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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921022/the-protective-effect-of-hydro-alcoholic-extract-of-mangrove-avicennia-marina-l-leaves-on-kidney-injury-induced-by-carbon-tetrachloride-in-male-rats
#1
Naser Mirazi, Seyedeh-Nahid Movassagh, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
BACKGROUND: Materials can cause liver and kidney damage which carbon tetrachloride is one of these substances. Medicinal plants and their essential oils and extracts have been used to a large extent as drugs to better control and management of kidney diseases. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Avicennia marina leaves in the treatment of renal toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride. METHODS: Forty-two male rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 7): control (taking normal saline, 0...
October 2016: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920946/insights-in-public-health-substance-use-in-pregnant-women-in-hawai-i-extending-our-capacity-and-compassion
#2
Rebecca Delafield, Tricia E Wright
Substance use can have serious consequences for the health and well-being of individuals. The problem is of particular concern when it involves pregnant women due to health risks for the mother and the fetus. In utero exposure to either legal (eg, alcohol, cigarettes, and certain prescription drugs) or illicit (eg, amphetamines, cocaine, and opioids) substances can result in potentially serious and long-lasting health problems for infants. Available data from Hawai'i indicate that substance use among pregnant women is higher than national targets, which reflect the fact that there is essentially no acceptable rate of use of these substances...
November 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920819/co-administration-of-metformin-and-n-acetylcysteine-with-dietary-control-improves-the-biochemical-and-histological-manifestations-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#3
Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany, Sayed Hassan Seif El-Din, Abdel-Nasser Abdel-Aal Sabra, Olfat Ali Hammam, Fatma Abdel-Latif Ebeid
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem that affects 1/3 of the adult population and an increasing number of children in developed countries. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance are the mechanisms that seem to be mostly involved in its pathogenesis. This study was conceived in a NAFLD rat model to evaluate the efficacy of both metformin (MTF) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with dietary control on biochemical and histologic liver manifestations. Rats were classified into nine groups; normal (I), NAFLD-induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD; II) for 12 weeks, NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or -RD treated with MTF in a dose of 150 mg/kg (IV, V), NAC in a dose of 500 mg/kg (VI, VII) or MTF+NAC (VIII, IX) respectively for 8 weeks...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920535/prevalence-of-alcohol-use-disorders-and-associated-factors-among-people-with-epilepsy-attending-amanuel-mental-specialized-hospital-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#4
Tsegereda Waja, Jemal Ebrahim, Zegeye Yohannis, Asres Bedaso
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy such as precipitation of seizure, exacerbation of seizure, poor seizure control, increased side effects of antiepileptic drugs, noncompliance to antiepileptic drugs, alcohol withdrawal seizures, long-term hospital admission, status epilepticus, sudden unexpected death, and premature mortality...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919738/long-term-ethanol-self-administration-induces-%C3%AE-fosb-in-male-and-female-adolescent-but-not-in-adult-wistar-rats
#5
Aranza Wille-Bille, Soledad de Olmos, Leonardo Marengo, Florencia Chiner, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Early-onset ethanol consumption predicts later development of alcohol use disorders. Age-related differences in reactivity to ethanol's effects may underlie this effect. Adolescent rats are more sensitive and less sensitive than adults to the appetitive and aversive behavioral effects of ethanol, respectively, and more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of experimenter-administered binge doses of ethanol. However, less is known about age-related differences in the neural consequences of self-administered ethanol...
December 2, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919698/the-use-of-partially-hydrolysed-polyvinyl-alcohol-for-the-production-of-high-drug-loaded-sustained-release-pellets-via-extrusion-spheronisation-and-coating-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#6
G Verstraete, W De Jaeghere, J Vercruysse, W Grymonpré, V Vanhoorne, F Stauffer, T De Beer, A Bezuijen, J P Remon, C Vervaet
Partially hydrolysed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was evaluated as a pelletisation aid for the production of pellets with a high acetaminophen and metformin hydrochloride concentration (>70%, w/w). Mixtures with varying drug concentration and PVA/microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) ratios were processed via extrusion-spheronisation, either after addition of PVA as a dry powder or as an aqueous solution. Finally, high drug- loaded metformin pellets were coated with a methacrylic acid copolymer (Eudragit™ NM 30D) and evaluated for their sustained release potency in vitro and in vivo...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919010/the-role-of-alcohol-dependency-in-deaths-among-people-with-epilepsy-recorded-by-the-national-drug-related-deaths-index-ndrdi-in-ireland-2004-2013
#7
Ena Lynn, Suzi Lyons, Yvonne Langan, Sarah Craig, Colin Doherty
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate deaths among individuals with epilepsy recorded on the National Drug-Related Deaths Index (NDRDI). METHOD: A descriptive analysis of individuals with a known history of epilepsy in the NDRDI from 2004 to 2013 was undertaken. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2013, 225 (2%) of the recorded cases had a documented history of epilepsy, 82 (36%) of whom had epilepsy recorded as the cause of death. Of these 82 deaths, the majority were male (60-73%) and half (median age) were aged 47 years or younger...
