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Pu-erh

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792381/effects-of-tea-extracts-on-the-colonization-behaviour-of-candida-species-attachment-inhibition-and-biofilm-enhancement
#1
Yi Wang, H M H N Bandara, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Lakshman P Samaranayake
PURPOSE: We assessed the effects of four different types of tea extracts (green, oolong, black and pu-erh tea) on cellular surface properties (hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation) and the colonization attributes (attachment and biofilm formation) of four strains of Candida albicans and three strains of Candida krusei. METHODOLOGY: The cellular surface properties were determined using spectrophotometry. The colonization activities were quantified using colorimetric viability assays and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620304/pu-erh-tea-extract-ameliorates-ovariectomy-induced-osteoporosis-in-rats-and-suppresses-osteoclastogenesis-in-vitro
#2
Titi Liu, Shihua Ding, Dan Yin, Xiangdan Cuan, Chuanqi Xie, Huanhuan Xu, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
Background and Objective: Tea drinking is associated with positive effects on bone health and may protect against osteoporosis, especially in elderly women. Pu-erh tea has many beneficial effects on human health; however, whether Pu-erh tea has anti-osteoporotic potential remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the effects of Pu-erh tea extract (PTE) on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats and on osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: the sham, model, and Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao capsule (XLGB) groups, and the low-, medium-, and high-dose PTE groups...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540171/flavanols-from-the-camellia-sinensis-var-assamica-and-their-hypoglycemic-and-hypolipidemic-activities
#3
Xin Wang, Quan Liu, Hongbo Zhu, Hongqing Wang, Jie Kang, Zhufang Shen, Ruoyun Chen
α-Glucosidase and lipase inhibitors play important roles in the treatment of hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia. To identify novel naturally occurring inhibitors, a bioactivity-guided phytochemical research was performed on the pu-erh tea. One new flavanol, named (-)-epicatechin-3-O-(Z)-coumarate (1), and 16 known analogs (2-17) were isolated from the aqueous extract of the pu-erh tea. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Furthermore, the water extract of pu-erh tea and its fractions exhibited inhibitory activities against α-glucosidases and lipases in vitro; compound 15 showed moderate inhibitory effect against sucrase with an IC50 value of 32...
May 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428754/pu-erh-tea-water-extract-mediates-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-in-mda-mb-231-human-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Jing Xie, Haishuang Yu, Shuang Song, Chongye Fang, Xuanjun Wang, Zhongbin Bai, Xiao Ma, Shumei Hao, Hong-Ye Zhao, Jun Sheng
Pu-erh tea is believed to have health benefits, the growth inhibition activity of Pu-erh tea on breast cancer cell has not been investigated. In this study, we examined the activity of Pu-erh tea water extract on apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 and clarified its underlying mechanism of action. We found that Pu-erh tea extract inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that Pu-erh tea extract inhibited tumor cell growth within 24 h via accumulation of cells in S phase...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410522/development-of-matrix-effect-free-mispe-uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-determination-of-lovastatin-in-pu-erh-tea-oyster-mushroom-and-red-yeast-rice
#5
Pavel Svoboda, Daniel Sander, Kateřina Plachká, Lucie Nováková
Matrix effect-free UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of cholesterol-lowering lovastatin in food samples represented by Pu-erh tea, oyster mushroom, and red yeast rice. The resulting method was fully validated in terms of intra-day and inter-day precision, accuracy, linearity, range, LOD, LOQ, and matrix effects. The matrix effect phenomenon evaluated by comparison of slopes of calibration curves was completely eliminated by solid-phase extraction based on the technique of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399674/optimization-and-validation-of-folin-ciocalteu-method-for-the-determination-of-total-polyphenol-content-of-pu-erh-tea
#6
Marilena Musci, Shicong Yao
Pu-erh tea is a post-fermented tea that has recently gained popularity worldwide, due to potential health benefits related to the antioxidant activity resulting from its high polyphenolic content. The Folin-Ciocalteu method is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive assay widely applied for the determination of total polyphenol content. Over the past years, it has been subjected to many modifications, often without any systematic optimization or validation. In our study, we sought to optimize the Folin-Ciocalteu method, evaluate quality parameters including linearity, precision and stability, and then apply the optimized model to determine the total polyphenol content of 57 Chinese teas, including green tea, aged and ripened Pu-erh tea...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164196/preventive-effect-of-silibinin-in-combination-with-pu-erh-tea-extract-on-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-ob-ob-mice
#7
Wen-Yi Hu, Xiao-Hui Ma, Wang-Yi Zhou, Xin-Xin Li, Ting-Ting Sun, He Sun
There are presently no miracle drugs for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study investigates the synergistic effect of Silibinin combined with Pu-erh tea extract (PTE) against NAFLD and explores the suggested mechanism of action. Ob/ob mice were fed a high fat diet along with the oral administration of Silibinin (86 mg per kg per day), PTE (250 mg per kg per day) or their combination for 6 weeks. Their lean littermates who were fed with standard chow diet were used as the control group. The blood biochemical index and histopathological evaluation were analyzed...
