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Facilitated positional release

Samuele Negro, Marco Stazi, Marta Marchioretto, Toma Tebaldi, Umberto Rodella, Elisa Duregotti, Volker Gerke, Alessandro Quattrone, Cesare Montecucco, Michela Rigoni, Gabriella Viero
Schwann cells are key players in neuro-regeneration: they sense alarm signals released by degenerating nerve terminals and differentiate toward a pro-regenerative phenotype, with phagocytosis of nerve debris and nerve guidance. At the murine neuromuscular junction, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a key signal of Schwann cells activation in response to a variety of nerve injuries. Here we report that Schwann cells exposed to low doses of H2 O2 rewire the expression of several RNAs at both transcriptional and translational levels...
April 11, 2018: RNA
Ho Yee Tiong, Benjamin Yen Seow Goh, Edmund Chiong, Lincoln Guan Lim Tan, Anatharaman Vathsala
Robotic-assisted kidney transplantation (RKT) with the Da Vinci (Intuitive, USA) platform has been recently developed to improve outcomes by decreasing surgical site complications and morbidity, especially in obese patients. This potential paradigm shift in the surgical technique of kidney transplantation is performed in only a few centers. For wider adoption of this high stake complex operation, we aimed to develop a procedure-specific simulation platform in a porcine model for the training of robotic intracorporeal vascular anastomosis and evaluating vascular anastomoses patency...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Fei Zheng, Tao Tu, Xiaoyu Wang, Yuan Wang, Rui Ma, Xiaoyun Su, Xiangming Xie, Bin Yao, Huiying Luo
Background: Cellulases of glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 5 share a (β/α)8 TIM-barrel fold structure with eight βα loops surrounding the catalytic pocket. These loops exposed on the surface play a vital role in protein functions, primarily due to the interactions of some key amino acids with solvent and ligand molecules. It has been reported that motions of these loops facilitate substrate access and product release, and loops 6 and 7 located at the substrate entrance of the binding pocket promote proton transfer reaction at the catalytic site motions...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Craig Osborne, Ewan West, Clive Bate
The cellular prion protein (PrPC ) acts as a scaffold protein that organises signalling complexes. In synaptosomes, the aggregation of PrPC by amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers attracts and activates cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) leading to synapse degeneration. The signalling platform is dependent upon cholesterol released from cholesterol esters by cholesterol ester hydrolases (CEH)s. The activation of CEHs depends upon activated cPLA2 and platelet activating factor (PAF) demonstrating a positive feedback system, activated cPLA2 increased cholesterol concentrations, which in turn facilitated cPLA2 activation...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
An-Ming Zhang, Bo Xu, Fang Li, Miao Cui, Ji Han, Qin Cao
We aimed to determine the effect of "Xiaozeng No. 1" (XZ-1) on cellular apoptosis changes of gastric epithelial dysplasia (GED) and to explore the underlying mechanism. Specimens taken from the pyloric area of the stomachs from rats in each group were subjected to H&E staining for pathological examination, TUNEL staining for apoptosis detection, and Western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins. The results showed that XZ-1 decreased GED incidence and enhanced gastric epithelial apoptosis...
March 27, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Lin Wei, Di Zhang, Xuanfang Zheng, Xuyao Zeng, Youlin Zeng, Xinbo Shi, Xin Su, Lehui Xiao
Development of efficient non-viral gene delivery vector has aroused great attention in the past few decades. In this study, we reported a new gene delivery vector, positively charged fluorescent conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNPs), for efficient gene transfection and in-situ intracellular fluorescence imaging. The microscopic and spectroscopic characterizations demonstrated that these CPNPs possess decent fluorescence performance (e.g. with fluorescence quantum yield of 70.7±0.3%) and small size dimension of ~3...
2018: Nanotheranostics
J Robert Britton, Ana Ruiz-Navarro, Hugo Verreycken, Fatima Amat-Trigo
Invasive species can cause substantial ecological impacts on native biodiversity. While ecological theory attempts to explain the processes involved in the trophic integration of invaders into native food webs and their competitive impacts on resident species, results are equivocal. In addition, quantifying the relative strength of impacts from non-native species (interspecific competition) versus the release of native conspecifics (intraspecific competition) is important but rarely completed.Two model non-native fishes, the globally invasive Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus , and the model native fish Tinca tinca , were used in a pond experiment to test how increased intra- and interspecific competition influenced trophic niches and somatic growth rates...
