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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239048/drug-and-alcohol-treatment-providers-views-about-the-disease-model-of-addiction-and-its-impact-on-clinical-practice-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Anthony I Barnett, Wayne Hall, Craig L Fry, Ella Dilkes-Frayne, Adrian Carter
ISSUES: Addiction treatment providers' views about the disease model of addiction (DMA), and their contemporary views about the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), remain an understudied area. We systematically reviewed treatment providers' attitudes about the DMA/BDMA, examined factors associated with positive or negative attitudes and assessed their views on the potential clinical impact of both models. APPROACH: Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Sociological Abstracts were systematically searched...
December 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231765/imaging-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-nociceptin-in-addiction-and-ptsd-models
#2
Savannah Tollefson, Michael Himes, Rajesh Narendran
Addiction is composed of three phases: intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Negative reinforcement, strengthening a behaviour by removing an aversive stimulus, has been associated with the withdrawal phase. An imbalance of neurotransmitters within the brain's stress (nociceptin, neuropeptide Y) and anti-stress (CRF, norepinephrine, etc.) system is attributed to negatively reinforced compulsive behaviours associated with relapse. Similarly, post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by an overactive stress system...
December 12, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223761/chemsex-risk-behaviours-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-dublin-ireland
#3
Ronan W Glynn, Niamh Byrne, Siobhan O'Dea, Adam Shanley, Mary Codd, Eamon Keenan, Mary Ward, Derval Igoe, Susan Clarke
BACKGROUND: Drug use for or during sex ('chemsex') among MSM has caused concern, because of the direct effects of the drugs themselves, and because of an increased risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of chemsex, associated behaviours and STIs among attendees at Ireland's only MSM-specific sexual health clinic in Dublin over a six week period in 2016. METHODS: The questionnaire collected demographic data, information on sexuality and sexual practice, self-reported history of treatment for STIs, and chemsex use...
December 7, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206483/positron-emission-tomography-in-parkinson-s-disease-insights-into-impulsivity
#4
Adam J Stark, Daniel O Claassen
This study reviews previous studies that employ positron emission tomography (PET) imaging assessments in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with and without Impulsive Compulsive Behaviours (ICB). This begins with a summary of the potential benefits and limitations of commonly utilized ligands, specifically D2/3 receptor and dopamine transporter ligands. Since previous findings emphasize the role of the ventral striatum in the manifestation of ICBs, this study attempts to relate these imaging findings to changes in behaviour, especially emphasizing work performed in substance abuse and addiction...
December 5, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197982/dissociation-of-place-preference-and-tolerance-responses-to-sucrose-using-a-dopamine-antagonist-in-the-planarian
#5
Rafat A Mohammed Jawad, Claire V Hutchinson, Jose Prados
In rodents, sucrose has been found to elicit addictive-like behaviours like the development of tolerance and the association with cues present at the time of consumption. Furthermore, the neurochemical response to sucrose binges is equivalent to the one observed in response to the abuse of addictive substances like cocaine. The experiments reported here address the effects of sucrose on an invertebrate model, the Platyhelminth brown planarian. The animals exposed to a 10% sucrose solution in one context developed a conditioned place preference (CPP) which was subsequently extinguished in the absence of the rewarding agent...
December 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191579/prenatal-stress-increases-adult-vulnerability-to-cocaine-reward-without-affecting-pubertal-anxiety-or-novelty-response
#6
Verónica Pastor, María Eugenia Pallarés, Marta C Antonelli
Prenatal stress (PS) induces long-lasting molecular alterations in brain circuits of the offspring and increases the propensity to develop neuropsychiatric diseases during adulthood, including mood disorders and drug addiction. A major goal of this study was to assess the impact of PS on pubertal behaviour and adult vulnerability to cocaine-induced conditioning place preference (CPP). We therefore evaluated pubertal novelty response and anxiety-like behaviour in control (C) and PS rats, and then, we examined cocaine-induced CPP in those animals during adulthood...
