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Ru-Yue Xiao, Junjun Hao, Yi-Hong Ding, Yan-Yun Che, Xiao-Ju Zou, Bin Liang
Due to misbalanced energy surplus and expenditure, obesity has become a common chronic disorder that is highly associated with many metabolic diseases. Pu-erh tea, a traditional Chinese beverage, has been believed to have numerous health benefits, such as anti-obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms of its anti-obesity effect are yet to be understood. Here, we take the advantages of transcriptional profile by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to view the global gene expression of Pu-erh tea. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was treated with different concentrations of Pu-erh tea water extract (PTE, 0 g/mL, 0...
October 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Teeradate Kongpichitchoke, Ming-Tzu Chiu, Tzou-Chi Huang, Jue-Liang Hsu
Teas can be classified according to their degree of fermentation, which has been reported to affect both the bioactive components in the teas and their antioxidative activity. In this study, four kinds of commercial Taiwanese tea at different degrees of fermentation, which include green (non-fermented), oolong (semi-fermented), black (fully fermented), and Pu-erh (post-fermented) tea, were profiled for catechin levels by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The result indicated that the gallic acid content in tea was directly proportional to the degree of fermentation in which the lowest and highest gallic acid content were 1...
October 12, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chunjie Li, Shaomeng Chai, Yongzhi Ju, Lu Hou, Hang Zhao, Wei Ma, Tian Li, Jun Sheng, Wei Shi
Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitters of the CNS and is essential for numerous key neuronal functions. However, excess glutamate causes massive neuronal death and brain damage owing to excitotoxicity via the glutamate receptors. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is one of the glutamate receptors and represents a promising target for studying neuroprotective agents of potential application in neurodegenerative diseases. Pu-erh tea, a fermented tea, mainly produced in Yunnan province, China, has beneficial effects, including the accommodation of the CNS...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Yosuke Matsuo, Tomoko Matsuda, Keisuke Sugihara, Yoshinori Saito, Ying-Jun Zhang, Chong-Ren Yang, Takashi Tanaka
Chinese ripe pu-erh tea is produced by aerobic microbial fermentation of green tea. To clarify the microbial degradation of tea polyphenols, Japanese commercial green tea was mixed with Chinese ripe pu-erh tea, which retains microorganisms, and fermented for 5 d. Chromatographic separation yielded a novel water-soluble yellow pigment termed theagalloflavic acid. Spectroscopic and chemical evidence suggested that this pigment was produced by oxidative ring cleavage of hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters. In addition, two new oxygenated lignin metabolites, (+)-5,5'-dihydroxypinoresinol and 5-hydroxydihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, were also isolated together with known degradation products of quercetin and tea catechins...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Yongjie Zhang, Ida Skaar, Michael Sulyok, Xingzhong Liu, Mingyong Rao, John W Taylor
Pu-erh is a tea produced in Yunnan, China by microbial fermentation of fresh Camellia sinensis leaves by two processes, the traditional raw fermentation and the faster, ripened fermentation. We characterized fungal and bacterial communities in leaves and both Pu-erhs by high-throughput, rDNA-amplicon sequencing and we characterized the profile of bioactive extrolite mycotoxins in Pu-erh teas by quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 390 fungal and 629 bacterial OTUs from leaves and both Pu-erhs...
2016: PloS One
Qiuping Wang, Jiashun Gong, Yusuf Chisti, Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul
Theabrownins were produced from infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves using a crude enzyme concentrate of Aspergillus tubingensis TISTR 3647. This fungus had been isolated from a solid state fermentation of Pu-erh type tea. The crude enzyme concentrate contained activities of peroxidase, catechol oxidase and laccase. The enzyme concentrate effectively oxidized the phenolic compounds in green tea infusion to theabrownins. A theabrownins concentration of 56.0g/L was obtained in 44h. The reaction mixture contained the green tea infusion and crude enzyme concentrate in the volume ratio of 1: 0...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Chen Wang, Shidong Lv, Yuanshuang Wu, Xuemei Gao, Jiangbing Li, Wenrui Zhang, Qingxiong Meng
Consistent aroma characteristics are important for tea products. However, understanding the formation of tea aroma flavor and correspondingly proposing applicable protocols to control tea quality and consistency remain major challenges. Oolong tea is one of the most popular teas with a distinct flavor. Generally, oolong tea is processed with the leaves of tea trees belonging to different subspecies and grown in significantly different regions. In this study, Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas, green tea, black tea, and Pu-erh tea were collected from major tea estates across China...