February 2018: Functional Ecology
C-L Walker, K Duffield, H Kaur, M Dedicoat, R Gajraj
OBJECTIVES: The majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in England occur from reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the settled migrant population. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommends that new entrants from high-incidence countries are screened to detect LTBI. This article seeks to describe an outreach programme and testing for LTBI in an innovative setting-ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) classes at a community college (CC) with evaluation of acceptability...
March 19, 2018: Public Health
Dimitrios Chanouzas, Alexander Small, Richard Borrows, Simon Ball
BACKGROUND: The measurement of CMV specific cellular immunity in organ transplant recipients could contribute additional acuity to serology based, CMV infection risk stratification, facilitating optimisation of immunosuppression and anti-viral prophylaxis. METHODS: A pilot study of renal transplant recipient (RTR's) responses in the T-SPOT.CMV ELISPOT based assay. 108 RTR's were recruited 3 months post-transplantation, immediately prior to the cessation of stratified anti-viral prophylaxis, used in recipients from seropositive donors...
2018: PloS One
Kai Huang, Chuan Fang, Kaikai Yi, Xing Liu, Hongzhao Qi, Yanli Tan, Junhu Zhou, Ying Li, Mingyang Liu, Yuqing Zhang, Jingxuan Yang, Jianning Zhang, Min Li, Chunsheng Kang
Exosomes play critical roles in intercellular communication in both nearby and distant cells in individuals and organs. Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF), also known as Cavin1, has previously been described as a critical factor in caveola formation, and aberrant PTRF expression has been reported in various malignancies. However, the function of PTRF in tumor progression remains controversial, and its role in glioma is poorly understood. In this study, we report that PTRF is associated with malignancy grade and poor prognosis in glioma patients...
2018: Theranostics
Philippa Melamed, Majd Haj, Yahav Yosefzon, Sergei Rudnizky, Andrea Wijeweera, Lilach Pnueli, Ariel Kaplan
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates the expression of multiple genes in the pituitary gonadotropes, most notably to induce synthesis of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), but also to ensure the appropriate functioning of these cells at the center of the mammalian reproductive endocrine axis. Aside from the activation of gene-specific transcription factors, GnRH stimulates through its membrane-bound receptor, alterations in the chromatin that facilitate transcription of its target genes...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
William E Cunningham, Robert E Weiss, Terry Nakazono, Mark A Malek, Steve J Shoptaw, Susan L Ettner, Nina T Harawa
Importance: Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, linkage and retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy are steps in the care continuum enabling consistent viral suppression for people living with HIV, extending longevity and preventing further transmission. While incarcerated, people living with HIV receive antiretroviral therapy and achieve viral suppression more consistently than after they are released. No interventions have shown sustained viral suppression after jail release...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Regiamara Ribeiro Almeida, Elisa Tatiana Silva Damasceno, Stephanne Yonara Barbosa de Carvalho, Gustavo Senra Gonçalves de Carvalho, Leiriana Aparecida Pinto Gontijo, Luiz Gustavo de Lima Guimarães
In order to enable the applicability of the essential oil of Lippia origanoides Kunth, increasing its stability and dispersion in aqueous base, were prepared nanogels of chitosan modified with ferulic acid to be used in their encapsulation. The results obtained by FTIR and13 C SSNMR revealed the formation of CS-FA link in the different synthesized nanogels, while the studied by DLS showed particles with varied sizes and positive charge. A satisfactory encapsulation capacity of the essential oil was obtained for the nanogels...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Eileen Yoshida, Shirley Fei, Karen Bavuso, Charles Lagor, Saverio Maviglia
BACKGROUND: Well-functioning clinical decision support (CDS) can facilitate provider workflow, improve patient care, promote better outcomes, and reduce costs. However, poorly functioning CDS may lead to alert fatigue, cause providers to ignore important CDS interventions, and increase provider dissatisfaction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to describe one institution's experience in implementing a program to create and maintain properly functioning CDS by systematically monitoring CDS firing rates and patterns...