March 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154484/analysis-of-the-mat1-1-and-mat1-2-gene-ratio-in-black-koji-molds-isolated-from-meju
#8
Anbazhagan Mageswari, Jeong-Seon Kim, Kyu-Ho Cheon, Soon-Wo Kwon, Osamu Yamada, Seung-Beom Hong
Aspergillus luchuensis is known as an industrially important fungal species used for making fermented foods such as awamori and shochu in Japan, makgeolli and Meju in Korea, and Pu-erh tea in China. Nonetheless, this species has not yet been widely studied regarding mating-type genes. In this study, we examined the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 gene ratio in black koji molds (A. luchuensis, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus tubingensis) and in Aspergillus welwitschiae isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea...
December 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763516/transcriptome-profile-reveals-that-pu-erh-tea-represses-the-expression-of-vitellogenin-family-to-reduce-fat-accumulation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Ru-Yue Xiao, Junjun Hao, Yi-Hong Ding, Yan-Yun Che, Xiao-Ju Zou, Bin Liang
Due to misbalanced energy surplus and expenditure, obesity has become a common chronic disorder that is highly associated with many metabolic diseases. Pu-erh tea, a traditional Chinese beverage, has been believed to have numerous health benefits, such as anti-obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms of its anti-obesity effect are yet to be understood. Here, we take the advantages of transcriptional profile by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to view the global gene expression of Pu-erh tea. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was treated with different concentrations of Pu-erh tea water extract (PTE, 0 g/mL, 0...
October 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754346/gallic-acid-content-in-taiwanese-teas-at-different-degrees-of-fermentation-and-its-antioxidant-activity-by-inhibiting-pkc%C3%AE-activation-in-vitro-and-in-silico-studies
#10
Teeradate Kongpichitchoke, Ming-Tzu Chiu, Tzou-Chi Huang, Jue-Liang Hsu
Teas can be classified according to their degree of fermentation, which has been reported to affect both the bioactive components in the teas and their antioxidative activity. In this study, four kinds of commercial Taiwanese tea at different degrees of fermentation, which include green (non-fermented), oolong (semi-fermented), black (fully fermented), and Pu-erh (post-fermented) tea, were profiled for catechin levels by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The result indicated that the gallic acid content in tea was directly proportional to the degree of fermentation in which the lowest and highest gallic acid content were 1...
October 12, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578019/pu-erh-tea-protects-the-nervous-system-by-inhibiting-the-expression-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5
#11
Chunjie Li, Shaomeng Chai, Yongzhi Ju, Lu Hou, Hang Zhao, Wei Ma, Tian Li, Jun Sheng, Wei Shi
Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitters of the CNS and is essential for numerous key neuronal functions. However, excess glutamate causes massive neuronal death and brain damage owing to excitotoxicity via the glutamate receptors. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is one of the glutamate receptors and represents a promising target for studying neuroprotective agents of potential application in neurodegenerative diseases. Pu-erh tea, a fermented tea, mainly produced in Yunnan province, China, has beneficial effects, including the accommodation of the CNS...
September 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373646/theagalloflavic-acid-a-new-pigment-derived-from-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-group-and-lignan-oxidation-products-produced-by-aerobic-microbial-fermentation-of-green-tea
#12
Yosuke Matsuo, Tomoko Matsuda, Keisuke Sugihara, Yoshinori Saito, Ying-Jun Zhang, Chong-Ren Yang, Takashi Tanaka
Chinese ripe pu-erh tea is produced by aerobic microbial fermentation of green tea. To clarify the microbial degradation of tea polyphenols, Japanese commercial green tea was mixed with Chinese ripe pu-erh tea, which retains microorganisms, and fermented for 5 d. Chromatographic separation yielded a novel water-soluble yellow pigment termed theagalloflavic acid. Spectroscopic and chemical evidence suggested that this pigment was produced by oxidative ring cleavage of hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters. In addition, two new oxygenated lignin metabolites, (+)-5,5'-dihydroxypinoresinol and 5-hydroxydihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, were also isolated together with known degradation products of quercetin and tea catechins...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337135/the-microbiome-and-metabolites-in-fermented-pu-erh-tea-as-revealed-by-high-throughput-sequencing-and-quantitative-multiplex-metabolite-analysis
#13
Yongjie Zhang, Ida Skaar, Michael Sulyok, Xingzhong Liu, Mingyong Rao, John W Taylor
Pu-erh is a tea produced in Yunnan, China by microbial fermentation of fresh Camellia sinensis leaves by two processes, the traditional raw fermentation and the faster, ripened fermentation. We characterized fungal and bacterial communities in leaves and both Pu-erhs by high-throughput, rDNA-amplicon sequencing and we characterized the profile of bioactive extrolite mycotoxins in Pu-erh teas by quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 390 fungal and 629 bacterial OTUs from leaves and both Pu-erhs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318175/production-of-theabrownins-using-a-crude-fungal-enzyme-concentrate
#14
Qiuping Wang, Jiashun Gong, Yusuf Chisti, Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul
