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Mental heath and substance use

Arpana Agrawal, Anna M Constantino, Kathleen K Bucholz, Anne Glowinski, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath, Michael T Lynskey
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and suicidal ideation (SI) co-occur, yet few studies have investigated the risk and protective factors that infl uence their comorbidity. METHOD: Data from 3,787 twin women ages 18`27 years were analyzed. AUD was defined as a lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. SI was coded as a lifetime report of any SI, and all subjects were queried about SI...
May 2013: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Travis S Heath, Zachary Burroughs, A Jill Thompson, Frederick W Tecklenburg
Illicit drug use continues to be a common problem among pediatric patients. Daily marijuana use among high school seniors is currently at a 30-year high. Marijuana use in adults has rarely been associated with cardiovascular adverse effects, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmia, and myocardial infarction. Recently, abuse of synthetic cannabinoids, such as the incense "K2" or "Spice," has been increasingly reported in the lay press and medical literature. Overdose and chronic use of these substances may cause adverse effects including altered mental status, tachycardia, and loss of consciousness...
April 2012: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
A Agrawal, K J H Verweij, N A Gillespie, A C Heath, C N Lessov-Schlaggar, N G Martin, E C Nelson, W S Slutske, J B Whitfield, M T Lynskey
Addictions are serious and common psychiatric disorders, and are among the leading contributors to preventable death. This selective review outlines and highlights the need for a multi-method translational approach to genetic studies of these important conditions, including both licit (alcohol, nicotine) and illicit (cannabis, cocaine, opiates) drug addictions and the behavioral addiction of disordered gambling. First, we review existing knowledge from twin studies that indicates both the substantial heritability of substance-specific addictions and the genetic overlap across addiction to different substances...
2012: Translational Psychiatry
Julia D Grant, Jeffrey F Scherrer, Michael T Lynskey, Arpana Agrawal, Alexis E Duncan, Jon Randolph Haber, Andrew C Heath, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND: Although substance use is associated with reduced educational attainment, this association may be owing to common risk factors such as socioeconomic disadvantage. We tested whether alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drug use and dependence were associated with lifetime educational attainment after controlling for familial background characteristics. METHODS: Data were from a 1987 questionnaire and a 1992 telephone diagnostic interview of 6,242 male twins (n = 3,121 pairs; mean age = 41...
August 2012: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Vivia V McCutcheon, Arpana Agrawal, Andrew C Heath, Howard J Edenberg, Victor M Hesselbrock, Marc A Schuckit, John R Kramer, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND: Many states require screening of individuals arrested for driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol to determine recidivism risk and the need for treatment based on severity of alcohol problems. Several screening instruments use DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence to assess alcohol problems in this population, but whether they adequately measure alcohol problems in individuals with DUIs has not been examined. In addition, gender differences in DUI samples suggest that female offenders have more severe alcohol problems than male offenders...
November 2011: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Traute Flatscher-Bader, Peter A Wilce
Alcohol intake at levels posing an acute heath risk is common amongst teenagers. Alcohol abuse is the second most common mental disorder worldwide. The incidence of smoking is decreasing in the Western world but increasing in developing countries and is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Considering the longstanding history of alcohol and tobacco consumption in human societies, it might be surprising that the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol and smoking dependence are still incompletely understood...
December 2009: Nutrition Research Reviews
Robert A Philibert, Alexandre Todorov, Allan Andersen, Nancy Hollenbeck, Tracy Gunter, Andrew Heath, Pamela Madden
INTRODUCTION: Nicotine dependence results from a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Over the past several years, a large number of studies have been performed to identify distinct gene loci containing genetic vulnerability to nicotine dependence. Two of the most prominent studies were conducted by the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Nicotine Dependence (NICSNP) Consortium using both candidate gene and high-density association approaches. METHODS: We attempted to confirm and extend the most significant findings from the high-density association study and the candidate gene study using the behavioral and genetic resources of the Iowa Adoption Studies, the largest case-control adoption study of substance use in the United States...
