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Addictive behaviour

Lawrence T Lam, Mary K Lam
Excessive use of the Internet is considered a problematic behaviour by clinicians and researchers. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been advocated for a long time as a treatment approach and has been extended to include family therapy in the recent years. As eTherapy (eHealth) has become an important component in the treatment of many mental health problems, it is prudent to explore the current status of the eHealth approach as an intervention option for this problem. This systematic review aims to examine the current development of online intervention programmes for this particular condition...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Joyce Cheng, Paul Benassi, Claire De Oliveira, Juveria Zaheer, Michael Collins, Paul Kurdyak
OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of mental illnesses and addictions, treatment rates remain low. In April 2010, a regional mass media campaign was implemented to increase awareness of mental health services in central Toronto, Canada. We studied the impact of this campaign on rates of psychiatric emergency department (PED) visits among all hospital emergency departments (EDs) located in Toronto. DESIGN: Monthly PED visit totals were obtained for all Toronto EDs from April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2012 (n = 148,704)...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Jacinta L Johnson, Femke T A Buisman-Pijlman
The endogenous oxytocin system plays a vital role in facilitating parturition, lactation and social interaction in humans and other mammals. It also impacts on a number of important endocrine, immune and neurotransmitter systems. A well-regulated oxytocin system has been proposed to increase resilience, and therefore reduce the likelihood of an individual developing mental illness or substance dependence. This review discusses the adverse external influences that can modulate oxytocin receptor and protein levels and impact on substance use and mental health...
October 14, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Lídia Teixidor López, Cindy Frías-Torres, José Moreno-España, Lluisa Ortega, Pablo Barrio, Antoni Gual
Many alcohol-dependent patients suffer from cognitive impairment of variable severity, manifested by alterations in retrograde and anterograde memory, visuospatial processing, cognitive abilities and attention, some of which are reversible. In this context, cognitive remediation therapies could significantly improve patients' performance; therefore, these are considered a valuable alternative. The aim of this study was to implement cognitive remediation therapy in patients with alcohol dependence and cognitive impairment and evaluate its viability and effectiveness...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Linde Boekhoudt, Elisa S Voets, Jacques P Flores-Dourojeanni, Mieneke Cm Luijendijk, Louk Jmj Vanderschuren, Roger Ah Adan
Attentional impairments and exaggerated impulsivity are key features of psychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. These deficits in attentional performance and impulsive behaviours have been associated with aberrant dopamine (DA) signalling, but it remains unknown whether these deficits result from enhanced DA neuronal activity in the midbrain. Here, we took a novel approach by testing the impact of chemogenetically activating DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) on attention and impulsivity in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) in rats...
October 17, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Inge Mick, Anna C Ramos, Jim Myers, Paul R Stokes, Samantha Chandrasekera, David Erritzoe, Maria A Mendez, Roger N Gunn, Eugenii A Rabiner, Graham E Searle, José C F Galduróz, Adam D Waldman, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Luke Clark, David J Nutt, Anne R Lingford-Hughes
As a behavioural addiction, gambling disorder (GD) provides an opportunity to characterize addictive processes without the potentially confounding effects of chronic excessive drug and alcohol exposure. Impulsivity is an established precursor to such addictive behaviours, and GD is associated with greater impulsivity. There is also evidence of GABAergic dysregulation in substance addiction and in impulsivity. This study therefore investigated GABAA receptor availability in 15 individuals with GD and 19 healthy volunteers (HV) using [(11) C]Ro15-4513, a relatively selective α5 benzodiazepine receptor PET tracer and its relationship with impulsivity...
October 13, 2016: Addiction Biology
Nicola Lindson-Hawley, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Thomas R Fanshawe, Rachna Begh, Amanda Farley, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is currently the only guaranteed way to reduce the harm caused by tobacco smoking, a reasonable secondary tobacco control approach may be to try and reduce the harm from continued tobacco use amongst smokers unable or unwilling to quit. Possible approaches to reduce the exposure to toxins from smoking include reducing the amount of tobacco used, and using less toxic products, such as pharmaceutical, nicotine and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs), as an alternative to cigarettes...
October 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sarah Masefield, Pippa Powell, Carlos Jiménez-Ruiz, Peter Hajek, Keir Lewis, Stefan Andreas, Philip Tønnesen, Onno van Schayck, Christina Gratziou, Bertrand Dautzenberg, Serena Tonstad, Thomas Hering, Stephano Nardini, Monica Fletcher
This study aimed to gain insight into the impact of lung conditions on smoking behaviour and smoking cessation, and identify recommendations for smoking cessation and professional-patient communications. The study was led by the European Lung Foundation in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society Task Force on "Statement on smoking cessation on COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit". A web-based observational cross-sectional questionnaire was developed from a patient-centered literature review...
April 2016: ERJ Open Research
Mariliis Vaht, Triin Kurrikoff, Kariina Laas, Toomas Veidebaum, Jaanus Harro
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is an important regulator of social relationships and has been implicated in development of substance use and addiction. We examined the association of a variance in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576 polymorphism) with alcohol use in a population-representative sample, and potential moderation by social functioning. METHODS: The analysis was carried out on the older birth cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (ECPBHS), a cohort of initially 15 years old children (original n=593) recalled at ages 18 and 25...
September 25, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Paul J Cocker, M Tremblay, S Kaur, Catharine A Winstanley
RATIONALE: Whilst dopamine agonist therapies can successfully manage the symptoms of diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), fibromyalgia and restless leg syndrome, they can also cause impulse control and addiction disorders such as gambling disorder (GD). These compulsive behaviours seriously undermine the utility of such treatments. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to model this phenomenon using a rodent slot machine task (rSMT) in order to investigate the neurobiological basis underlying such behavioural changes...
