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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450239/alcohol-related-mental-imagery-the-effects-of-a-priming-dose-in-at-risk-drinkers
#1
Michael Yates, Sunjeev K Kamboj
Objectives: Drug related mental imagery is proposed to play a central role in addictive behaviour. However, little is known about such cognition or how it is pharmacologically modulated. Here, we test theoretical predictions of the 'elaborated intrusion' theory by comparing neutral with alcohol related mental imagery, and examine the effects of low dose alcohol on phenomenological aspects of this imagery. Methods: Alcohol related and neutral imagery was assessed after at risk drinkers (n = 40) consumed alcohol (0...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450234/is-the-concept-of-compulsion-useful-in-the-explanation-or-description-of-addictive-behaviour-and-experience
#2
Nick Heather
The concept of compulsion, in which addictive behaviour is said to be carried out against the will, is central to the disease theory of addiction and ubiquitous in modern definitions. The aims of this article are: (i) to describe various meanings of compulsion in the literature; (ii) to compare the part thought to be played by compulsion in addiction with its suggested role in obsessive-compulsive disorder; (iii) to critically examine the place of compulsion in influential neurobiological accounts of addiction; (iv) to summarise the empirical evidence bearing on the usefulness of the compulsion concept, evidence that seems at first sight incompatible with the notion of compulsion...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444252/human-striatal-response-to-reward-anticipation-linked-to-hippocampal-glutamate-levels
#3
Matthijs G Bossong, Robin Wilson, Elizabeth Appiah-Kusi, Philip McGuire, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
Background: Dysfunctional reward processing is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, such as addiction and schizophrenia. It is thought that reward is regulated mainly by dopamine transmission in the ventral striatum. Contemporary animal models suggest that striatal dopamine concentrations and associated behaviours are related to glutamatergic functioning in the ventral hippocampus. However, in humans the association between reward-related ventral striatal response and hippocampal glutamate levels is unclear...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436699/-bipolar-disorder-and-alcohol-use-disorder-practical-recommendations-for-treatment-based-on-a-literature-review
#4
A T Spijker, J van Zaane, M A Koenders, R Hoekstra, R W Kupka
A fairly large proportion (25-50%) of patients with bipolar disorder (bd) also suffer from comorbid alcohol use disorder (aud). However, little is known how this type of morbidity should be treated. It is also unclear whether the current guidelines on bd have been influenced by aud.<br/> AIM: To provide an overview of recent literature concerning the diagnosis and treatment of comorbid bd and aud.<br/> METHOD: We systematically reviewed studies that have addressed three treatment options for this group of patients: pharmaco-therapy, psychological interventions and self-management techniques...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436490/subthalamic-stimulation-and-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-results-from-a-long-term-follow-up-cohort-study
#5
Marie Abbes, Eugénie Lhommée, Stéphane Thobois, Hélène Klinger, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Amélie Bichon, Anna Castrioto, Jing Xie, Valérie Fraix, Andrea Kistner, Pierre Pélissier, Éric Seigneuret, Stéphan Chabardès, Patrick Mertens, Emmanuel Broussolle, Elena Moro, Paul Krack
BACKGROUND: Reports on behavioural outcomes after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease are controversial and limited to short-term data. Long-term observation in a large cohort allows a better counselling and management. METHODS: To determine whether a long-term treatment with subthalamic stimulation induces or reduces impulse control behaviours, neuropsychiatric fluctuations and apathy, 69 patients treated with subthalamic stimulation are prospectively and retrospectively assessed using Ardouin Scale of Behavior in Parkinson's Disease before and after 3-10 years of stimulation...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429421/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-a-high-prevalence-population
#6
M A Fill, L A Sizemore, M Rickles, K C Cooper, C M Buecker, H L Mullins, M G Hofmeister, W E Abara, M A Foster, A K Asher, W Schaffner, J R Dunn, T F Jones, C Wester
To understand increasing rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tennessee, we conducted testing, risk factor analysis and a nested case-control study among persons who use drugs. During June-October 2016, HCV testing with risk factor assessment was conducted in sexually transmitted disease clinics, family planning clinics and an addiction treatment facility in eastern Tennessee; data were analysed by using multivariable logistic regression. A nested case-control study was conducted to assess drug-using risks and behaviours among persons who reported intranasal or injection drug use (IDU)...