November 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188821/response-to-how-much-does-the-addiction-like-eating-behaviour-scale-add-to-the-debate-regarding-food-versus-eating-addictions
#7
H K Ruddock, P Christiansen, J C G Halford, C A Hardman
International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 30 November 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.291.
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182956/unintentional-mortality-associated-with-paracetamol-and-codeine-preparations-with-and-without-doxylamine-in-australia
#8
Ria E Hopkins, Malcolm Dobbin, Jennifer L Pilgrim
INTRODUCTION: Misuse of paracetamol, codeine and doxylamine combination analgesics may lead to addiction and mortality. This study aimed to (1) identify unintentional deaths in Australia associated with use of combination analgesic products containing paracetamol, codeine and doxylamine; (2) describe cases characteristics, including demographics and additional medication use; and (3) identify common factors associated with misuse and mortality of these medicines in Australia. DESIGN: This retrospective case series analysed National Coronial Information System data to identify cases of unintentional death attributable to paracetamol, codeine and doxylamine products between 2002 and 2012...
November 23, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166482/abortion-and-sex-related-conditions-in-substance-dependent-brazilian-patients
#9
Alessandra Diehl, Sandra Cristina Pillon, Manoel Antonio Dos Santos, Ronaldo Laranjeira
Abortion is a very sensitive issue with relevance to public health; however few clinical or population-based studies have examined induced abortion among drug users. The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of induced abortion and sex-related conditions in an inpatient drug user sample. A cross-sectional design study was conducted in an inpatient addiction treatment unit in São Paulo, Brazil, with a sample of 616 patients, aged 18-75. Sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, and dependence severity were evaluated in relation to induced abortion...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159862/mass-media-interventions-for-smoking-cessation-in-adults
#10
REVIEW
Malgorzata M Bala, Lukasz Strzeszynski, Roman Topor-Madry
BACKGROUND: Mass media tobacco control campaigns can reach large numbers of people. Much of the literature is focused on the effects of tobacco control advertising on young people, but there are also a number of evaluations of campaigns targeting adult smokers, which show mixed results. Campaigns may be local, regional or national, and may be combined with other components of a comprehensive tobacco control policy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of mass media interventions in reducing smoking among adults...
November 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153928/enhancing-excitability-of-dopamine-neurons-promotes-motivational-behaviour-through-increased-action-initiation
#11
Linde Boekhoudt, Ellen C Wijbrans, Jodie H K Man, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Johannes W de Jong, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Roger A H Adan
Motivational deficits are a key symptom in multiple psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, schizophrenia and addiction. A likely neural substrate for these motivational deficits is the brain dopamine (DA) system. In particular, DA signalling in the nucleus accumbens, which originates from DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been identified as a crucial substrate for effort-related and activational aspects of motivation. Unravelling how VTA DA neuronal activity relates to motivational behaviours is required to understand how motivational deficits in psychiatry can be specifically targeted...
November 16, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148565/tobacco-cessation-interventions-for-young-people
#12
REVIEW
Thomas R Fanshawe, William Halliwell, Nicola Lindson, Paul Aveyard, Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Most tobacco control programmes for adolescents are based around prevention of uptake, but teenage smoking is still common. It is unclear if interventions that are effective for adults can also help adolescents to quit. This is the update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of strategies that help young people to stop smoking tobacco. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register in June 2017...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146657/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-sleeve-device-endobarrier-compared-with-standard-medical-therapy-for-the-management-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Michael Alan Glaysher, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Christina Gabriele Prechtl, Anthony P Goldstone, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Joanne Lord, Navpreet Chhina, Emanuela Falaschetti, Nicholas Andrew Johnson, Werd Al-Najim, Claire Smith, Jia V Li, Mayank Patel, Ahmed R Ahmed, Michael Moore, Neil Poulter, Stephen Bloom, Ara Darzi, Carel Le Roux, James P Byrne, Julian P Teare
