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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220670/qm-mm-modeling-of-the-hydrolysis-and-transfructosylation-reactions-of-fructosyltransferase-from-aspergillus-japonicas-an-enzyme-that-produces-prebiotic-fructooligosaccharide
#1
Jitrayut Jitonnom, James R Ketudat-Cairns, Supa Hannongbua
Fructosyltransferases (FTs) act on sucrose by cleaving the β-(2→1) linkage, releasing glucose, and then transferring the fructosyl group to an acceptor molecule. These enzymes are capable of producing prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) that are of industrial interest. While several FOS-synthesizing enzymes FTs have been investigated, their catalytic mechanism is not yet fully understood, especially the molecular details of how FOS are enzymatically synthesized from sucrose. Here, we present a comparative quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) study on the hydrolysis and transfructosylation reactions catalyzed by A...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217591/topologically-associating-domains-and-chromatin-loops-depend-on-cohesin-and-are-regulated-by-ctcf-wapl-and-pds5-proteins
#2
Gordana Wutz, Csilla Várnai, Kota Nagasaka, David A Cisneros, Roman R Stocsits, Wen Tang, Stefan Schoenfelder, Gregor Jessberger, Matthias Muhar, M Julius Hossain, Nike Walther, Birgit Koch, Moritz Kueblbeck, Jan Ellenberg, Johannes Zuber, Peter Fraser, Jan-Michael Peters
Mammalian genomes are spatially organized into compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs), and loops to facilitate gene regulation and other chromosomal functions. How compartments, TADs, and loops are generated is unknown. It has been proposed that cohesin forms TADs and loops by extruding chromatin loops until it encounters CTCF, but direct evidence for this hypothesis is missing. Here, we show that cohesin suppresses compartments but is required for TADs and loops, that CTCF defines their boundaries, and that the cohesin unloading factor WAPL and its PDS5 binding partners control the length of loops...
December 7, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217392/influence-of-traffic-on-build-up-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-on-urban-road-surfaces-a-bayesian-network-modelling-approach
#3
Yingxia Li, Ziliang Jia, Buddhi Wijesiri, Ningning Song, Ashantha Goonetilleke
Due to their carcinogenic effects, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) deposited on urban surfaces are a major concern in the context of stormwater pollution. However, the design of effective pollution mitigation strategies is challenging due to the lack of reliability in stormwater quality modelling outcomes. Current modelling approaches do not adequately replicate the interdependencies between pollutant processes and their influential factors. Using Bayesian Network modelling, this research study characterised the influence of vehicular traffic on the build-up of the sixteen US EPA classified priority PAHs...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210480/dimeric-drug-polymeric-micelles-with-acid-active-tumor-targeting-and-fret-traceable-drug-release
#4
Xing Guo, Lin Wang, Kayla Duval, Jing Fan, Shaobing Zhou, Zi Chen
Trans-activating transcriptional activator (TAT), a cell-penetrating peptide, is extensively used for facilitating cellular uptake and nuclear targeting of drug delivery systems. However, the positively charged TAT peptide strongly interacts with serum components and undergoes substantial phagocytosis by the reticuloendothelial system, causing a short blood circulation in vivo. In this work, an acid-active tumor targeting nanoplatform DA-TAT-PECL is developed to inhibit the nonspecific interactions of TAT in the bloodstream...
December 6, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208598/myosin-iia-is-critical-for-camp-mediated-endothelial-secretion-of-von-willebrand-factor
#5
Pin Li, Guoqin Wei, Yang Cao, Qiuping Deng, Xiaofan Han, Xiaoshuai Huang, Yingqing Huo, Yulong He, Liangyi Chen, Jincai Luo
Non-muscle myosin II has been implicated in regulation of von Willebrand factor (VWF) release from endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), but the specific role of myosin IIa isoform is poorly defined. Here, we report that myosin IIa is expressed both in primary human endothelial cells and intact mouse vessels, essential for cAMP-mediated endothelial VWF secretion. Down-regulation of myosin IIa by shRNAs significantly suppressed both forskolin- and epinephrine-induced VWF secretion. Endothelium-specific myosin IIa knockout mice exhibited impaired epinephrine-stimulated VWF release, prolonged bleeding time and thrombosis...