March 2009: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Michele L Pergadia, Arpana Agrawal, Anu Loukola, Grant W Montgomery, Ulla Broms, Scott F Saccone, Jen C Wang, Alexandre A Todorov, Kauko Heikkilä, Dixie J Statham, Anjali K Henders, Megan J Campbell, John P Rice, Richard D Todd, Andrew C Heath, Alison M Goate, Leena Peltonen, Jaakko Kaprio, Nicholas G Martin, Pamela A F Madden
Nicotine withdrawal (NW) is both an important contributor to difficulty quitting cigarettes and because of mood-related withdrawal symptoms a problem of particular relevance to psychiatry. Twin-studies suggest that genetic factors influence NW (heritability = 45%). Only one previous linkage study has published findings on NW [Swan et al. (2006); Am J Med Genet Part B 141B:354-360; LOD = 2.7; Chr. 6 at 159 cM]. As part of an international consortium, genome-wide scans (using over 360 autosomal microsatellite markers) and telephone diagnostic interviews were conducted on 289 Australian (AUS) and 161 Finnish (FIN, combined (COMB) N = 450 families) families ascertained from twin registries through index-cases with a lifetime history of cigarette smoking...
October 5, 2009: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Vivia V McCutcheon, Andrew C Heath, Howard J Edenberg, Richard A Grucza, Victor M Hesselbrock, John R Kramer, Laura Jean Bierut, Kathleen K Bucholz
PURPOSE: Data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), a high-risk family study of alcohol dependence, were used to examine differences in alcohol diagnostic criteria endorsement and psychiatric and drug use disorders by gender and by number of DUI offenses. RESULTS: Individuals with two or more DUIs exhibited greater severity of alcohol dependence than those with none or one DUI. This severity was characterized in three ways: (1) higher endorsement of alcohol diagnostic criterion items, with evidence of greater severity among women, (2) higher prevalence of co-occurring lifetime psychiatric disorders, and (3) higher rates of drug use and of dependence on cocaine, stimulants, and, for women only, marijuana and opiates...
May 2009: Addictive Behaviors
Redonna K Chandler, Bennett W Fletcher, Nora D Volkow
Despite increasing evidence that addiction is a treatable disease of the brain, most individuals do not receive treatment. Involvement in the criminal justice system often results from illegal drug-seeking behavior and participation in illegal activities that reflect, in part, disrupted behavior ensuing from brain changes triggered by repeated drug use. Treating drug-involved offenders provides a unique opportunity to decrease substance abuse and reduce associated criminal behavior. Emerging neuroscience has the potential to transform traditional sanction-oriented public safety approaches by providing new therapeutic strategies against addiction that could be used in the criminal justice system...
January 14, 2009: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Arpana Agrawal, Michael T Lynskey, Michele L Pergadia, Kathleen K Bucholz, Andrew C Heath, Nicholas G Martin, Pamela A F Madden
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that cannabis users are at increased risk for cigarette smoking--if so, this may potentially be the single most alarming public health challenge posed by cannabis use. We examine whether cannabis use prior to age 17 years is associated with an increased likelihood of DSM-IV nicotine dependence and the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to this association. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 24-36-year-old Australian male and female twins (n=6257, 286 and 229 discordant pairs) was used...
November 2008: Addiction
Alexis E Duncan, Kathleen Keenan Bucholz, Rosalind J Neuman, Arpana Agrawal, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that the current DSM-IV eating disorder (ED) criteria do not adequately describe ED symptomatology. The objective of the current study was to examine the clustering of ED symptoms in a general population sample using latent class analysis (LCA). METHOD: ED symptoms from 3723 female young adult twins (mean age 22) were analyzed using LCA, and resulting classes were compared on external validators reflecting ED and other co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses, substance use disorders (SUDs), and suicidality...
August 2007: Psychological Medicine
Arpana Agrawal, Michael T Lynskey, Pamela A F Madden, Kathleen K Bucholz, Andrew C Heath
AIMS: We examine the co-occurrence of abuse/dependence across different illicit drugs and test associations between these classes and major psychiatric disorders. METHOD: Latent class analyses were used to characterize polysubstance abuse/dependence (AB/D) in 43 093 individuals who participated in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to examine the association between the classes of life-time illicit drug AB/D and gender, age and race, as well as life-time Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV (DSM-IV) alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia and antisocial personality disorder...
January 2007: Addiction
Alexis E Duncan, Jeffrey Scherrer, Qiang Fu, Kathleen Keenan Bucholz, Andrew C Heath, William R True, Jon R Haber, Donelle Howell, Theodore Jacob
OBJECTIVE: Using an offspring-of-twins design, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to paternal alcoholism during the child's first 12 years will increase offspring risk for subsequent alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: Structured psychiatric interviews assessed history of psychiatric and substance-use disorders in Vietnam Era Twin Registry fathers (n = 512), their offspring (n = 877), and mothers of the offspring (n = 507). Exposure was defined as the fathers' endorsement of any Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fourth Edition, AUD symptom, according to the Lifetime Drinking History assessment (administered in 1999), at any time between off- spring ages 0-12 years; all fathers had satisfied DSM, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R), criteria for alcohol dependence in a 1992 diagnostic interview...