Theabrownins were produced from infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves using a crude enzyme concentrate of Aspergillus tubingensis TISTR 3647. This fungus had been isolated from a solid state fermentation of Pu-erh type tea. The crude enzyme concentrate contained activities of peroxidase, catechol oxidase and laccase. The enzyme concentrate effectively oxidized the phenolic compounds in green tea infusion to theabrownins. A theabrownins concentration of 56.0g/L was obtained in 44h. The reaction mixture contained the green tea infusion and crude enzyme concentrate in the volume ratio of 1: 0...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247873/oolong-tea-made-from-tea-plants-from-different-locations-in-yunnan-and-fujian-china-showed-similar-aroma-but-different-taste-characteristics
#15
Chen Wang, Shidong Lv, Yuanshuang Wu, Xuemei Gao, Jiangbing Li, Wenrui Zhang, Qingxiong Meng
Consistent aroma characteristics are important for tea products. However, understanding the formation of tea aroma flavor and correspondingly proposing applicable protocols to control tea quality and consistency remain major challenges. Oolong tea is one of the most popular teas with a distinct flavor. Generally, oolong tea is processed with the leaves of tea trees belonging to different subspecies and grown in significantly different regions. In this study, Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas, green tea, black tea, and Pu-erh tea were collected from major tea estates across China...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27046629/characterization-of-thermophilic-fungal-community-associated-with-pile-fermentation-of-pu-erh-tea
#16
Wei Zhang, Ruijuan Yang, Wenjun Fang, Liang Yan, Jun Lu, Jun Sheng, Jie Lv
This study aimed to characterize the thermophilic fungi in pile-fermentation process of Pu-erh tea. Physicochemical analyses showed that the high temperature and low pH provided optimal conditions for propagation of fungi. A number of fungi, including Blastobotrys adeninivorans, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Rasamsonia emersonii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rasamsonia byssochlamydoides, Rasamsonia cylindrospora, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus niger, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium graminearum were isolated as thermophilic fungi under combination of high temperature and acid culture conditions from Pu-erh tea pile-fermentation...
June 16, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038620/analytical-assessment-of-bio-and-toxic-elements-distribution-in-pu-erh-and-fruit-teas-in-view-of-chemometric-approach
#17
Justyna Brzezicha-Cirocka, Małgorzata Grembecka, Piotr Szefer
This study concerns application of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) in assessment of macro- and microelement and toxic metal levels (Mg, Ca, K, Na, Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, Cd and Pb) in dark (Pu-erh) and fruit tea leaves and their infusions. Phosphorus was also determined in the form of phosphomolybdate by spectrophotometric method. The reliability of the method was checked using three certified reference materials. The results of analysis were in agreement with the certified values, with analytical recovery ranging from 86 to 113 %...
November 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019564/theanine-and-caffeine-content-of-infusions-prepared-from-commercial-tea-samples
#18
Klára Boros, Nikoletta Jedlinszki, Dezső Csupor
BACKGROUND: Caffeine and L-theanine are pharmacologically important constituents of tea, especially due to their effects on the central nervous system. The effects of these two compounds are opposite: While caffeine is a well-known stimulant, theanine has a relaxing effect. Tea processing may influence the caffeine and theanine content of tea leaves. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our work was to quantify these constituents from a set of commercial products to reveal the possible correlations of caffeine and theanine content and processing methods...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006902/investigation-of-free-amino-acid-total-phenolics-antioxidant-activity-and-purine-alkaloids-to-assess-the-health-properties-of-non-camellia-tea
#19
Wu Bi, Chunnian He, Yunyun Ma, Jie Shen, Linghua Harris Zhang, Yong Peng, Peigen Xiao
To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62-18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16...
March 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001463/pu-erh-tea-extract-attenuates-nicotine-induced-foam-cell-formation-in-primary-cultured-monocytes-an-in-vitro-mechanistic-study
#20
Shih-Hsin Tu, Ming-Yao Chen, Li-Ching Chen, Yi-Ting Mao, Chi-Hou Ho, Wen-Jui Lee, Yen-Kuang Lin, Min-Hsiung Pan, Chih-Yu Lo, Chi-Long Chen, Yun Yen, Jacqueline Whang-Peng, Chi-Tang Ho, Chih-Hsiung Wu, Yuan-Soon Ho
In this study, the mechanisms by which pu-erh tea extract (PETE) attenuates nicotine-induced foam cell formation were investigated. Monocytes were purified from healthy individuals using commercial antibodies coated with magnetic beads. We found that the nicotine-induced (1-10 μM) expression of oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptors (ox-LDLRs) and α9-nAchRs in monocytes was significantly attenuated by 24 h of PETE (10 μg/mL; ∗, p < 0.05) cotreatment. Nicotine (1 μM for 24 h) significantly induced the expression of the surface adhesion molecule ICAM-1 and the monocyte integrin adhesion molecule (CD11b) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and triggered monocytes to differentiate into macrophages via interactions with the endothelium...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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