February 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426583/-use-of-new-technologies-by-adolescents-in-the-search-for-health-information
#7
Minerva Blázquez Barba, Dolores Gómez Romero, Isidora Frontaura Fernández, Abdón Camacho Ojeda, Francisco M Rodríguez Salas, Higinio Toriz Cano
OBJECTIVE: To describe Internet sources used by adolescents to consult health information and their sociodemographic characteristics, as well as to identify the variables that influence the choice of Internet site. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Survey adapted from the questionnaire validated by Rideout. PARTICIPANTS AND LOCATION: Adolescents aged 12-18 from 4schools in rural municipalities. RESULTS: The study included a total of 405 adolescents, of whom 51...
February 6, 2018: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411070/saccharin-fading-is-not-required-for-the-acquisition-of-alcohol-self-administration-and-can-alter-the-dynamics-of-cue-alcohol-memory-reconsolidation
#8
Mickaël Puaud, Zofia Ossowska, Jordan Barnard, Amy L Milton
RATIONALE: Animal models of alcohol-seeking are useful for understanding alcohol addiction and for treatment development, but throughput in these models is limited by the extensive pretraining required to overcome the aversive taste of ethanol. Work by Augier et al. (Psychopharmacology 231: 4561-4568, 2014) indicates that Wistar rats will self-administer alcohol without water deprivation, exposure to sweetened ethanol solutions or intermittent access to ethanol. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We sought to replicate and extend the work of Augier et al...
February 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405517/activation-of-amylin-receptors-attenuates-alcohol-mediated-behaviours-in-rodents
#9
Aimilia Lydia Kalafateli, Daniel Vallöf, Elisabet Jerlhag
Alcohol expresses its reinforcing properties by activating areas of the mesolimbic dopamine system, which consists of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. The findings that reward induced by food and addictive drugs involve common mechanisms raise the possibility that gut-brain hormones, which control appetite, such as amylin, could be involved in reward regulation. Amylin decreases food intake, and despite its implication in the regulation of natural rewards, tenuous evidence support amylinergic mediation of artificial rewards, such as alcohol...
February 6, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387264/mindfulness-acceptance-and-defusion-strategies-in-smokers-a-systematic-review-of-laboratory-studies
#10
REVIEW
Shirley Serfaty, Grace Gale, Matthew Beadman, Brett Froeliger, Sunjeev K Kamboj
The psychological flexibility model (PFM) provides a framework for understanding and treating behavioural dysregulation in addictions. Rather than modulating the intensity of subjective experience, interventions based on, or consistent with, the PFM (PFM interventions) seek to alter the individual's relationship to internal states, such as craving, negative affect and drug-related thoughts, using mindfulness, acceptance and related strategies. Experimental (non-clinical) studies in smokers have examined the effects of specific isolated strategies informed by or consistent with the PFM (PFM strategies)...
2018: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383710/family-and-carer-smoking-control-programmes-for-reducing-children-s-exposure-to-environmental-tobacco-smoke
#11
REVIEW
Behrooz Behbod, Mohit Sharma, Ruchi Baxi, Robert Roseby, Premila Webster
BACKGROUND: Children's exposure to other people's tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS) is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes for children. Parental smoking is a common source of children's exposure to ETS. Older children in child care or educational settings are also at risk of exposure to ETS. Preventing exposure to ETS during infancy and childhood has significant potential to improve children's health worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce exposure of children to environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS...
January 31, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371875/psychopathology-of-addiction-can-the-scl90-based-five-dimensional-structure-differentiate-heroin-use-disorder-from-a-non-substance-related-addictive-disorder-such-as-gambling-disorder
#12
Angelo G I Maremmani, Denise Gazzarrini, Amelia Fiorin, Valeria Cingano, Graziano Bellio, Giulio Perugi, Icro Maremmani
Background: In the Gambling Disorder (GD), there is no exogenous drug administration that acts as the central core of the traditional meaning of addiction. A specific psychopathology of Substance Use Disorders has been proposed recently. In a sample of Heroin Use Disorder (HUD) patients entering opioid agonist treatment, it became possible to identify a group of 5 mutually exclusive psychiatric dimensions: Worthlessness-Being trapped (W-BT), Somatic Symptoms (SS), Sensitivity-Psychoticism (SP), Panic Anxiety (PA) and Violence-Suicide (VS)...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367150/improving-implementation-of-the-smoking-cessation-guidelines-with-pregnant-women-how-to-support-clinicians
#13
Jo M Longman, Catherine M Adams, Jennifer J Johnston, Megan E Passey
OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to explore the enablers and barriers to implementation of the Australian smoking cessation in pregnancy guidelines. These guidelines direct clinicians to follow the 5As of cessation: Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist and Arrange follow-up. DESIGN: semi-structured interviews based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) elicited clinicians' views and experiences of implementing the guidelines. SETTING: antenatal care in the NSW public health system...