2016: SpringerPlus
Wei Zhang, Ruijuan Yang, Wenjun Fang, Liang Yan, Jun Lu, Jun Sheng, Jie Lv
This study aimed to characterize the thermophilic fungi in pile-fermentation process of Pu-erh tea. Physicochemical analyses showed that the high temperature and low pH provided optimal conditions for propagation of fungi. A number of fungi, including Blastobotrys adeninivorans, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Rasamsonia emersonii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rasamsonia byssochlamydoides, Rasamsonia cylindrospora, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus niger, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium graminearum were isolated as thermophilic fungi under combination of high temperature and acid culture conditions from Pu-erh tea pile-fermentation...
June 16, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Justyna Brzezicha-Cirocka, Małgorzata Grembecka, Piotr Szefer
This study concerns application of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) in assessment of macro- and microelement and toxic metal levels (Mg, Ca, K, Na, Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, Cd and Pb) in dark (Pu-erh) and fruit tea leaves and their infusions. Phosphorus was also determined in the form of phosphomolybdate by spectrophotometric method. The reliability of the method was checked using three certified reference materials. The results of analysis were in agreement with the certified values, with analytical recovery ranging from 86 to 113 %...
April 2, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Klára Boros, Nikoletta Jedlinszki, Dezső Csupor
BACKGROUND: Caffeine and L-theanine are pharmacologically important constituents of tea, especially due to their effects on the central nervous system. The effects of these two compounds are opposite: While caffeine is a well-known stimulant, theanine has a relaxing effect. Tea processing may influence the caffeine and theanine content of tea leaves. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our work was to quantify these constituents from a set of commercial products to reveal the possible correlations of caffeine and theanine content and processing methods...
January 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Wu Bi, Chunnian He, Yunyun Ma, Jie Shen, Linghua Harris Zhang, Yong Peng, Peigen Xiao
To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62-18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16...
March 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Shih-Hsin Tu, Ming-Yao Chen, Li-Ching Chen, Yi-Ting Mao, Chi-Hou Ho, Wen-Jui Lee, Yen-Kuang Lin, Min-Hsiung Pan, Chih-Yu Lo, Chi-Long Chen, Yun Yen, Jacqueline Whang-Peng, Chi-Tang Ho, Chih-Hsiung Wu, Yuan-Soon Ho
In this study, the mechanisms by which pu-erh tea extract (PETE) attenuates nicotine-induced foam cell formation were investigated. Monocytes were purified from healthy individuals using commercial antibodies coated with magnetic beads. We found that the nicotine-induced (1-10 μM) expression of oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptors (ox-LDLRs) and α9-nAchRs in monocytes was significantly attenuated by 24 h of PETE (10 μg/mL; ∗, p < 0.05) cotreatment. Nicotine (1 μM for 24 h) significantly induced the expression of the surface adhesion molecule ICAM-1 and the monocyte integrin adhesion molecule (CD11b) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and triggered monocytes to differentiate into macrophages via interactions with the endothelium...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yuanshuang Wu, Shidong Lv, Chen Wang, Xuemei Gao, Jiangbing Li, Qingxiong Meng
BACKGROUND: Modern instrumental analysis technology can provide various chemical data and information on tea samples. Unfortunately, it remains difficult to extract the useful information. We describe the use of chemical fingerprint similarities, combined with principal component and cluster analyses, to distinguish and recognize Pu-erh green teas, which from two tea mountains, Wuliang and Jingmai, in the Pu-erh district of Yunnan province. The volatile components of all 20 Pu-erh green teas (10 Wuliang and 10 Jingmai teas) were extracted and identified by headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
2016: Chemistry Central Journal
Xianbin Cai, Chongye Fang, Shuhei Hayashi, Shumei Hao, Mingming Zhao, Hiroko Tsutsui, Shuhei Nishiguchi, Jun Sheng
BACKGROUND: Pu-erh tea, made from the leaves of Camellia sinensis, possesses activities beneficial for human health, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-obesity properties. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of a pu-erh tea extract (PTE) on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects. METHODS: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 17 weeks, during which PTE was simultaneously administered in drinking water...