December 5, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191561/epitope-specific-immunotherapy-targeting-cd4-positive-t-cells-in-celiac-disease-safety-pharmacokinetics-and-effects-on-intestinal-histology-and-plasma-cytokines-with-escalating-dose-regimens-of-nexvax2-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-1
#6
A James M Daveson, Hooi C Ee, Jane M Andrews, Timothy King, Kaela E Goldstein, John L Dzuris, James A MacDougall, Leslie J Williams, Anita Treohan, Michael P Cooreman, Robert P Anderson
BACKGROUND: Nexvax2® is a novel, peptide-based, epitope-specific immunotherapy intended to be administered by regular injections at dose levels that increase the threshold for clinical reactivity to natural exposure to gluten and ultimately restore tolerance to gluten in patients with celiac disease. Celiac disease patients administered fixed intradermal doses of Nexvax2 become unresponsive to the HLA-DQ2·5-restricted gluten epitopes in Nexvax2, but gastrointestinal symptoms and cytokine release mimicking gluten exposure, that accompany the first dose, limit the maximum tolerated dose to 150μg...
November 22, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184895/impact-of-an-idevice-application-on-student-learning-in-an-occupational-therapy-kinesiology-course
#7
Jason K Hughes, Pamalyn Kearney
Background: As technology continues to evolve, and information is increasingly accessed through smartphones and tablets, it is essential for university faculty to reassess teaching methodologies. This study explored how use of an iDevice application (app) by participants enrolled in an entry-level occupational therapy kinesiology course affected student learning in the course. This iDevice app was developed through a collaboration between the lead author and the Department of Technology Enhanced Learning and Innovation at Augusta University...
2017: MHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177705/acid-facilitated-product-release-from-a-mo-iv-center-relevance-to-oxygen-atom-transfer-reactivity-of-molybdenum-oxotransferases
#8
Feifei Li, Marat R Talipov, Chao Dong, Sofia Bali, Keying Ding
We report that pyridinium ions (HPyr+) accelerate the conversion of [Tp*MoIVOCl(OPMe3)] (1) to [Tp*MoIVOCl(NCCH3)] (2) by 103-fold, affording 2 in near-quantitative yield; Tp* = hydrotris(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate. This novel reactivity and the mechanism of this reaction were investigated in detail. The formation of 2 followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, with the observed pseudo-first-order rate constant (k obs) linearly correlated with [HPyr+]. An Eyring plot revealed that this HPyr+-facilitated reaction has a small positive value of ∆S ‡ indicative of a dissociative interchange (Id) mechanism, different from the slower associative interchange (Ia) mechanism in the absence of HPyr+ marked with a negative ∆S ‡...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169204/newborn-genetic-screening-for-spinal-muscular-atrophy-in-the-uk-the-views-of-the-general-population
#9
Felicity K Boardman, Chloe Sadler, Philip J Young
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder and a leading genetic cause of infant death worldwide. However, there is no routine screening program for SMA in the UK. Lack of treatments and the inability of screening tests to accurately predict disease severity are among the key reasons implementation of screening has faltered in the UK. With the recent release of the first therapy for SMA (Nusinersen), calls are being made for a reconsideration of this stance; however, very little is known about the views of the general public...
November 23, 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163046/rim-binding-protein-2-promotes-a-large-number-of-cav1-3-ca-2-channels-and-contributes-to-fast-synaptic-vesicle-replenishment-at-hair-cell-active-zones
#10
Stefanie Krinner, Tanvi Butola, SangYong Jung, Carolin Wichmann, Tobias Moser
Ribbon synapses of inner hair cells (IHCs) mediate high rates of synchronous exocytosis to indefatigably track the stimulating sound with sub-millisecond precision. The sophisticated molecular machinery of the inner hair cell active zone realizes this impressive performance by enabling a large number of synaptic voltage-gated CaV1.3 Ca(2+)-channels, their tight coupling to synaptic vesicles (SVs) and fast replenishment of fusion competent SVs. Here we studied the role of RIM-binding protein 2 (RIM-BP2)-a multidomain cytomatrix protein known to directly interact with Rab3 interacting molecules (RIMs), bassoon and CaV1...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151485/evolution-of-vertebrate-ryanodine-receptors-family-in-relation-to-functional-divergence-and-conservation
#11
Zhiwen Ding, Juan Peng, Yanyan Liang, Chunjie Yang, Guoliang Jiang, Jun Ren, Yunzeng Zou
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs), the large homotetrameric protein complexes, regulate the release of calcium from intracellular stores into the cytosol and play vital roles in the excitation-contraction coupling of cells. However, the evolutionary relationship of RyRs in vertebrates has yet to be elucidated. We identified 22 RyRs from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Gallus gallus, Anolis carolinensis, Rana catesbeiana, and Danio rerio. The phylogenetic relationship, motifs analysis and reconstruction of ancestral RyRs showed that the members of RyR family in vertebrates were grouped into three clades: the RyR1 clade, the RyR2 clade, and the RyR3 clade...