October 6, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Ian P Albery, Jessica Lowry, Dan Frings, Henry Lee Johnson, Cassandra Hogan, Antony C Moss
BACKGROUND/AIMS: If sexual compulsivity and other addictive behaviours share common aetiology, contemporary proposals about the role of attentional processes in understanding addictive behaviours are relevant. METHODS: To examine attentional biases for sex-related words among sexually active individuals and the relationship between sexual compulsivity and sexual behavioural engagement with attentional bias, 55 sexually active individuals completed a modified Stroop task and the sexual compulsivity scale...
October 1, 2016: European Addiction Research
Kathrin Schag, Elisabeth J Leehr, Eva-Maria Skoda, Sandra Becker, Stephan Zipfel, Katrin E Giel
Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is an eating disorder where cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) could already show reliable efficacy. Relying on basic research, CBT interventions which especially focus on impulsivity could be effective, because binge eating episodes represent highly impulsive eating behaviour. For this reason, we developed a treatment concept about an impulsivity-focused behavioural group intervention for patients with BED, called IMPULS. The efficacy of IMPULS is currently investigated in a randomised controlled trial 1...
September 29, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Tsui-Yun Yang, Hung-Ru Lin
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. BACKGROUND: Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31.7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. DESIGN: A qualitative research design was used...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Anne Lingford-Hughes, Yash Patel, Owen Bowden-Jones, Mike J Crawford, Paul I Dargan, Fabiana Gordon, Steve Parrott, Tim Weaver, David M Wood
BACKGROUND: GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) and its pro-drugs GBL (gamma-butyrolactone) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are central nervous system depressants whose street names include 'G' and 'liquid ecstasy'. They are used recreationally predominately for their stimulant and pro-sexual effects or for sedation to help with sleep and/or to 'come down' after using stimulant recreational drugs. Although overall population prevalence is low (0.1 %), in some groups such as men who have sex with men, GHB/GBL use may reach 20 %...
September 27, 2016: Trials
Anthony Zehetner, Popi Iatrou, Basiliki Lampropoulos, Natalie Phillips
AIM: To evaluate Teenlink, a wide-ranging medical and psychological health service addressing the needs of children and adolescents in substance-using families, who are at increased risk of developmental and psychosocial problems. METHODS: Retrospective record review of 124 children, from 92 families seen over a 13 year period. RESULTS: Polysubstance use and mental illness were common amongst parents. Children often presented with emotional and behavioural problems...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Yu-Hsuan Lin, Yuan-Chien Pan, Sheng-Hsuan Lin, Sue-Huei Chen
Smartphone addiction is considered a form of technological addiction that has attracted increasing attention. The present study developed and validated the short-form Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI-SF) and established cutoff point for screening smartphone addiction based on diagnostic criteria established by psychiatric interview. A total of 268 participants completed an online survey that collected demographic data, smartphone use behaviours, and responses to the 26-item SPAI. Each participant also completed a psychiatric interview...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Christine A Goodall, Fergus G Neville, Damien J Williams, Peter D Donnelly
OBJECTIVES: To explore the views of Scottish offenders on the impact of alcohol on their experience of offending and their lives in general. Furthermore, to explore their views on the concept of remote alcohol monitoring (RAM) as a way to address alcohol misuse upon liberation from prison. METHODS: A convenience sample of 12 serving offenders participated in one of three focus groups. Data were analysed using the principles of thematic analysis. RESULTS: Analysis of the data revealed the significant impact of alcohol on the lives of the participants...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
Manoel Jorge Nobre
Exposure to stress and prolonged exposure to alcohol leads to neuronal damages in several brain regions, being the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) one of the most affected. These changes presumably reduce the ability of the organism to cope with these stimuli and may underlie a series of maladaptive behaviours among which include drug addiction and withdrawal. Drug-addicted individuals show a pattern of behavior similar to patients with lesions of the mPFC. This impairment in the decision-making could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the transition from the casual to compulsive drug use...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Maryam Foroughi, Saeedeh Moayedi-Nia, Alireza Shoghli, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Abbas Sedaghat, Mansoor Mohajeri, Seyed Noraldin Mousavinasab, Minoo Mohraz
OBJECTIVES: The existence of street and working children in Iran is undeniable. The precarious conditions of these children (including disrupted family, poverty, high prevalence of crime among relatives, family members and peers) cause social harm and high-risk behaviours, including drug addiction, selling sex or having sex with adolescents or peers. Here we explore the HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C status of street and working children in Tehran. METHODS: One thousand street and labour children, aged 10-18 years, were recruited by using the time-location sampling method, and semistructured questionnaires were used to find demographic information and information on HIV/AIDS-related high-risk sexual behaviours...
September 6, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
E J Pedrero-Perez, J M Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, G Rojo-Mota, S Morales-Alonso, J Pedrero-Aguilar, I Lorenzo, A Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: The Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) is a self-reported questionnaire, created in Spain, which asks about cognitive, emotional and behavioural alterations in activities of daily living and which can be applied in both the general population and in multiple clinical populations. There is a shorter 20-item version (PSI-20) with excellent psychomotor properties for screening. AIM: To study the convergent and divergent validity of the PSI and PSI-20, by analysing how their scales reflect the day-to-day consequences of real deficits found in neurological assessment performed by means of performance tests...
September 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
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