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is increasing. Exclusion of the foregut, as occurs in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has a key role in the metabolic improvements that occur following bariatric surgery, which are independent of weight loss. Endoscopically placed duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve devices, such as the EndoBarrier (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA), have been designed to create an impermeable barrier between chyme exiting the stomach and the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142296/the-dopamine-motive-system-implications-for-drug-and-food-addiction
#14
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Roy A Wise, Ruben Baler
Behaviours such as eating, copulating, defending oneself or taking addictive drugs begin with a motivation to initiate the behaviour. Both this motivational drive and the behaviours that follow are influenced by past and present experience with the reinforcing stimuli (such as drugs or energy-rich foods) that increase the likelihood and/or strength of the behavioural response (such as drug taking or overeating). At a cellular and circuit level, motivational drive is dependent on the concentration of extrasynaptic dopamine present in specific brain areas such as the striatum...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139190/a-man-before-his-time-russell-s-insights-into-nicotine-smoking-treatment-and-curbing-the-smoking-problem
#15
Ann McNeill, Debbie Robson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This narrative review aimed to provide a brief overview of five key research 'classics' produced by the innovative and radical thought leader, Professor Michael Anthony Hamilton Russell (1932-2009), drawing upon his other work wherever feasible. METHODS: Narrative review. From more than 250 publications, we selected papers we considered seminal texts, published in 1971, 1976, 1978, 1979 and 1991. RESULTS: Russell was among the first researchers to explain that smoking was a dependence disorder caused by the drug nicotine decades before this was recognized formally...
November 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128108/rebalancing-the-addicted-brain-oxytocin-interference-with-the-neural-substrates-of-addiction
#16
REVIEW
Michael T Bowen, Inga D Neumann
Drugs that act on the brain oxytocin (OXT) system may provide a much-needed treatment breakthrough for substance-use disorders. Targeting the brain OXT system has the potential to treat addiction to all major classes of addictive substance and to intervene across all stages of the addiction cycle. Emerging evidence suggests that OXT is able to interfere with such a wide range of addictive behaviours for such a wide range of addictive substances by rebalancing core neural systems that become dysregulated over the course of addiction...
December 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126149/-they-re-thinking-well-it-s-not-as-bad-i-probably-won-t-get-addicted-to-that-but-it-s-still-got-the-nicotine-in-it-so%C3%A2-maturity-control-and-socialising-negotiating-identities-in-relation-to-smoking-and-vaping-a-qualitative-study-of-young-adults-in-scotland
#17
Mark Lucherini, Catriona Rooke, Amanda Amos
Objective: To explore the understandings of and engagement with e-cigarettes, of young adults from disadvantaged backgrounds, and how these may be impacting upon existing smoking identities. Methods: Twenty-two small group and 11 individual qualitative interviews conducted in Central Scotland with 72 16-24 year olds between September 2015 and April 2016. Participants were mostly smokers and ex-smokers from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Results: While most participants had tried e-cigarettes, they generally held ambivalent views about e-cigarettes and vaping...
November 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081507/how-much-does-the-addiction-like-eating-behaviour-scale-add-to-the-debate-regarding-food-versus-eating-addictions
#18
E M Schulte, M N Potenza, A N Gearhardt
International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 30 October 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.265.
October 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081007/interplay-of-prefrontal-cortex-and-amygdala-during-extinction-of-drug-seeking
#19
Valeria Oliva, Emilio Cartoni, Emanuele Claudio Latagliata, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Gianluca Baldassarre
Extinction of Pavlovian conditioning is a complex process that involves brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the amygdala and the locus coeruleus. In particular, noradrenaline (NA) coming from the locus coeruleus has been recently shown to play a different role in two subregions of the mPFC, the prelimbic (PL) and the infralimbic (IL) regions. How these regions interact in conditioning and subsequent extinction is an open issue. We studied these processes using two approaches: computational modelling and NA manipulation in a conditioned place preference paradigm (CPP) in mice...
October 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077140/-deep-brain-stimulation-in-psychiatry
#20
M Figee, C Bervoets, D Denys
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is now used regularly to treat therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorders, and is being applied experimentally for refractory depression, Tourette syndrome, addiction, eating disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, autism and schizophrenia. AIM: To review the effects and mechanisms of dbs and to consider the future opportunities for this type of treatment in psychiatry. METHOD: We reviewed the literature using PubMed...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
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