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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214738/problematic-internet-pornography-use-the-role-of-craving-desire-thinking-and-metacognition
#1
Andrew Allen, Lee Kannis-Dymand, Mary Katsikitis
Defined as sexually explicit material that elicits erotic thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, internet pornography is a prevalent form of media that may facilitate problematic use and craving for engagement. Research suggests that superordinate cognitions and information processing, such as desire thinking and metacognition, are central to the activation and escalation of craving in addictive behaviours. The current study aimed to contribute to the literature by testing the proposed metacognitive model of desire thinking and craving in a sample of problematic pornography users, while revising the model by incorporating negative affect...
February 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212499/validation-of-the-french-version-of-the-dsm-5-yale-food-addiction-scale-in-a-nonclinical-sample
#2
Paul Brunault, Robert Courtois, Ashley N Gearhardt, Philippe Gaillard, Kevin Journiac, Sarah Cathelain, Christian Réveillère, Nicolas Ballon
OBJECTIVE: The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is the only questionnaire that assesses food addiction (FA) based on substance dependence criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Following recent updating of addiction criteria, a new DSM-5 version (YFAS 2.0) has been developed. Our study tested the psychometric properties of the French YFAS 2.0 in a nonclinical population. METHOD: We assessed 330 nonclinical participants for FA (French YFAS 2...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209195/qualitative-exploration-of-why-people-repeatedly-attend-emergency-departments-for-alcohol-related-reasons
#3
Tom Parkman, Joanne Neale, Ed Day, Colin Drummond
BACKGROUND: Understanding why people repeatedly attend Emergency Departments (EDs) for alcohol-related reasons is an important prerequisite to identifying ways of reducing any unnecessary demands on hospital resources. We use Andersen's Behavioural Model of Health Services Use to explore factors that contributed to repeat ED attendances. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 people who repeatedly attended EDs for alcohol-related reasons (≥10 attendances in the past 12 months)...
February 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198052/how-can-we-conceptualize-behavioural-addiction-without-pathologizing-common-behaviours
#4
Daniel Kardefelt-Winther, Alexandre Heeren, Adriano Schimmenti, Antonius van Rooij, Pierre Maurage, Michelle Carras, Johan Edman, Alexander Blaszczynski, Yasser Khazaal, Joël Billieux
Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction...
February 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192219/a-qualitative-study-of-overweight-and-obese-australians-views-of-food-addiction
#5
A J Cullen, A Barnett, P A Komesaroff, W Brown, K S O'Brien, W Hall, A Carter
The concept of food addiction is increasingly used in the academic literature and popular media to explain some forms of overweight and obesity. However, there is limited evidence on how this term is understood by and impacts overweight and obese individuals. This qualitative study investigated the views of overweight and obese individuals on food addiction, and its likely impact upon stigma, treatment-seeking, and support for public policies to reduce overeating. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 overweight and obese individuals (Mage = 38, MBMI = 33, 74% female) and analysed thematically...
February 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186929/cross-sectional-examination-of-the-association-of-co-occurring-alcohol-misuse-and-traumatic-brain-injury-on-mental-health-and-conduct-problems-in-adolescents-in-ontario-canada
#6
Gabriela Ilie, Robert E Mann, Angela Boak, Edward M Adlaf, Hayley Hamilton, Mark Asbridge, Jürgen Rehm, Michael D Cusimano
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hazardous drinking on mental health and behavioural issues among Ontario adolescents. In particular, we assessed the incremental co-occurrence of hazardous drinking with a history of TBI, in comparison to experiencing just one of these conditions. METHODS: A cross-sectional subsample of 3130 Ontario adolescents attending grades 9-12, and aged 10-21 were surveyed in 2013 as a part of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey...
November 10, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186316/inhibitory-capacity-assessment-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-translation-from-a-modified-stop-signal-task
#7
Ana Sion, Rosa Jurado-Barba, M José Alonso, Gabriel Rubio-Valladolid
INTRODUCTION: Inhibitory control is clearly impaired in alcohol dependent individuals, being associated to the addiction process establishment and abstinence maintenance difficulties. Inhibitory control assessment tasks involving responses to neutral stimuli are available, although a Spanish version task including contextual cues influence on inhibition capacity has not been performed yet. Alcohol related stimuli can modify behavioural inhibition performance. Thus, the purpose of this study was the Spanish translation of a modified stop signal task that assessed inhibitory control, as well as the degree of interference produced by the presence of alcohol related words...
