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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032488/how-do-individuals-develop-alcohol-use-disorder-after-bariatric-surgery-a-grounded-theory-exploration
#1
Ruth Yoder, Padraig MacNeela, Ronan Conway, Caroline Heary
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity. However, following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, a small minority of patients develop new-onset alcohol use disorder (AUD), the aetiology of which is poorly understood. AIM: The aim is to construct a theory to explain the development of AUD among a sample of individuals who reported problematic drinking following RYGB. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight RYGB patients diagnosed with AUD attending a multi-disciplinary outpatient weight management service at a public hospital in the Republic of Ireland...
October 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025818/mental-health-and-addictions-capacity-building-for-community-health-centres-in-ontario
#2
Akwatu Khenti, Fiona C Thomas, Sirad Mohamoud, Pablo Diaz, Oriana Vaccarino, Kate Dunbar, Jaime C Sapag
PROBLEM ADDRESSED: In recent years, there has been increased recognition in Canada of the need to strengthen mental health services in primary health care (PHC). Collaborative models, including partnerships between PHC and specialized mental health care providers, have emerged as effective ways for improving access to mental health care and strengthening clinical capacity. Primary health care physicians and other health professionals are well positioned to facilitate the early detection of mental disorders and provide appropriate treatment and follow-up care, helping to tackle stigma toward mental health problems in the process...
October 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022680/patients-risk-of-causing-traffic-violations-and-traffic-accidents-while-driving
#3
Nevenka Šestan, Metoda Dodič Fikfak, Zvone Balantič
OBJECTIVES: This study examines whether drivers suffering from epilepsy, chronic alcoholism and/or hazardous drinking, psychoactive substance abuse, other diseases of the nervous system, mental and behavioural disorders, cardiovascular diseases, severe diabetes, and severe eye diseases are at a greater risk of causing traffic accidents and traffic violations than drivers that cause accidents and violations without these diagnoses. METHODS: A case control study was carried out...
September 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022218/an-examination-of-the-mechanisms-and-personality-traits-underlying-food-addiction-among-individuals-with-severe-obesity-awaiting-bariatric-surgery
#4
Anne-Sophie Ouellette, Christopher Rodrigue, Simone Lemieux, André Tchernof, Laurent Biertho, Catherine Bégin
PURPOSE: The aetiology underlying addiction has often been investigated to shed more light on the factors contributing to the development and maintenance of various disorders. In the field of addictive eating behaviours, data on the aetiological factors related to food addiction (FA) in the bariatric context remain scarce. The present study aimed to explore mechanisms and variables underlying FA among individuals suffering from severe obesity and awaiting bariatric surgery. METHODS: Participants (N = 146) were recruited at the Quebec Heart and Lung Institute during their pre-operative visit and were invited to complete questionnaires...
October 11, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020127/an-exploration-of-addiction-in-adults-experiencing-early-life-stress-a-metasynthesis
#5
Carla Araujo Bastos Teixeira, Gerri Lasiuk, Sylvia Barton, Maria Neyrian de Fatima Fernandes, Edilaine Cristina da Silva Gherardi-Donato
OBJECTIVE: to review and synthesize qualitative research on the links between early-life stress and addiction behaviours in adulthood. METHOD: metasynthesis to review qualitative research findings based on procedures that outline how to identify themes or constructs across studies in a specific area. Comprehensive searches of multiple electronic databases were performed. The initial search yielded 1050 articles and the titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion based on predetermined criteria...
October 5, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018160/dopamine-dysregulation-syndrome-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-of-published-cases
#6
Nicola Warren, Cullen O'Gorman, Alexander Lehn, Dan Siskind
OBJECTIVES: Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is an uncommon complication of the treatment of Parkinson's disease, characterised by addictive behaviour and excessive use of dopaminergic medication. DDS may frequently go unrecognised or misdiagnosed. We aimed to clarify current understanding of presentation, risk factors, comorbidities and management of DDS. METHODS: Case reports were identified through a systematic search of databases (PubMed, Embase) with the following terms: dopaminergic dysregulation syndrome, hedonistic homeostatic dysregulation, dopamine/levodopa addiction...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984506/manipulating-affective-state-influences-conditioned-appetitive-responses
#7
Inna Arnaudova, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Marieke Effting, Merel Kindt, Tom Beckers
Affective states influence how individuals process information and behave. Some theories predict emotional congruency effects (e.g. preferential processing of negative information in negative affective states). Emotional congruency should theoretically obstruct the learning of reward associations (appetitive learning) and their ability to guide behaviour under negative mood. Two studies tested the effects of the induction of a negative affective state on appetitive Pavlovian learning, in which neutral stimuli were associated with chocolate (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) rewards...