November 17, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140946/comparison-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-assay-with-tuberculin-skin-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-children
#12
Walter Dehority, Rolando M Viani, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Graciano Lopez, Stephen A Spector
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is facilitated by tuberculin skin testing (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays such as the QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube (QTF-GIT) assays. Limited data exist on the utility of interferon-gamma release assays in HIV-infected children, which may be falsely negative due to immunosuppression. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comparing TST to QTF-GIT for the diagnosis of suspected LTBI was performed in children in Tijuana, Mexico, and in San Diego, California...
December 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132302/immunomodulatory-role-for-membrane-vesicles-released-by-thp-1-macrophages-and-respiratory-pathogens-during-macrophage-infection
#13
Charlotte Volgers, Birke J Benedikter, Gert E Grauls, Paul H M Savelkoul, Frank R M Stassen
BACKGROUND: During infection, inflammation is partially driven by the release of mediators which facilitate intercellular communication. Amongst these mediators are small membrane vesicles (MVs) that can be released by both host cells and Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Bacterial membrane vesicles are known to exert immuno-modulatory and -stimulatory actions. Moreover, it has been proposed that host cell-derived vesicles, released during infection, also have immunostimulatory properties...
November 13, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127281/structural-and-functional-insight-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated-pathogenic-metabolic-reprogramming-in-sickle-cell-disease
#14
Kaiqi Sun, Angelo D'Alessandro, Mostafa H Ahmed, Yujin Zhang, Anren Song, Tzu-Ping Ko, Travis Nemkov, Julie A Reisz, Hongyu Wu, Morayo Adebiyi, Zhangzhe Peng, Jing Gong, Hong Liu, Aji Huang, Yuan Edward Wen, Alexander Q Wen, Vladimir Berka, Mikhail V Bogdanov, Osheiza Abdulmalik, Leng Han, Ah-Lim Tsai, Modupe Idowu, Harinder S Juneja, Rodney E Kellems, William Dowhan, Kirk C Hansen, Martin K Safo, Yang Xia
Elevated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is detrimental in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), but the mechanistic basis remains obscure. Here, we report that increased erythrocyte S1P binds to deoxygenated sickle Hb (deoxyHbS), facilitates deoxyHbS anchoring to the membrane, induces release of membrane-bound glycolytic enzymes and in turn switches glucose flux towards glycolysis relative to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Suppressed PPP causes compromised glutathione homeostasis and increased oxidative stress, while enhanced glycolysis induces production of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) and thus increases deoxyHbS polymerization, sickling, hemolysis and disease progression...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123088/a-water-soluble-nucleolin-aptamer-paclitaxel-conjugate-for-tumor-specific-targeting-in-ovarian-cancer
#15
Fangfei Li, Jun Lu, Jin Liu, Chao Liang, Maolin Wang, Luyao Wang, Defang Li, Houzong Yao, Qiulong Zhang, Jia Wen, Zong-Kang Zhang, Jie Li, Quanxia Lv, Xiaojuan He, Baosheng Guo, Daogang Guan, Yuanyuan Yu, Lei Dang, Xiaohao Wu, Yongshu Li, Guofen Chen, Feng Jiang, Shiguo Sun, Bao-Ting Zhang, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang
Paclitaxel (PTX) is among the most commonly used first-line drugs for cancer chemotherapy. However, its poor water solubility and indiscriminate distribution in normal tissues remain clinical challenges. Here we design and synthesize a highly water-soluble nucleolin aptamer-paclitaxel conjugate (NucA-PTX) that selectively delivers PTX to the tumor site. By connecting a tumor-targeting nucleolin aptamer (NucA) to the active hydroxyl group at 2' position of PTX via a cathepsin B sensitive dipeptide bond, NucA-PTX remains stable and inactive in the circulation...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116617/nanoparticulated-polymeric-composites-enfolding-lithium-carbonate-as-brain-drug-in-persuading-depression-an-in-vivo-study
#16
A Anita Margret, V Violet Dhayabaran, A Ganesh Kumar
Lithium carbonate is considered an effective drug against mania and acts as a mood stabilizer. It is found that it enhances antidepressants targeting depression, consequently it is prone to have risk factors that leads to adverse effects. The study is devised in confronting depression under nanoscale by preparing nanocomposites which is a matrix of biopolymer chitosan that encapsulates lithium carbonate by ionic gelation method. This facilitates the drug delivery in a regulated manner targeting the therapeutic action with a limited dosage that lessens the side effects in the course of treatment...