January 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
Ida Marabese, Serena Boccella, Monica Iannotta, Livio Luongo, Vito de Novellis, Francesca Guida, Nicola Serra, Antonio Farina, Sabatino Maione, Enza Palazzo
The study investigated the role of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 (mGluR7) in pain signalling in the dorsal striatum of sham and neuropathic rats. Supraspinal circuitries involved in the dorsal striatum control of pain were also explored. In the sham rats, microinjection of N,N'-bis(diphenylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (AMN082), a selective mGluR7 positive allosteric modulator, into the dorsal striatum, facilitated pain, increased the activity of the ON cells and inhibited the activity of the OFF cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla, and decreased glutamate levels in the dorsal striatum...
March 2, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Liam F Fitzsimmons, Lin Liu, Ju-Sim Kim, Jessica Jones-Carson, Andrés Vázquez-Torres
The adaptations that protect pathogenic microorganisms against the cytotoxicity of nitric oxide (NO) engendered in the immune response are incompletely understood. We show here that salmonellae experiencing nitrosative stress suffer dramatic losses of the nucleoside triphosphates ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP while simultaneously generating a massive burst of the alarmone nucleotide guanosine tetraphosphate. RelA proteins associated with ribosomes overwhelmingly synthesize guanosine tetraphosphate in response to NO as a feedback mechanism to transient branched-chain amino acid auxotrophies...
February 27, 2018: MBio
Shannon J O'Leary, Christopher M Hollenbeck, Robert R Vega, John R Gold, David S Portnoy
BACKGROUND: Southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, historically support a substantial fishery along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the southern United States. Low year-class strengths over the past few years in the western Gulf of Mexico have raised concern that spawning stocks may be overfished. Current management of the resource includes releasing hatchery-raised juveniles to restock bays and estuaries; additionally, there is a growing interest in the potential for commercial aquaculture of the species...
February 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
Sumito Yoshida, Hiroaki Shime, Yohei Takeda, Jin-Min Nam, Ken Takashima, Misako Matsumoto, Hiroki Shirato, Masanori Kasahara, Tsukasa Seya
Radiotherapy induces anti-tumor immunity by induction of tumor antigens and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). DNA, a representative DAMP in radiotherapy, activates the STING pathway which enhances the immune response. However, the immune response does not always parallel the inflammation associated with radiotherapy. This lack of correspondence may in part explain the radiation-resistance of tumors. Additive immunotherapy is expected to revive tumor-specific CTLs facilitating radiation-resistant tumor shrinkage...
February 21, 2018: Cancer Science
Bo Song, Samir M Hamdan, Manju M Hingorani
Flap endonucleases catalyze cleavage of single-stranded DNA flaps formed during replication, repair and recombination, and are therefore essential for genome processing and stability. Recent crystal structures of DNA-bound human flap endonuclease (hFEN1) offer new insights into how conformational changes in the DNA and hFEN1 may facilitate the reaction mechanism. For example, previous biochemical studies of DNA conformation performed under non-catalytic conditions with Ca2+ have suggested that base unpairing at the 5'-flap:template junction is an important step in the reaction, but the new structural data suggest otherwise...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sofia Raniolo, Giulia Vindigni, Alessio Ottaviani, Valeria Unida, Federico Iacovelli, Antonio Manetto, Mariangela Figini, Lorenzo Stella, Alessandro Desideri, Silvia Biocca
Selective targeting is a crucial property of nanocarriers used for drug delivery in cancer therapy. We generated biotinylated octahedral DNA nanocages functionalized with folic acid through bio-orthogonal conjugation chemistry. Molecular modelling indicated that a distance of about 2.5 nm between folic acid and DNA nanocage avoids steric hindrance with the folate receptor. HeLa cells, a folate receptor positive tumour cell line, internalize folate-DNA nanocages with efficiency greater than 40 times compared to cells not expressing the folate receptors...
February 16, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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