October 6, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981514/a-unifying-bayesian-account-of-contextual-effects-in-value-based-choice
#8
Francesco Rigoli, Christoph Mathys, Karl J Friston, Raymond J Dolan
Empirical evidence suggests the incentive value of an option is affected by other options available during choice and by options presented in the past. These contextual effects are hard to reconcile with classical theories and have inspired accounts where contextual influences play a crucial role. However, each account only addresses one or the other of the empirical findings and a unifying perspective has been elusive. Here, we offer a unifying theory of context effects on incentive value attribution and choice based on normative Bayesian principles...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971231/effects-of-morphine-on-place-conditioning-and-erk1-2-phosphorylation-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-psychogenetically-selected-roman-low-and-high-avoidance-rats
#9
Michela Rosas, Simona Porru, Marta Sabariego, Maria Antonietta Piludu, Osvaldo Giorgi, Maria G Corda, Elio Acquas
RATIONALE: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation is critical for neuronal and behavioural functions; in particular, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) expression in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) of the rat is stimulated by addictive drugs with the exception of morphine, which decreases accumbal ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats. The psychogenetically selected Roman low- (RLA) and high-avoidance (RHA) rats differ behaviourally and neurochemically in many responses to addictive drugs...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966737/neurocognitive-game-between-risk-factors-sleep-and-suicidal-behaviour
#10
Faustin Armel Etindele Sosso
INTRODUCTION: Sleep and lifestyles interact to allow the appropriate development of cerebral structures, and prevention of mood disorders. But just a hand of articles identified a precise relationship between these two above, and the probability to develop a suicidal behaviour. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore how the suicidal behaviour is associated in simultaneous with sleep components, psychological stress, depression, anxiety, well-being, addiction, and global health of participants; and if it is also influenced by the sociodemographic profile of each subject...
January 2017: Sleep Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960736/safety-risk-and-aggression-health-professionals-experiences-of-caring-for-people-affected-by-methamphetamine-when-presenting-for-emergency-care
#11
Kim Usher, Debra Jackson, Cindy Woods, Jan Sayers, Rachel Kornhaber, Michelle Cleary
The crystalline form of methamphetamine, commonly known as crystal meth (crystal methamphetamine) or ICE, is a highly-addictive and powerful stimulant. Users of crystal meth often require emergency care, and are associated with a substantial burden of care by emergency care providers. The aim of the present qualitative study was to explore health professionals' experiences of providing care for patients affected by ICE who presented to the emergency department (ED). Nine semistructured interviews were conducted...
October 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957338/-i-think-my-body-has-become-addicted-to-those-tablets-chronic-heart-failure-patients-understanding-of-and-beliefs-about-their-illness-and-its-treatment-a-qualitative-longitudinal-study-from-uganda
#12
Elizabeth Namukwaya, Scott A Murray, Julia Downing, Mhoira Leng, Liz Grant
BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure in Uganda present for health care with advanced structural heart disease, have repeated hospitalizations and poorly controlled disease symptoms. The reasons for these are unclear. Literature from other settings shows that patients' understanding of their illness and their beliefs influence their health related behaviour. The study aimed to explore the beliefs of patients with heart failure, their understanding of their illness and its treatment, and how this influenced their health related behaviour to inform future health education programs, information and palliative care services...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951609/rehabilitating-the-addicted-brain-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#13
REVIEW
Marco Diana, Tommi Raij, Miriam Melis, Aapo Nummenmaa, Lorenzo Leggio, Antonello Bonci
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In spite of considerable advances in understanding the neural underpinnings of SUDs, therapeutic options remain limited. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as an innovative, safe and cost-effective treatment for some SUDs. Repetitive TMS (rTMS) influences neural activity in the short and long term by mechanisms involving neuroplasticity both locally, under the stimulating coil, and at the network level, throughout the brain...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949288/disrupted-coupling-of-large-scale-networks-is-associated-with-relapse-behaviour-in-heroin-dependent-men
#14
Qiang Li, Jierong Liu, Wei Wang, Yarong Wang, Wei Li, Jiajie Chen, Jia Zhu, Xuejiao Yan, Yongbin Li, Zhe Li, Jianjun Ye, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether impaired coupling among 3 core large-scale brain networks (salience [SN], default mode [DMN] and executive control networks [ECN]) is associated with relapse behaviour in treated heroin-dependent patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective resting-state functional MRI study comparing the functional connectivity strength among healthy controls and heroin-dependent men who had either relapsed or were in early remission. Men were considered to be either relapsed or in early remission based on urine drug screens during a 3-month follow-up period...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944936/smoking-cessation-in-workplace-settings-quit-rates-and-determinants-in-a-group-behaviour-therapy-programme
#15
Yann Hausherr, Carlos Quinto, Leticia Grize, Christian Schindler, Nicole Probst-Hensch
INTRODUCTION: To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions...
