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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228503/an-integrated-framework-for-environmental-multi-impact-spatial-risk-analysis
#1
Valentina Ferretti, Gilberto Montibeller
Quantitative risk analysis is being extensively employed to support policymakers and provides a strong conceptual framework for evaluating decision alternatives under uncertainty. Many problems involving environmental risks are, however, of a spatial nature, i.e., containing spatial impacts, spatial vulnerabilities, and spatial risk-mitigation alternatives. Recent developments in multicriteria spatial analysis have enabled the assessment and aggregation of multiple impacts, supporting policymakers in spatial evaluation problems...
December 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228469/simultaneous-determination-of-etonogestrel-and-ethinyl-estradiol-in-human-plasma-by-uplc-ms-ms-and-its-pharmacokinetic-study
#2
Sneha G Nair, Daxesh P Patel, Frank J Gonzalez, Bhargav M Patel, Puran Singhal, Darshan V Chaudhary
A selective, sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of etonogestrel (ENG) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) in human plasma. The analytes and their deuterated internal standard, ENG-d7 and EE-d4 were extracted from plasma samples by solid phase extraction on HyperSep™ Retain PEP Cartridges. The chromatographic analysis was performed on ACQUITY UPLC HSS Cyano column, 100 A° (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) column using gradient mobile phase, acetonitrile and 2...
December 11, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228419/expression-and-clinical-significance-of-long-non-coding-rna-ghet1-in-pancreatic-cancer
#3
H-Y Zhou, H Zhu, X-Y Wu, X-D Chen, Z-G Qiao, X Ling, X-M Yao, J-H Tang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression level and biological function of long non-coding RNA gastric carcinoma high expressed transcript 1 (lncRNA-GHET1) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (pancreatic cancer for short), to analyze the correlation between the expression of GHET1 and clinicopathological features and to explore the role and clinical significance of GHET1 in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The relative expression of GHET1 in 5 human pancreatic cancer cell lines was detected by quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228398/organophosphorus-compounds-at-80-some-old-and-new-issues
#4
Lucio G Costa
One of the major classes of pesticides is that of the organophosphates (OPs). Initial developments date back almost two centuries but it was only in the mid-1940s that OPs reached a prominent status as insecticides, a status that, albeit declining, is still ongoing. OPs are highly toxic to non-target species including humans, the primary effects being an acute cholinergic toxicity (responsible for thousands of poisoning each year) and a delayed polyneuropathy. Several issues of current debate and investigation on the toxicology of OPs are discussed in this brief review...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228333/dnaaf1-links-heart-laterality-with-the-aaa-atpase-ruvbl1-and-ciliary-intraflagellar-transport
#5
Verity L Hartill, Glenn van de Hoek, Mitali P Patel, Rosie Little, Christopher M Watson, Ian R Berry, Amelia Shoemark, Dina Abdelmottaleb, Emma Parkes, Chiara Bacchelli, Katarzyna Szymanska, Nine V Knoers, Peter J Scambler, Marius Ueffing, Karsten Boldt, Robert Yates, Paul J Winyard, Beryl Adler, Eduardo Moya, Louise Hattingh, Anil Shenoy, Claire Hogg, Eamonn Sheridan, Ronald Roepman, Dominic Norris, Hannah M Mitchison, Rachel H Giles, Colin A Johnson
DNAAF1 (LRRC50) is a cytoplasmic protein required for dynein heavy chain assembly and cilia motility, and DNAAF1 mutations cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; MIM 613193). We describe four families with DNAAF1 mutations and complex congenital heart disease (CHD). In three families, all affected individuals have typical PCD phenotypes. However, an additional family demonstrates isolated CHD (heterotaxy) in two affected siblings, but no clinical evidence of PCD. We identified a homozygous DNAAF1 missense mutation, p...
December 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228323/evaluation-of-a-genus-specific-elisa-and-a-commercial-aspergillus-western-blot-igg%C3%A2-immunoblot-kit-for-the-diagnosis-of-aspergillosis-in-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#6
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Carolina Le-Bert, Vanessa Fravel, Tonya Clauss, Alexa J Delaune, Jeny Soto, Eric D Jensen, Jennifer E Flower, Randall Wells, Gregory D Bossart, Carolyn Cray
Aspergillosis is a fungal infection with high mortality and morbidity rates. As in humans, its definitive diagnosis is difficult in animals, and thus new laboratory tools are required to overcome the diagnostic limitations due to low specificity and lack of standardization. In this study of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), we evaluated the diagnostic performance of a new commercial immunoblot kit that had been initially developed for the serologic diagnosis of chronic aspergillosis in humans...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228302/susceptibility-of-hla-e-01-03-allele-carriers-to-develop-cytomegalovirus-replication-after-living-donor-kidney-transplantation
#7
Hana Guberina, Fabiola da Silva Nardi, Rafael Tomoya Michita, Sebastian Dolff, Anja Bienholz, Falko M Heinemann, Benjamin Wilde, Mirko Trilling, Peter A Horn, Andreas Kribben, Oliver Witzke, Vera Rebmann
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes serious complications among solid-organ transplant recipients. We report the positive correlation between the presence of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E*01:03 allele in living-donor kidney recipients and CMV reactivation during the first year after transplantation. Thus, the HLA-E recipient genotyping may help to identify CMV-prone patients who require individualized patient-based CMV management.
