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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813437/a-systematic-review-of-the-relationship-between-internet-use-self-harm-and-suicidal-behaviour-in-young-people-the-good-the-bad-and-the-unknown
#1
Amanda Marchant, Keith Hawton, Ann Stewart, Paul Montgomery, Vinod Singaravelu, Keith Lloyd, Nicola Purdy, Kate Daine, Ann John
BACKGROUND: Research exploring internet use and self-harm is rapidly expanding amidst concerns regarding influences of on-line activities on self-harm and suicide, especially in young people. We aimed to systematically review evidence regarding the potential influence of the internet on self-harm/suicidal behaviour in young people. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review based on an electronic search for articles published between 01/01/2011 and 26/01/2015 across databases including Medline, Cochrane and PsychInfo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806585/relationship-between-craving-and-plasma-leptin-concentrations-in-patients-with-cocaine-addiction
#2
Giovanni Martinotti, Chiara Montemitro, Gaia Baroni, Sara Andreoli, Flaminia Alimonti, Marco Di Nicola, Federico Tonioni, Lorenzo Leggio, Massimo di Giannantonio, Luigi Janiri
BACKGROUND: There is robust evidence indicating an overlap between neurobiological circuitry and pathways that regulate addictions and those that regulate appetite and food intake. Rodent work suggests a role of the appetitive peptide leptin in cocaine-seeking behaviours. The goal of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between plasma leptin concentrations and cocaine craving and use in patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence. METHODS: Patients (N=43) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of cocaine dependence were studied before starting detoxification (baseline; T0) and then again 14days after (T1; only those patients who abstained from cocaine during the study)...
August 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806233/enhancing-key-competencies-of-health-professionals-in-the-assessment-and-care-of-adults-at-risk-of-suicide-through-education-and-technology
#3
Kathryn Ryan, Claudia Tindall, Gillian Strudwick
PURPOSE: This article describes efforts undertaken to improve the clinical competencies of health professionals in the area of suicide risk assessment, documentation, and care planning. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT: Best practices that fit the mental health and addictions setting were identified from the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario Best Practice Guideline on Assessment and Care of Adults at Risk for Suicidal Ideation and Behaviour. A variety of methods were used to implement the guidelines at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto, Ontario, Canada...
September 2017: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805749/food-addiction-binge-eating-disorder-and-obesity-is-there-a-relationship
#4
Tracy Burrows, Janelle Skinner, Rebecca McKenna, Megan Rollo
Existing research suggests that there is an overlap between binge eating disorder (BED) and the construct of 'food addiction' (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the overlapping features of BED and FA through a comparison of the individual scales of commonly used tools including the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults (>18 years of age) were invited to complete an anonymous online survey on FA. Binge eating was assessed through the BES and addictive eating behaviours were assessed through the YFAS (n = 1344)...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805150/diffracting-addicting-binaries-an-analysis-of-personal-accounts-of-alcohol-and-other-drug-addiction
#5
Kiran Pienaar, David Moore, Suzanne Fraser, Renata Kokanovic, Carla Treloar, Ella Dilkes-Frayne
Associated with social and individual harm, loss of control and destructive behaviour, addiction is widely considered to be a major social problem. Most models of addiction, including the influential disease model, rely on the volition/compulsion binary, conceptualising addiction as a disorder of compulsion. In order to interrogate this prevailing view, this article draws on qualitative data from interviews with people who describe themselves as having an alcohol or other drug 'addiction', 'dependence' or 'habit'...