September 25, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939247/-spanish-validation-of-game-addiction-scale-for-adolescents-gasa
#16
Daniel Lloret Irles, Ramon Morell Gomis, Juan Carlos Marzo Campos, Sonia Tirado González
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GASA) to the Spanish youth population. DESIGN: Cultural adaptation and validation study. SETTING: Secondary Education centres. PARTICIPANTS: Two independent studies were conducted on a group of 466 young people with a mean age of 15.27 years (13-18, SD: 1.83) and 48.7% ♀ and on another group of 566, with a mean age of 21...
September 19, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921935/assessing-causal-relationships-using-genetic-proxies-for-exposures-an-introduction-to-mendelian-randomisation
#17
Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Michael Green, Amy E Taylor, George Davey Smith, Marcus R Munafò
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studying the consequences of addictive behaviours is challenging, with understanding causal relationships from observational data being particularly difficult. For example, people who smoke or drink excessively are often systematically different from those who do not, are less likely to participate in research, and may misreport their behaviours when they do. Furthermore, the direction of causation between an addictive behaviour and outcome may be unclear. Mendelian randomisation (MR) offers potential solutions to these problems...
September 18, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921760/genome-wide-association-study-of-a-nicotine-metabolism-biomarker-in-african-american-smokers-impact-of-chromosome-19-genetic-influences
#18
Meghan J Chenoweth, Jennifer J Ware, Andy Z X Zhu, Christopher B Cole, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Nikki Nollen, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Neal L Benowitz, Robert A Schnoll, Larry W Hawk, Paul M Cinciripini, Tony P George, Caryn Lerman, Joanne Knight, Rachel F Tyndale
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The activity of CYP2A6, the major nicotine-inactivating enzyme, is measurable in smokers using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR; 3'hydroxycotinine/cotinine). Due to its role in nicotine clearance, the NMR is associated with smoking behaviours and response to pharmacotherapies. The NMR is highly heritable (~80%), and on average lower in African Americans (AA) versus Whites. We previously identified several reduce and loss-of-function CYP2A6 variants common in individuals of African descent...
September 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918416/-the-methodology-and-sample-description-of-the-national-survey-on-addiction-problems-in-hungary-2015-nsaph-2015
#19
Borbala Paksi, Zsolt Demetrovics, Anna Magi, Katalin Felvinczi
This paper introduces the methods and methodological findings of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary (NSAPH 2015). Use patterns of smoking, alcohol use and other psychoactive substances were measured as well as that of certain behavioural addictions (problematic gambling - PGSI, DSM-V, eating disorders - SCOFF, problematic internet use - PIUQ, problematic on-line gaming - POGO, problematic social media use - FAS, exercise addictions - EAI-HU, work addiction - BWAS, compulsive buying - CBS)...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918267/compulsivity-in-opioid-dependence
#20
Serenella Tolomeo, Keith Matthews, Douglas Steele, Alex Baldacchino
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between compulsivity versus impulsivity and structural MRI abnormalities in opioid dependence. METHOD: We recruited 146 participants: i) patients with a history of opioid dependence due to chronic heroin use (n=24), ii) heroin users stabilised on methadone maintenance treatment (n=48), iii) abstinent participants with a history of opioid dependence due to heroin use (n=24) and iv) healthy controls (n=50)...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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