles A Dinarello
IL-37 is a unique member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, which functions as a natural suppressor of inflammatory and immune responses. Immune and non-immune cells produce IL-37 precursor following pro-inflammatory stimuli. Following activating cleavage by caspase-1, mature IL-37 translocates to the nucleus, where it suppresses transcription of pro-inflammatory genes. Both precursor and mature IL-37 are also secreted in the extracellular space, where they bind IL-18Rα and recruit the IL-1R8 (formerly TIR8 or SIGIRR), which transduces anti-inflammatory signals by suppressing NF-kB and MAPK and by activating Mer-PTEN-DOK pathways...
January 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245271/metastatic-esophageal-cancer-presenting-as-shock-by-injury-of-vagus-nerve-mimicking-baroreceptor-reflex-a-case-report
#7
Kenji Tsuchihashi, Tomoyasu Yoshihiro, Tomomi Aikawa, Kenta Nio, Kotoe Takayoshi, Taku Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro Fukata, Shuji Arita, Hiroshi Ariyama, Yukiko Shimizu, Yuichiro Yoshida, Takehiro Torisu, Motohiro Esaki, Keita Odashiro, Hitoshi Kusaba, Koichi Akashi, Eishi Baba
RATIONALE: Neurogenic shock is generally typified by spinal injury due to bone metastases in cancer patients, but continuous disturbance of the vagus nerve controlling the aortic arch baroreceptor can cause shock by a reflex response through the medulla oblongata. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 43-year-old woman with dysphagia presented to our hospital. Computed tomography showed a primary tumor adjacent to and surrounding half the circumference of the descending aorta, and multiple cervical lymph node metastases, including a 55 × 35-mm lymph node overlapping the root of the left vagus nerve...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200947/hspb8-promotes-the-fusion-of-autophagosome-and-lysosome-during-autophagy-in-diabetic-neurons
#8
Xiao-Cheng Li, Qi-Kuan Hu, Ling Chen, Si-Yang Liu, Shi Su, Hong Tao, Lin-Na Zhang, Tao Sun, Lan-Jie He
Although autophagy has been proposed to play an emerging role in diabetic neuropathy, autophagy and its possible role remains unclear. Moreover, only few studies about diabetes have explored the autophagy mediated by heat shock protein beta-8 (HSPB8) and Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3). In the present study, we examined the autophagy induced by high glucose levels in an in vivo rat model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and an in vitro model of retinal ganglion cell-5 (RGC5) cells under high glucose conditions...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189604/2017-military-supplement-to-shock-journal-perftorantm-vidaphortm-introduction-to-western-medicine
#9
Gary W Latson
Perftoran, which has been re-branded as Vidaphorfor marketing in North America, is an emulsion of perfluorocarbons in a surfactant and electrolyte mixture. It was developed in Russia as an oxygen-carrying intravenous plasma additive for hemorrhagic anemia and ischemic conditions from various etiologies. It was approved for clinical use in Russia in 1996 and used by the Russian Armed Forces and in civilian medical care. It was also approved in Mexico from 2005 to 2010. It has been reportedly administered to over 35,000 patients with significant evidence of benefit and relatively mild and manageable adverse effects...
November 20, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177651/measurement-of-chaperone-mediated-effects-on-polyglutamine-protein-aggregation-by-the-filter-trap-assay
#10
Maria A W H van Waarde-Verhagen, Harm H Kampinga
The formation of aggregates by polyglutamine-containing (polyQ) proteins in neurons is a key to the pathogenesis of several progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease (HD) spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). In order to study whether the members of the heat shock protein (HSP) families, by virtue of their molecular chaperone activity, can inhibit the formation of polyQ aggregates, we developed a cell culture model expressing the GFP tagged fragment of exon1 of the huntingtin gene with an expanded polyQ chain and tetracycline inducible chaperones...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160793/a-gal-m%C3%A2%C2%B5s-device-to-evaluate-cell-migratory-response-to-combined-galvano-chemotactic-fields
#11
Shawn Mishra, Maribel Vazquez
Electric fields have been studied extensively in biomedical engineering (BME) for numerous regenerative therapies. Recent studies have begun to examine the biological effects of electric fields in combination with other environmental cues, such as tissue-engineered extracellular matrices (ECM), chemical gradient profiles, and time-dependent temperature gradients. In the nervous system, cell migration driven by electrical fields, or galvanotaxis, has been most recently studied in transcranial direct stimulation (TCDS), spinal cord repair and tumor treating fields (TTF)...