November 23, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918861/to-study-to-party-or-both-assessing-risk-factors-for-non-prescribed-stimulant-use-among-middle-and-high-school-students
#8
Kenneth S León, Daniel E Martínez
This study examines the risk factors predicting non-prescribed stimulant use (NPSU) among adolescents, with an emphasis on whether such factors are reflective of instrumental (e.g., studying) and/or recreational (e.g., partying) drug consumption settings. Using data from Monitoring the Future (2011), we employed a series of logistic regression models to establish predictors of 12-month self-reported Adderall or Ritalin use without a doctor's note among eighth and tenth graders. Whereas studies of college students have found NPSU to correlate with instrumental motives and productivity-related demands, we find no association between NPSU and indicators of academic strain for this younger sample...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918243/the-neuroimmune-transcriptome-and-alcohol-dependence-potential-for-targeted-therapies
#9
Anna Warden, Emma Erickson, Gizelle Robinson, R Adron Harris, R Dayne Mayfield
Transcriptome profiling enables discovery of gene networks that are altered in alcoholic brains. This technique has revealed involvement of the brain's neuroimmune system in regulating alcohol abuse and dependence, and has provided potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss Toll-like-receptor pathways, hypothesized to be key players in many stages of the alcohol addiction cycle. The growing appreciation of the neuroimmune system's involvement in alcoholism has also led to consideration of crucial roles for glial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, in the brain's response to alcohol abuse...
December 5, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917738/incidence-and-factors-associated-with-emergency-department-visits-for-recurrent-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-patients-in-california-2005-2011
#10
L May, E Y Klein, E M Martinez, N Mojica, L G Miller
More than 2 million visits for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are seen in US emergency departments (EDs) yearly. Up to 50% of patients with SSTIs, suffer from recurrences, but associated factors remain poorly understood. We performed a retrospective study of patients with primary diagnosis of SSTI between 2005 and 2011 using California ED discharge data from the State Emergency Department Databases and State Inpatient Databases. Using a multivariable logistic regression, we examined factors associated with a repeat SSTI ED visits up to 6 months after the initial SSTI...
December 5, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917591/the-pde4-inhibitor-roflumilast-reduces-weight-gain-by-increasing-energy-expenditure-and-leads-to-improved-glucose-metabolism
#11
Julia Möllmann, Florian Kahles, Corinna Lebherz, Ben Kappel, Christer Baeck, Frank Tacke, Christian Werner, Massimo Federici, Nikolaus Marx, Michael Lehrke
AIMS: The PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast is a clinically approved anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition, roflumilast was found to reduce body weight and improve glucose metabolism by a yet unknown mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Metabolic effects of roflumilast were investigated in C57BL/6J mice on high fat western-type diet treated with or without roflumilast for a period of 12 weeks. RESULTS: Roflumilast led to a marked reduction of body weight gain, which became apparent in the second week following treatment initiation and was attributable to a pronounced increase of energy expenditure...
December 5, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917494/disturbing-sleep-and-sleepfulness-during-recovery-from-substance-dependence-in-residential-rehabilitation-settings
#12
Sarah Nettleton, Robert Meadows, Joanne Neale
There is evidence that poor sleep mitigates recovery from substance dependence and increases risk of relapse. However, to date research literature is located within biomedical, clinical and psychological paradigms. To complement the extant work, this article offers a sociological exploration of sleep in the context of recovery from dependence on alcohol and/or other drugs. Drawing on qualitative data generated through interviews with 28 men and women living in residential rehabilitation settings in England, we provide a detailed exploration of sleep practices focusing on how these are enacted throughout the night...
December 5, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917487/teachers-and-coaches-in-adolescent-social-networks-are-associated-with-healthier-self-concept-and-decreased-substance-use
#13
Rebecca N Dudovitz, Paul J Chung, Mitchell D Wong
BACKGROUND: Poor academic (eg, "I am a bad student") and behavioral (eg, "I am a troublemaker") self-concepts are strongly linked to adolescent substance use. Social networks likely influence self-concept. However, little is understood about the role teachers and athletic coaches play in shaping both academic and behavioral self-concepts. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional surveys of 929 9th-12th grade low-income minority adolescents in Los Angeles assessing self-concept, social networks, and 30-day use of alcohol, marijuana and other drugs...
January 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916584/immunological-and-infectious-risk-factors-for-lung-cancer-in-us-veterans-with-hiv-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#14
Keith Sigel, Juan Wisnivesky, Kristina Crothers, Kirsha Gordon, Sheldon T Brown, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Cynthia Gibert, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Roger Bedimo, Lesley S Park, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is independently associated with risk of lung cancer, but few data exist for the relation between longitudinal measurements of immune function and lung-cancer risk in people living with HIV. METHODS: We followed up participants with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study for a minimum of 3 years between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2012, and used cancer registry data to identify incident cases of lung cancer. The index date for each patient was the later of the date HIV care began or Jan 1, 1998...