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228299/development-of-cell-penetrating-bispecific-antibodies-targeting-the-n-terminal-domain-of-androgen-receptor-for-prostate-cancer-therapy
#8
Nancy L Goicochea, Maria Garnovskaya, Mary G Blanton, Grace Chan, Richard Weisbart, Michael B Lilly
Castration-resistant prostate cancer cells exhibit continued androgen receptor signaling in spite of low levels of ligand. Current therapies to block androgen receptor signaling act by inhibiting ligand production or binding. We developed bispecific antibodies capable of penetrating cells and binding androgen receptor outside of the ligand-binding domain. Half of the bispecific antibody molecule consists of a single-chain variable fragment of 3E10, an anti-DNA antibody that enters cells. The other half is a single-chain variable fragment version of AR441, an anti-AR antibody...
December 6, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228296/paqr4-has-a-tumorigenic-effect-in-human-breast-cancers-in-association-with-reduced-cdk4-degradation
#9
Huanhuan Zhang, Ruomei Han, Zhi-Qiang Ling, Fuyuan Zhang, Yongfan Hou, Xue You, Meiqin Huang, Zilong Zhao, Zhenzhen Wang, Yan Chen
Progestin and AdipoQ Receptor 4 (PAQR4) is a member of the PAQR family and the members within this family are involved in the regulation of a number of biological processes including metabolism and cancer development. The potential function of PAQR4 in human cancers is unknown. Analysis of ONCOMINE database reveals that PAQR4 is highly expressed in human breast cancers. We confirmed this finding by analyzing 82 human breast cancers samples. PAQR4 mRNA level was robustly upregulated in human breast cancer samples compared with their corresponding para-cancerous histological normal tissues (P < 0...
December 8, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228218/nonhuman-primate-models-and-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-infection-and-aids
#10
Ronald S Veazey, Andrew A Lackner
Research using nonhuman primates (NHPs) as models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in tremendous achievements not only in the prevention and treatment of HIV, but also in biomedical research more broadly. Once considered a death sentence, HIV infection is now fairly well controlled with combination antiretroviral treatments, almost all of which were first tested for efficacy and safety in nonhuman primates or other laboratory animals...
December 8, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228217/p19arf-inhibits-aggressive-progression-of-h-ras-driven-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Dragana Kopanja, Akshay Pandey, Shuo Huang, Mohamed Rizwan Haroon Al Raheed, Grace Guzman, Pradip Raychaudhuri
Arf, a well-established tumor suppressor, is either mutated or downregulated in a wide array of cancers. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression is controversial. Conflicting observations have been published regarding its expression in HCC. In this study, we provide clear genetic evidence demonstrating a protective role of p19Arf in hepatocarcinogenesis. Using Ras-induced mouse model, we show that p19Arf deficiency accelerates progression of aggressive HCC in vivo. To investigate the role of p14ARF in human liver cancers, we analyzed its expression in human HCC using immunohistochemistry...
December 8, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228209/cd38-knockout-suppresses-tumorigenesis-in-mice-and-clonogenic-growth-of-human-lung-cancer-cells
#12
Xiangning Bu, Jiro Kato, Julie A Hong, Maria J Merino, David S Schrump, Frances E Lund, Joel Moss
The ectodomain of the plasma membrane ecto-enzyme CD38 functions as both an NAD glycohydrolase and an ADP-ribosyl cyclase by catalyzing, respectively, the conversion of NAD to nicotinamide and ADP-ribose or cyclic ADP-ribose. CD38 is attracting particular attention in cancer therapy. An anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody (daratumumab) was approved for treatment of patients with multiple myeloma. However, the role of CD38 in non-hematological malignancies has not been explored. Previously, we reported that ADP-ribose-acceptor hydrolase (ARH)-1 deficiency in mice was associated with tumor development...