December 26, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357188/can-one-simple-questionnaire-assess-substance-related-and-behavioural-addiction-problems-results-of-a-proposed-new-screener-for-community-epidemiology
#14
Magdalen G Schluter, David C Hodgins, Jody Wolfe, T Cameron Wild
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is currently no well-validated measure that assesses a broad spectrum of substance-related and behavioural addictions in general populations. This study aimed to develop a brief self-attribution Screener for Substance and Behavioural Addictions (SSBA) to screen for 4 substances and 6 behaviours, and to compare its performance with established individual-behaviour screening instruments. DESIGN: A small, psychometrically optimal set of items to assess self-attributed indicators of addiction across alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, gambling, shopping, videogaming, overeating, sexual activity, and over-working were identified from a broader pool that was developed using a lay epidemiology qualitative approach...
January 22, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353763/the-metacognitions-about-gambling-questionnaire-development-and-psychometric-properties
#15
Gabriele Caselli, Bruce Fernie, Flaviano Canfora, Cristina Mascolo, Andrea Ferrari, Maria Antonioni, Lucia Giustina, Gilda Donato, Antonella Marcotriggiani, Andrea Bertani, Antonella Altieri, Eliana Pellegrini, Marcantonio M Spada
Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about gambling. We conducted three studies with one community (n = 165) and two clinical (n = 110; n = 87) samples to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire and examined its capacity to prospectively predict severity of gambling. Findings supported a two factor solution consisting of positive and negative metacognitions about gambling...
January 10, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353290/postmodernity-addictive-societies-cannabis-and-suicidal-behaviour-towards-a-brave-new-world
#16
Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla
Editorial of vol. 30-1.
January 1, 2018: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353054/the-role-of-the-vasopressin-v1a-receptor-in-oxytocin-modulation-of-methamphetamine-primed-reinstatement
#17
Nicholas A Everett, Iain S McGregor, Sarah J Baracz, Jennifer L Cornish
The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise as an effective therapy in pre-clinical models of methamphetamine (METH) addiction. The nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) has been identified as an important site for oxytocin to inhibit METH behaviours, although previous findings suggest that the effects of oxytocin in the NAcc are mediated by receptors other than the oxytocin receptor (OTR). Oxytocin has high affinity for the vasopressin V1A receptor (V1AR) which has been implicated in numerous oxytocin-dependent social behaviours...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352027/the-thalamus-in-drug-addiction-from-rodents-to-humans
#18
REVIEW
Anna S Huang, Jameson A Mitchell, Suzanne N Haber, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
Impairments in response inhibition and salience attribution (iRISA) have been proposed to underlie the clinical symptoms of drug addiction as mediated by cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical networks. The bulk of evidence supporting the iRISA model comes from neuroimaging research that has focused on cortical and striatal influences with less emphasis on the role of the thalamus. Here, we highlight the importance of the thalamus in drug addiction, focusing on animal literature findings on thalamic nuclei in the context of drug-seeking, structural and functional changes of the thalamus as measured by imaging studies in human drug addiction, particularly during drug cue and non-drug reward processing, and response inhibition tasks...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352026/addictive-behaviour-in-experimental-animals-prospects-for-translation
#19
REVIEW
Barry J Everitt, Chiara Giuliano, David Belin
Since the introduction of intravenous drug self-administration methodology over 50 years ago, experimental investigation of addictive behaviour has delivered an enormous body of data on the neural, psychological and molecular mechanisms of drug reward and reinforcement and the neuroadaptations to chronic use. Whether or not these behavioural and molecular studies are viewed as modelling the underpinnings of addiction in humans, the discussion presented here highlights two areas-the impact of drug-associated conditioned stimuli-or drug cues-on drug seeking and relapse, and compulsive cocaine seeking...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352024/neuropharmacology-of-compulsive-eating
#20
REVIEW
Catherine F Moore, Julia I Panciera, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Compulsive eating behaviour is a transdiagnostic construct observed in certain forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as in the proposed construct of 'food addiction'. Compulsive eating can be conceptualized as comprising three elements: (i) habitual overeating, (ii) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state, and (iii) overeating despite adverse consequences. Neurobiological processes that include maladaptive habit formation, the emergence of a negative affect, and dysfunctions in inhibitory control are thought to drive the development and persistence of compulsive eating behaviour...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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