September 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771626/prevalence-of-problematic-cell-phone-use-in-an-adult-population-in-spain-as-assessed-by-the-mobile-phone-problem-use-scale-mppus
#6
José de-Sola, Hernán Talledo, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Gabriel Rubio
Problematic cell phone use has alarmingly increased in industrialized countries in the past 10 years. For many perpetrators, it can turn into a behavioural addiction, although this is not a recognized medical condition. Although there are many tools for evaluating this use, one of the most widely used tools is the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS), which we test on a representative sample of the population in Spain to obtain an estimate of the prevalence of problematic cell phone use in our midst. The age range consists of 16-65 years, with 1,126 surveys conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768888/dynamical-state-transitions-into-addictive-behaviour-and-their-early-warning-signals
#7
Jerome Clifford Foo, Hamid Reza Noori, Ikuhiro Yamaguchi, Valentina Vengeliene, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Toru Nakamura, Kenji Morita, Rainer Spanagel, Yoshiharu Yamamoto
The theory of critical transitions in complex systems (ecosystems, climate, etc.), and especially its ability to predict abrupt changes by early-warning signals based on analysis of fluctuations close to tipping points, is seen as a promising avenue to study disease dynamics. However, the biomedical field still lacks a clear demonstration of this concept. Here, we used a well-established animal model in which initial alcohol exposure followed by deprivation and subsequent reintroduction of alcohol induces excessive alcohol drinking as an example of disease onset...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764275/study-of-association-of-substance-use-disorders-with-family-members-psychological-disorders
#8
Kamal Solati, Ali Hasanpour-Dehkordi
INTRODUCTION: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) represents a serious problem in Iranian community that may lead to psychological disorders in families. AIM: This study was conducted to investigate the association of SUDs with family members' psychological disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample size of the study consisted of 724 people referred to a counseling and psychology clinic in Shahrekord, southwest Iran. For data gathering, random method was adopted...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763626/virtual-morris-task-responses-in-individuals-in-an-abstinence-phase-from-alcohol
#9
Mauro Ceccanti, Giovanna Coriale, Derek Hamilton, Valentina Carito, Roberto Coccurello, Bruna Scalese, Stefania Ciafre', Claudia Codazzo, Marisa Patrizia Messina, George Chaldakov, Marco Fiore
The present study was aimed at examining spatial learning and memory in 33 men and 12 women with alcohol use disorder (AUD) undergoing ethanol detoxification by using a virtual Morris task. As controls, we recruited 29 men and 10 women among episodic drinkers without a history of alcohol addiction and/or alcohol related diseases. Elevated latency to the first movement in all trials was observed only in AUD persons, furthermore, control women had higher latencies compared to control men. Increased time spent to reach the hidden platform in the learning phase was found for women of both groups compared to men, in particular during trial 3...
August 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763183/-the-most-cited-themes-in-the-research-in-the-field-of-mental-health-analyses-of-six-international-nursing-and-medical-journals
#10
Laura Cunico, Susanna Fredo, Massimo Bernini
INTRODUCTION: The review aimed to identify and analyse the future development on the topic by analysing the main themes discussed in number of scientific journal focused on Mental Health both by nurses and physicians.. METHOD: 4 international journals focused on Mental health and psychiatry International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, American Journal of Psychiatry, Australian and New Zeland Journal of Psychiatry as well as two journal focused generically on health, Journal of Advanced Nursing and Lancet were scrutinized...
April 2017: Professioni Infermieristiche
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754407/punishment-of-alcohol-reinforced-responding-in-alcohol-preferring-p-rats-reveals-a-bimodal-population-implications-for-models-of-compulsive-drug-seeking
#11
Nathan J Marchant, Erin J Campbell, Konstantin Kaganovsky
Individual variations in animal behaviour can be used to describe relationships between different constructs, as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms responsible for such variation. In humans, variation in the expression of certain traits contributes to the onset of psychopathologies, such as drug addiction. Addiction is characterised by persistent drug use despite negative consequences, but it occurs in only a sub-population of drug users. Compulsive drug use is modelled in laboratory animals by punishing a drug-reinforced operant response...