November 21, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141498/incidence-and-natural-progression-of-neurogenic-shock-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Ian A Ruiz, Jordan W Squair, Aaron A Phillips, Christine D Lukac, Dayan Huang, Patrick Oxciano, Dong Yan, Andrei V Krassioukov
Neurogenic shock, a distributive type of circulatory shock after spinal cord injury (SCI), results in profound hypotension. The consequent hemodynamic instability complicates clinical management, delays surgical intervention, and impacts neurological outcome. Moreover, the reported incidence of this condition varies significantly. We establish the true incidence of neurogenic shock by comparing the most common clinical definitions used to diagnose the condition. Further, we characterize the acute progression and recovery of neurogenic shock...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138652/trauma-a-major-cause-of-death-among-surgical-inpatients-of-a-nigerian-tertiary-hospital
#13
Onyeanunam Ngozi Ekeke, Kelechi Emmanuel Okonta
Introduction: Trauma presents a significant global health burden. Death resulting from trauma remains high in low income countries despite a steady decrease in developed countries. Analysis of the pattern of death will enable intervention to reduce these deaths from trauma in developing countries. This study aims to present the pattern of trauma-related deaths in the surgical wards of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Methods: This was a retrospective study of all patients who died from trauma during admission into the surgical wards of UPTH from 2007 to 2012...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122901/spinal-epidural-empyema-extending-from-a-pleural-empyema-case-description-and-anatomical-overview
#14
Gabriel Torrealba Acosta, Sylvia Josephy Hernández, Gabriel Castro Ulloa, Greivin Rodríguez Rojas
We present a case of a patient with diabetes with a pleural empyema originated from a pyomyositis process established after a central line procedure. This empyema later on extended into the spinal canal deriving into an epidural empyema, leading towards a spinal neurogenic shock and death. We discuss the anatomical substrate for this extension as well as the anatomopathological findings observed in the autopsy.
November 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118920/combination-therapy-with-extracorporeal-shock-wave-and-melatonin-markedly-attenuated-neuropathic-pain-in-rat
#15
Kuan-Hung Chen, Chien-Hui Yang, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Chung-Ren Lin, Chia-Kai Liu, Tsung-Cheng Yin, Tien-Hung Huang, Yi-Ling Chen, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hon-Kan Yip
This study tested the hypothesis that combination therapy using extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW)-melatonin (Mel) was superior to either alone at ameliorating neuropathic pain (NP). NP was induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the left sciatic nerve in rats. Animals were categorized into sham control (group 1), CCI only (group 2), CCI-ECSW (group 3), CCI-Mel (group 4) and CCI-ECSW-Mel (group 5). By days 2 and 8 after CCI, the mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MPWT)/thermal paw withdrawal latency (TPWL) were highest in group 2, lowest in group 1, significantly lower in group 5 than in groups 3 and 4 (all p<0...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116946/spinal-cord-injury-by-direct-damage-during-ct-guided-c7-transforaminal-epidural-steroid-injection-a-case-report
#16
Min Cheol Chang
Cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) under the guidance of computed tomography (CT) can offer great anatomical resolution and precise needle placement in the axial plane. However, some complications, including blood pressure surge, allergic reactions, vasovagal syncope, and cerebral infarct, have been reported after CT-guided cervical TFESI. We report the first case of iatrogenic spinal cord injury (SCI) during a CT-guided cervical TFESI. A 67-year-old woman, upon receiving TFESI on Lt...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058996/successful-use-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-a-child-with-obstructive-shock-due-to-massive-bilateral-pulmonary-embolism
#17
Aditya Badheka, Pradeep Bangalore Prakash, Veerajalandhar Allareddy
BACKGROUND: Acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE) is a very rare condition in children. We report the successful use of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) as a lifesaving modality in a child with acute massive PE. CASE PRESENTATION: A nine-year-old female with spinal muscular atrophy type 1, chronic respiratory failure with tracheostomy and ventilator dependence presented with tachypnea and hypoxia. She had recent coiling of her pulmonary arterio-venous malformation...
October 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035401/skydiving-and-the-risk-of-cervical-disc-herniation
#18
Ayşe Coşkun Beyan, Yücel Demiral, Banu Dilek, Nur Şafak Alici, Cem Bediz, Arif Çimrin
The skydiving/parachuting sport which has recently gained popularity is also known for its accidents and injuries. However, there are a few studies related to its occupational ergonomic risks and occupational musculoskeletal diseases. It has been reported that the sudden hyperextension of the neck during the parachute opening, so called opening shock results in neck pain. It has been found that the jumpers are subjected to an average deceleration of 3-5 times the earth's gravitational acceleration (3-5 G) during parachute opening shock...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021885/fracture-dislocation-at-c6-c7-level-with-quadriplegia-after-traditional-massage-in-a-patient-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-a-case-report
#19
Kak Abilash, Qmq Mohd, Zah Ahmad, Basir Towil
Ankylosing spinal disorders (ASD) tend to result in fractures and/or dislocations after minor trauma because of the altered biomechanical properties. The relative risk of traumatic vertebral fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis has been estimated as three times higher than in the general population. These spine traumas, which are located at cervical level in 81% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, are complicated by neurological lesions in 65% of patients, due to the high inherent instability of these fractures...
July 2017: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984755/clinical-and-imaging-features-of-spinal-cord-type-of-neuro-beh%C3%A3-et-disease-a-case-report-and-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Hui-Miao Liu, Ci Dong, Yong-Zhi Zhang, Ya-Yun Tian, Hong-Xu Chen, Sai Zhang, Na Li, Ping Gu
RATIONAL: To investigate the clinical and MRI characteristics of spinal cord nerve Behçet's disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: One patient with spinal cord nerve Behçet's disease was admitted to our hospital at October 20, 2015. DIAGNOSE: Spinal cord nerve Behçet's disease. INTERVENTIONS: Retrospective analysis was performed on such case as well as 16 cases of spinal cord nerve Behçet's disease reported in China or abroad...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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