December 1, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916141/dna-damage-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-and-association-with-polymorphisms-in-the-promoter-region-of-the-cyp2e1-gene-in-alcoholics-from-central-brazil
#15
Jheneffer Sonara Aguiar Ramos, Alessandro Arruda Alves, Mariana Paiva Lopes, Thays Millena Alves Pedroso, Leandro Prado Felício, Wanessa Fernandes Carvalho, Fernanda Craveiro Franco, Caroline Oliveira Araújo Melo, Macks Wendhell Gonçalves, Thannya Nascimento Soares, Aparecido Divino da Cruz, Daniela de Melo E Silva
DNA damage caused by the accumulation of bio-products generated in the biotransformation of ethanol to acetaldehyde mediated by the CYP2E1 enzyme has been studied. To evaluate DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes and the possible association with polymorphisms in the promoter region of the CYP2E1 gene, we performed a case-control study including 75 alcoholics and 59 individuals who consume alcohol socially. Alcoholics were previously diagnosed by the Psychosocial Care Center - Alcohol and Drugs (CAPS A/D) in the city of Goiania, Goias state, Central Brazil...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915492/preparation-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-melatonin-loaded-ha-pva-gelformulations
#16
Sakine Tuncay Tanrıverdi, Catalina Natalia Cheaburu-Yilmaz, Sonia Carbone, Özgen Özer
Melatonin loaded hyaluronic acid and poly(vinyl alcohol) gels were prepared by using freeze-thaw technique and an emulsion method followed by freeze-thaw technique to produce a new synergistic system for topical application. Freeze-thaw hydrogels and emulgels were characterized by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, rheology and swelling tests. The porous structure of the hydrogels was shown by scanning electron microscopy observations and thermal properties were tested by Differential Scanning Calorimetry measurements...
December 5, 2016: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915390/lifetime-substance-use-as-a-predictor-of-postpartum-mental-health
#17
Betty-Shannon Prevatt, Sarah L Desmarais, Patricia A Janssen
Postpartum mood disorders (PPMD) affect approximately 10-20% of women and have adverse consequences for both mom and baby. Lifetime substance use has received limited attention in relation to PPMD. The present study examined associations of lifetime alcohol and drug use with postpartum mental health problems. Women (n = 100) within approximately 3 months postpartum (M = 2.01, SD = 1.32) participated in semi-structured interviews querying lifetime substance use, mental health history, and postpartum symptoms of anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and obsessive compulsive disorder...
December 3, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914861/rapid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-testing-and-risk-prevention-in-residents-of-battered-women-s-shelters
#18
Dawn M Johnson, Nicole L Johnson, Curt G Beckwith, Patrick A Palmieri, Caron Zlotnick
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and intimate partner violence (IPV) are interconnected public health problems. However, few HIV prevention interventions address the unique needs of IPV survivors in shelter and none of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's best-evidence risk reduction interventions adequately explore the complex relationship between IPV and HIV risk. Although battered women's shelters provide a safe and supportive environment for women in crisis, most do not offer HIV risk reduction services or sexual safety planning...
November 30, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914224/a-systematic-review-of-epileptic-seizures-in-adults-with-subdural-haematomas
#19
REVIEW
Sae-Yeon Won, Juergen Konczalla, Daniel Dubinski, Adriano Cattani, Colleen Cuca, Volker Seifert, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk, Thomas M Freiman
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic epileptic seizures (PTS) are a serious complication in patients with subdural haematoma (SDH). However, to date, several studies have shown discordances about SDH-associated seizures in terms of incidence, risk factors and prophylactic antiepileptic treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence, risk factors of PTS and the role of prophylactic antiepileptic treatment in patients with SDH. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature review examining PTS in patients with SDH was performed using PubMed gateway, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Excerpta Medica dataBASE between September 1961 and February 2016...
November 25, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914133/lobeglitazone-a-novel-thiazolidinedione-improves-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-type-2-diabetes-its-efficacy-and-predictive-factors-related-to-responsiveness
#20
Yong Ho Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, So Ra Kim, Heung Yong Jin, Eun Jung Rhee, Young Min Cho, Byung Wan Lee
Despite the rapidly increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D), few treatment modalities are currently available. We investigated the hepatic effects of the novel thiazolidinedione (TZDs), lobeglitazone (Duvie) in T2D patients with NAFLD. We recruited drug-naïve or metformin-treated T2D patients with NAFLD to conduct a multicenter, prospective, open-label, exploratory clinical trial. Transient liver elastography (Fibroscan®; Echosens, Paris, France) with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) was used to non-invasively quantify hepatic fat contents...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
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