July 25, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726252/central-amygdala-relaxin-3-rxfp3-signalling-modulates-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#12
Leigh C Walker, Hanna E Kastman, Elena Krstew, Andrew L Gundlach, Andrew J Lawrence
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alcohol use disorders are a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and stress is a major trigger of relapse. The neuropeptide relaxin-3 and its cognate receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3), modulate stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking in rats and while the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis has been implicated in this regard, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) also receives a relaxin-3 innervation and CeA neurons densely express RXFP3 mRNA...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725870/human-factors-in-cybersecurity-examining-the-link-between-internet-addiction-impulsivity-attitudes-towards-cybersecurity-and-risky-cybersecurity-behaviours
#13
Lee Hadlington
The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a 'risky' cybersecurity behaviours scale...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725287/how-to-recover-from-a-brain-disease-is-addiction-a-disease-or-is-there-a-disease-like-stage-in-addiction
#14
Anke Snoek
People struggling with addiction are neither powerless over their addiction, nor are they fully in control. Lewis vigorously objects to the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), because it makes people lose belief in their self-efficacy, and hence hinders their recovery. Although he acknowledges that there is a compulsive state in addiction, he objects to the claim that this compulsion is carved in stone. Lewis argues that the BDMA underestimates the agency of addicted people, and hence hinder their recovery...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725285/free-will-black-swans-and-addiction
#15
Ted Fenton, Reinout W Wiers
The current dominant perspective on addiction as a brain disease has been challenged recently by Marc Lewis, who argued that the brain-changes related to addiction are similar to everyday changes of the brain. From this alternative perspective, addictions are bad habits that can be broken, provided that people are motivated to change. In that case, autonomous choice or "free will" can overcome bad influences from genes and or environments and brain-changes related to addiction. Even though we concur with Lewis that there are issues with the brain disease perspective, we also argue that pointing to black swans can be important, that is: there can be severe cases where addiction indeed tips over into the category of brain disease, but obviously that does not prove that every case of addiction falls into the disease category, that all swans are black...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725283/q-is-addiction-a-brain-disease-or-a-moral-failing-a-neither
#16
Nick Heather
This article uses Marc Lewis' work as a springboard to discuss the socio-political context of the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA). The claim that promotion of the BDMA is the only way the general public can be persuaded to withhold blame and punishment from addicts is critically examined. After a discussion of public understandings of the disease concept of addiction, it is pointed out that it is possible to develop a scientific account of addiction which is neither a disease nor a moral model but which the public could understand...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721822/opioid-antagonists-for-pharmacological-treatment-of-gambling-disorder-are-they-relevant
#17
Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Andrew Spiers, Pascal Caillet, Mélanie Bruneau, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Marie Grall-Bronnec
Background: To date, no drugs have been approved for gambling disorder. Numerous publications have described the value of opioid antagonists. Indeed, the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway has been suggested as the underlying cause of reward-seeking behaviour, and it is modulated by the opioid system. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the relevance of opioid antagonists for treating GD. Method A systematic literature review was conducted. A search of the PubMed electronic database, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Systematic Review Database without any limits was performed...
July 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714806/loss-of-control-over-the-ethanol-consumption-differential-transcriptional-regulation-in-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Carolina de Paiva Lima, Daniel Almeida da Silva E Silva, Samara Damasceno, Andrea Frozino Ribeiro, Cristiane S Rocha, Alexandre H Berenguer de Matos, Diego Correia, Roseli Boerngen-Lacerda, Ana Lúcia Brunialti Godard
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex multifactorial disease with heritability of ∼50% and corresponds to the state in which the body triggers a reinforcement or reward compulsive behavior due to ethanol consumption, even when faced with negative consequences. Although several studies have shown the impact of high ethanol intake on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) gene expression, few have addressed the relationship between the patterns of gene expression underlying the compulsive behaviour associated with relapsing...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704272/epigenetic-mechanisms-associated-with-addiction-related-behavioural-effects-of-nicotine-and-or-cocaine-implication-of-the-endocannabinoid-system
#19
Tamaki Hayase
The addictive use of nicotine (NC) and cocaine (COC) continues to be a major public health problem, and their combined use has been reported, particularly during adolescence. In neural plasticity, commonly induced by NC and COC, as well as behavioural plasticity related to the use of these two drugs, the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms, in which the reversible regulation of gene expression occurs independently of the DNA sequence, has recently been reported. Furthermore, on the basis of intense interactions with the target neurotransmitter systems, the endocannabinoid (ECB) system has been considered pivotal for eliciting the effects of NC or COC...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701749/calcium-activated-sk-channels-control-firing-regularity-by-modulating-sodium-channel-availability-in-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#20
Rajeshwari Iyer, Mark A Ungless, Aldo A Faisal
Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area regulate behaviours such as reward-related learning, and motor control. Dysfunction of these neurons is implicated in Schizophrenia, addiction to drugs, and Parkinson's disease. While some dopamine neurons fire single spikes at regular intervals, others fire irregular single spikes interspersed with bursts. Pharmacological inhibition of calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels increases the variability in their firing pattern, sometimes also increasing the number of spikes fired in bursts, indicating that SK channels play an important role in maintaining dopamine neuron firing regularity and burst firing...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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