December 8, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228194/microbial-carbon-dioxide-fixation-new-tricks-for-an-old-game
#13
Paola Branduardi, Michael Sauer
The exploitation of petroleum as energy and material source opened unprecedented possibilities for the development of our human societies, but only now we realize that the use of fossil resources comes at devastatingly high environmental costs. Consequently, our efforts to tap other carbon sources are steadily increasing. Industrial microbiology has the potential to use carbon dioxide directly as carbon source, thereby converting a foe into a friend. This thematic issue of FEMS Microbiology Letters sheds some light on recent developments for the understanding of microbial pathways for carbon dioxide fixation and on strategies for their industrial exploitation...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228154/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-human-placentae-at-term-and-preterm-delivery
#14
Alison G Paquette, Heather M Brockway, Nathan D Price, Louis J Muglia
Purpose: Preterm birth affects 1 out of every 10 infants in the United States, resulting in substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are few predictive markers and few treatment options to prevent preterm birth. A healthy, functioning placenta is essential to positive pregnancy outcomes. Previous studies have suggested that placental pathology may play a role in preterm birth etiology. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that preterm placentae may exhibit unique transcriptomic signatures compared to term samples reflective of their abnormal biology leading to this adverse outcome...
December 4, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228015/development-of-an-iron-selective-antioxidant-probe-with-protective-effects-on-neuronal-function
#15
Olimpo García-Beltrán, Natalia P Mena, Pabla Aguirre, Germán Barriga-González, Antonio Galdámez, Edgar Nagles, Tatiana Adasme, Cecilia Hidalgo, Marco T Núñez
Iron accumulation, oxidative stress and calcium signaling dysregulation are common pathognomonic signs of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson´s and Alzheimer's diseases, Friedreich ataxia and Huntington's disease. Given their therapeutic potential, the identification of multifunctional compounds that suppress these damaging features is highly desirable. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of N-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)propan-2-yl)-2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)acetamide, named CT51, which exhibited potent free radical neutralizing activity both in vitro and in cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227994/low-cost-low-tech-snp-genotyping-tools-for-resource-limited-areas-plague-in-madagascar-as-a-model
#16
Cedar L Mitchell, Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana, Rebecca E Colman, Joseph Busch, Heidie Hornstra-O'Neill, Paul S Keim, David M Wagner, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Dawn N Birdsell
BACKGROUND: Genetic analysis of pathogenic organisms is a useful tool for linking human cases together and/or to potential environmental sources. The resulting data can also provide information on evolutionary patterns within a targeted species and phenotypic traits. However, the instruments often used to generate genotyping data, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), can be expensive and sometimes require advanced technologies to implement. This places many genotyping tools out of reach for laboratories that do not specialize in genetic studies and/or lack the requisite financial and technological resources...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227908/the-selectivity-of-artemisinin-based-drugs-on-human-lung-normal-and-cancer-cells
#17
Xinyang Li, Shiyan Gu, Donglei Sun, Huangmei Dai, Hongyu Chen, Zunzhen Zhang
Artemisinin-based drugs are documented to possess anticancer potential that is selectively effective to cancer cells. However, this selectivity is disputable in different studies and the mechanism is still unclear. To clarify this discrepancy, this study employed five assays to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of artemisinin and artesunate on normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results of five cytotoxic assays coherently showed that artemisinin and artesunate caused dose-dependent cytotoxicity in both HBE and A549 cells with a slight selectivity to A549 cells...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227868/systemic-mastocytosis-associates-with-cardiovascular-events-despite-lower-plasma-lipid-levels
#18
Swasti Indhirajanti, Paul L A van Daele, Sven Bos, Monique T Mulder, Ilze Bot, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mast cells have been implicated in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in animal models and human autopsy studies. However, it is unknown whether long-term exposure to excess of mast cells is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in humans. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of CVD and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) and controls. METHODS: In 50 patients with SM and 50 age and sex matched controls, the history of CVD and presence of cardiovascular risk factors were assessed...
December 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227864/present-and-future-of-modeling-human-brain-development-in-3d-organoids
#19
REVIEW
Giorgia Quadrato, Paola Arlotta
Three-dimensional (3D) brain organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells hold great potential to investigate complex human genetic states and to model aspects of human brain development and pathology. However, the field of brain organoids is still in its infancy, and their use has been limited by their variability and their inability to differentiate into 3D structures with reproducible anatomical organization. Here, starting from a review of basic principles of in vitro 'brain organogenesis', we discuss which aspects of human brain development and disease can be faithfully modeled with current brain organoid protocols, and discuss improvements that would allow them to become reliable tools to investigate complex features of human brain development and disease...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227861/novel-gene-function-and-regulation-in-neocortex-expansion
#20
REVIEW
Michael Heide, Katherine R Long, Wieland B Huttner
The expansion of the neocortex during human evolution is due to changes in our genome that result in increased and prolonged proliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells during neocortex development. Three principal types of such genomic changes can be distinguished, first, novel gene regulation in human, second, novel function in human of genes existing in both human and non-human species, and third, novel, human-specific genes. The latter comprise both, increases in the copy number of genes existing also in non-human species, and the emergence of genes giving rise to unique, human-specific gene products...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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