November 7, 2017: Progress in Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094698/single-cell-rna-sequencing-reveals-a-signature-of-sexual-commitment-in-malaria-parasites
#17
Asaf Poran, Christopher Nötzel, Omar Aly, Nuria Mencia-Trinchant, Chantal T Harris, Monica L Guzman, Duane C Hassane, Olivier Elemento, Björn F C Kafsack
Pathogens have to balance transmission with persistence. For Plasmodium falciparum, the most widespread and virulent malaria parasite, persistence within its human host requires continuous asexual replication within red blood cells, while its mosquito-borne transmission depends on intra-erythrocytic differentiation into non-replicating sexual stages called gametocytes. Commitment to either fate is determined during the preceding cell cycle that begins with invasion by a single, asexually committed merozoite and ends, 48 hours later, with a schizont releasing newly formed merozoites, all committed to either continued asexual replication or differentiation into gametocytes...
November 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091044/dispersion-risk-associated-with-surgical-debridement-devices
#18
Mark Granick, Liel Rubinsky, Chaitra Parthiban, Mayilvahanan Shanmugam, Narayanan Ramasubbu
INTRODUCTION: Surgical instrumentation is now available to facilitate wound debridement. The 2 primary options involve different energy applications, but both have the potential to spray. The Versajet II (Smith & Nephew, London, UK) utilizes a high-powered water jet to disrupt tissue and remove debris by means of the Venturi effect. The SonicVac (Misonix, Farmingdale, NY) is a direct-contact, low-frequency ultrasound debriding device. It delivers a high-energy ultrasound to a wound surface via a fluid medium, causing bubble cavitation, a physical effect of rapid pressure waves causing bubbles to form and implode that releases mechanical energy...
October 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079444/temporal-regulation-of-chromatin-during-myoblast-differentiation
#19
REVIEW
Akihito Harada, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Anthony N Imbalzano
The commitment to and execution of differentiation programmes involves a significant change in gene expression in the precursor cell to facilitate development of the mature cell type. In addition to being regulated by lineage-determining and auxiliary transcription factors that drive these changes, the structural status of the chromatin has a considerable impact on the transcriptional competence of differentiation-specific genes, which is clearly demonstrated by the large number of cofactors and the extraordinary complex mechanisms by which these genes become activated...
October 28, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077574/monte-carlo-simulation-of-radiation-transport-and-dose-deposition-from-locally-released-gold-nanoparticles-labeled-with-111-in-177-lu-or-90-y-incorporated-into-tissue-implantable-depots
#20
Priscilla Lai, Zhongli Cai, Jean-Philippe Pignol, Eli Lechtman, Shahram Mashouf, Yijie Lu, Mitchell A Winnik, David A Jaffray, Raymond M Reilly
Permanent seed implantation (PSI) brachytherapy is a highly conformal form of radiation therapy but is challenged with dose inhomogeneity due to its utilization of low energy radiation sources. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) conjugated with electron emitting radionuclides have recently been developed as a novel form of brachytherapy and can aid in homogenizing dose through physical distribution of radiolabeled AuNP when injected intratumorally (IT) in suspension. However, the distribution is unpredictable and precise placement of many injections would be difficult...
October 27, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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