January 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182330/heat-shock-protein-27-hsp27-hspb1-is-synthetic-lethal-to-cells-with-oncogenic-activation-of-met-egfr-and-braf
#8
John David Konda, Martina Olivero, Daniele Musiani, Simona Lamba, Maria Flavia Di Renzo
The small Heat Shock Protein of 27 KDa (HSP27) is highly expressed in many cancers and is associated with aggressive tumor behaviour, metastasis, poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy. We aimed at assessing the role of HSP27 in modulating responses to target therapies. We selected several oncogene-addicted cancer cell lines, which undergo either cell cycle blockade or cell death in response to agents that target the specific oncogene. Surprisingly, HSP27 suppression alone resulted in the apoptotic death of MET-addicted EBC-1 lung cancer cells, EGFR-addicted colorectal carcinoma DiFi cells and BRAF-addicted colorectal carcinoma COLO205 and OXCO-1 and melanoma COLO741 cells, all of which also undergo death when treated with the specific targeted agent...
February 9, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173973/personality-and-addictive-behaviours-in-early-parkinson-s-disease-and-rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder
#9
Fahd Baig, Michael A Lawton, Michal Rolinski, Claudio Ruffmann, Johannes C Klein, Kannan Nithi, David Okai, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Michele T M Hu
INTRODUCTION: Changes in personality have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD), with suggestion that those with established disease tend to be risk averse with a disinclination for addictive behaviour. However, little is known about the earliest and prodromal stages. Personality and its relationship with addictive behaviours can help answer important questions about the mechanisms underlying PD and addiction. METHODS: 941 population-ascertained PD subjects within 3...
February 1, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170052/illicit-drug-policy-in-spain-the-opinion-of-health-and-legal-professionals
#10
Paola Rossi, Ester Blay, Víctor Costela, Marta Torrens
The high frequency of criminal behaviour and related legal problems associated with substance addiction generates a field of interaction between legal and healthcare systems. This study was developed as a multicentre project to investigate the opinions of professionals from legal and healthcare systems about policies on illegal drugs and their implementation in practice. A multiple choice questionnaire designed ad hoc was administered to a sample of 230 professionals from legal and healthcare fields working in the cities of Barcelona, Granada and Bilbao...
January 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161772/do-alcohol-dependent-patients-show-different-neural-activation-during-response-inhibition-than-healthy-controls-in-an-alcohol-related-fmri-go-no-go-task
#11
Marta Czapla, Christian Baeuchl, Joe J Simon, Barbara Richter, Matthias Kluge, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Karl Mann, Sabine C Herpertz, Sabine Loeber
RATIONALE: Alcohol dependence is associated with impaired response inhibition and heightened cue reactivity towards alcohol-related stimuli. Several brain areas, but mainly prefrontal structures, have been linked to response inhibition in addiction. This study aimed at combining both aspects: salience of drug-associated cues and response inhibition using a go/no-go task with alcohol-associated stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). OBJECTIVES: Nineteen abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (ADP) and 21 healthy control subjects (HC) were compared on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses during successful inhibition of no-go stimuli and successful reactions to go stimuli...
February 4, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154957/basic-beliefs-about-behavioural-addictions-among-finnish-and-french-treatment-professionals
#12
Anja Koski-Jännes, Laurence Simmat-Durand
The ways in which addictive behaviours are perceived may decisively influence the ways they are handled. This study explores how treatment professionals' cultural and other background variables influence their beliefs about gambling and Internet addictions. Mailed surveys were conducted with addiction treatment professionals in Finland (n = 520) in 2007-2008 and France (n = 472) in 2010-2011. The data were analysed by descriptive statistical methods and logistic regression analysis. Cultural differences were the most consistent predictors of the responses concerning gambling and Internet addictions...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139537/are-childhood-externalizing-disorders-the-harbinger-of-early-onset-alcohol-dependence
#13
Abhishek Ghosh, Savita Malhotra, Debasish Basu
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The subtyping of alcohol dependence (AD) into early-onset (EO) and late-onset (LO) subgroups has been shown to have clinical and biological validity. As externalizing disorders (EDs) predate AD, the link of ED with age of onset of alcohol dependence needs to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of EDs such as disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with age at onset of AD in a sample of male subjects...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134427/preliminary-estimates-of-the-economic-implications-of-addiction-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#14
C M Doran
This study aimed to provide preliminary estimates of the economic implications of addiction in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Local and international data sources were used to derive estimates of substancerelated healthcare costs, lost productivity and criminal behaviour. From an estimated population of 8.26 million: ~1.47 million used tobacco (20.5% of adults); 380 085 used cannabis (> 5%); 14 077 used alcohol in a harmful manner (0.2%); and 1408 used opiates (0.02%). The cost of addiction was estimated at US$ 5...