August 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Jian Liu, Chun-Xiu Peng, Bin Gao, Jia-Shun Gong
BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the effects of Pu-erh theabrownin (TB) (Mw  > 50 kDa) on the metabolism of rat serum by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics and identify candidate marker metabolites associated with Pu-erh TB, and thus provide fundamental information for a better understanding of the metabolism of Pu-erh tea in animals. RESULTS: TB infusion induced different changes in endogenous serum metabolites depending on the type of diet...
August 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yuchen Zhu, Yinghua Luo, Pengpu Wang, Mengyao Zhao, Lei Li, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
Pu-erh ripened tea is produced through a unique microbial fermentation process from the sun-dried leaves of large-leaf tea species (Camellia sinensis (Linn.) var. assamica (Masters) Kitamura) in Yunnan province of China. In this study, the changes of amino acid profiles during fermentation of Pu-erh tea were investigated, based on the improved HPLC-UV method with PITC pre-column derivatization for the simultaneous determination of twenty free amino acids. Results showed that aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, alanine, theanine and tyrosine were the major amino acids in tea samples...
March 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Kenji Yamamoto, Miki Hayashi, Yuka Murakami, Yoko Araki, Yuuki Otsuka, Takehiro Kashiwagi, Tomoko Shimamura, Hiroyuki Ukeda
2,5-Diketopiperazines (DKPs), also called cyclic dipeptides, have been known to occur in various foods. Recently, DKPs have attracted attentions as bioactive components. There were some reports on analytical methods for DKPs, but the number of analyzed DKPs was only a part of all DKPs and the quantitative performance was not studied in detail. In this study, we selected 31 kinds of DKPs and developed a quantitative and simultaneous analytical method using LC-MS/MS. This method was applied to DKPs determination in Pu-erh tea, post-fermentation tea, and 18 kinds of DKPs were determined at concentration of 0...
2015: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Laura Braud, Ludovic Peyre, Georges de Sousa, Martine Armand, Roger Rahmani, Jean-Michel Maixent
Tea is an interesting source of antioxidants capable of counteracting the oxidative stress implicated in liver diseases. We investigated the impact of antioxidant molecules provided by a mixture of teas' leaves (green, oolong, pu-erh) after different infusion durations in the prevention of oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes, by comparison with pure epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main representative of tea catechins. Dried aqueous tea extracts (ATE) obtained after 5, 15 and 30 min infusion time were characterized for total polyphenols (gallic acid equivalent), catechins, gallic acid and caffeine (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) contents, and for scavenging ability against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Liang Zeng, Jingna Yan, Liyong Luo, Dongying Zhang
Disorders of blood lipid metabolism are the primary risk factors for many diseases. Recently, the effect of Pu-erh tea on blood lipid metabolism has received increasing attention. However, the mechanism underlying its ability to regulate blood lipid metabolism is unclear. We set out to study this through assessing the effects of Pu-erh tea aqueous extract (PTAE) on the central enzymes of blood lipid metabolism, including lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and pancreatic lipase (PL)...
June 2015: Food & Function
Ming Zhao, Dong-Lian Zhang, Xiao-Qin Su, Shuang-Mei Duan, Jin-Qiong Wan, Wen-Xia Yuan, Ben-Ying Liu, Yan Ma, Ying-Hong Pan
Microbial enzymes during solid-state fermentation (SSF), which play important roles in the food, chemical, pharmaceutical and environmental fields, remain relatively unknown. In this work, the microbial communities and enzymes in SSF of Pu-erh tea, a well-known traditional Chinese tea, were investigated by integrated metagenomics/metaproteomics approach. The dominant bacteria and fungi were identified as Proteobacteria (48.42%) and Aspergillus (94.98%), through pyrosequencing-based analyses of the bacterial 16S and fungal 18S rRNA genes, respectively...
2015: Scientific Reports
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