September 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Valerie S Knopik, Elizabeth P Sparrow, Pamela A F Madden, Kathleen K Bucholz, James J Hudziak, Wendy Reich, Wendy S Slutske, Julia D Grant, Tara L McLaughlin, Alexandre Todorov, Richard D Todd, Andrew C Heath
BACKGROUND: Genetic influences have been shown to play a major role in determining the risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, prenatal exposure to nicotine and/or alcohol has also been suggested to increase risk of the disorder. Little attention, however, has been directed to investigating the roles of genetic transmission and prenatal exposure simultaneously. METHOD: Diagnostic telephone interview data from parents of Missouri adolescent female twin pairs born during 1975-1985 were analyzed...
May 2005: Psychological Medicine
Anne L Glowinski, Theodore Jacob, Kathleen K Bucholz, Jeffrey F Scherrer, William True, Andrew C Heath
INTRODUCTION: In substance abusing families, sources of familial comorbidity are potentially confounded by genetic-environmental (GE) interplays. The children-of-twins (COT) design can be used to elucidate the association of a parental trait and an offspring outcome such as the association of parental alcoholism and offspring suicidality. METHODS: We examined the association of paternal alcoholism and offspring suicidal behaviors in an adolescent and young adult COT sample of 'Vietnam Era Twins' offspring who had completed an interview including a comprehensive assessment of lifetime suicidal behaviors...
December 7, 2004: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Christina N Lessov, Nicholas G Martin, Dixie J Statham, Alexandre A Todorov, Wendy S Slutske, Kathleen K Bucholz, Andrew C Heath, Pamela A F Madden
BACKGROUND: Whether current criteria used to define nicotine dependence are informative for genetic research is an important empirical question. The authors used items of the DSM-IV and of the Heaviness of Smoking Index to characterize the nicotine dependence phenotype and to identify salient symptoms in a genetically informative community sample of Australian young adult female and male twins. METHOD: Phenotypic and genetic factor analyses were performed on nine dependence symptoms (the seven DSM-IV substance dependence criteria and the two Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) items derived from the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire, time to first cigarette in the morning and number of cigarettes smoked per day)...
July 2004: Psychological Medicine
Michael T Lynskey, Andrew C Heath, Kathleen K Bucholz, Wendy S Slutske, Pamela A F Madden, Elliot C Nelson, Dixie J Statham, Nicholas G Martin
CONTEXT: Previous studies have reported that early initiation of cannabis (marijuana) use is a significant risk factor for other drug use and drug-related problems. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the association between early cannabis use and subsequent progression to use of other drugs and drug abuse/dependence persists after controlling for genetic and shared environmental influences. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey conducted in 1996-2000 among an Australian national volunteer sample of 311 young adult (median age, 30 years) monozygotic and dizygotic same-sex twin pairs discordant for early cannabis use (before age 17 years)...
January 22, 2003: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
S Dinwiddie, A C Heath, M P Dunne, K K Bucholz, P A Madden, W S Slutske, L J Bierut, D B Statham, N G Martin
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders among twins who reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and to compare these rates with those among non-abused co-twins. The contribution of familial and individual-specific factors to reported sexual abuse was also examined. METHOD: Information about lifetime psychopathology and substance use was obtained by structured telephone interviews with 5995 Australian twins. Twins who reported a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were contrasted on lifetime psychopathology with subjects without such a history; in addition, comparisons were made between same-sex twin pairs discordant for CSA...
January 2000: Psychological Medicine
P A Madden, K K Bucholz, S H Dinwiddie, W S Slutske, L J Bierut, D J Statham, M P Dunne, N G Martin, A C Heath
Associations between self-report symptom profiles for nicotine withdrawal, personality (TPQ, EPQ-R), life-time history of psychopathology and smoking history were examined in data obtained from 553 female adult Australian twins (246 regular smokers), aged 32-48 years, who had participated in a telephone interview survey that included life-time assessments of smoking history, nicotine dependence and symptoms of withdrawal. Two hundred and two respondents were from high-risk pairs where either the respondent or the respondent's co-twin had reported a life-time history of alcohol dependence; 351 were from control pairs...
July 1997: Addiction
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