January 23, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122409/effectiveness-of-a-psychoeducational-programme-in-enhancing-motivation-to-change-alcohol-addictive-behaviour
#15
Mei-Yu Yeh, Tao-Hsin Tung, Fen-Fang Horng, Su-Ching Sung
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychoeducational programme in enhancing motivation to change alcohol-addictive behaviour. BACKGROUND: The prevalence of alcohol abuse has increased over the past 10 years, and the age of initial alcohol use has decreased gradually in Taiwan. Alcohol dependence is one of the leading causes of disability and has led to increases in the incidence of crime and violence, with alcohol abuse identified as a problem in society...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114925/two-birds-with-one-stone-experiences-of-combining-clinical-and-research-training-in-addiction-medicine
#16
J Klimas, R McNeil, K Ahamad, A Mead, L Rieb, W Cullen, E Wood, W Small
BACKGROUND: Despite a large evidence-base upon which to base clinical practice, most health systems have not combined the training of healthcare providers in addiction medicine and research. As such, addiction care is often lacking, or not based on evidence or best practices. We undertook a qualitative study to assess the experiences of physicians who completed a clinician-scientist training programme in addiction medicine within a hospital setting. METHODS: We interviewed physicians from the St...
January 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109172/integrated-treatment-options-for-male-perpetrators-of-intimate-partner-violence
#17
Cory A Crane, Caroline J Easton
ISSUES: Male-to-female intimate partner violence remains a worldwide public health issue with adverse physical and psychological consequences for victims, perpetrators and children. Personality disorders, addiction, trauma and mood symptoms are established risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration and factor prominently into a recovery-oriented treatment approach. APPROACH: We reviewed the partner violence literature for detailed reports of traditional as well as innovative, integrated treatment approaches...
January 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074831/rgs9-2-modulates-responses-to-oxycodone-in-pain-free-and-chronic-pain-states
#18
Sevasti Gaspari, Valeria Cogliani, Lefteris Manouras, Ethan M Anderson, Vasiliki Mitsi, Kleopatra Avrampou, Fiona B Carr, Venetia Zachariou
Regulator of G protein signalling 9-2 (RGS9-2) is a striatal enriched signal transduction modulator, known to play a critical role in the development of addiction-related behaviours following exposure to psychostimulants or opioids. RGS9-2 controls the function of several GPCRs, including dopamine and mu opioid (MOR) receptors. We previously showed that RGS9-2 complexes negatively control morphine analgesia, and promote the development of morphine tolerance. In contrast, RGS9-2 positively modulates the actions of other opioid analgesics, such as fentanyl and methadone...
January 11, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074533/netrin-g1-its-downregulation-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-cocaine-conditioned-mice-and-genetic-association-in-human-cocaine-dependence
#19
Sabah Kelaï, Nicolas Ramoz, Jean-Marie Moalic, Florence Noble, Naguib Mechawar, Sandrine Imbeaud, Gustavo Turecki, Michel Simonneau, Philip Gorwood, Gilles Maussion
Netrin G1 is a presynaptic ligand involved in axonal projection. Although molecular mechanisms underlying cocaine addiction are still poorly understood, Netrin G1 might have a role as a regulator of anxiety, fear and spatial memory, behavioural traits impaired in the context of cocaine exposure. In this study, the Netrin G1 (Ntng1) expression was investigated in the nucleus accumbens of mice primarily conditioned to cocaine using a place preference paradigm. A genetic association study was then conducted on 146 multiplex families of the Collaborative study on Genetics of Alcoholism, in which seven single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the NTNG1 gene were genotyped...
January 11, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063947/food-and-drug-addictions-similarities-and-differences
#20
REVIEW
Peter J Rogers
This review examines the merits of 'food addiction' as an explanation of excessive eating (i.e., eating in excess of what is required to maintain a healthy body weight). It describes various apparent similarities in appetites for foods and drugs. For example, conditioned environmental cues can arouse food and drug-seeking behaviour, 'craving' is an experience reported to precede eating and drug taking, 'bingeing' is associated with both eating and drug use, and conditioned and unconditioned tolerance occurs to food and drug ingestion...
February 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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