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etiology for copd

Yunhee Im, Saad Farooqi, Adan Mora
Giant bullae often mimic pneumothorax on radiographic appearance. We present the case of a 55-year-old man admitted to a referring hospital with dyspnea, cough, and increasing sputum production; he refused thoracotomy for tension pneumothorax and presented to our hospital for a second opinion. A computed tomography (CT) scan at our hospital revealed a giant bulla, which was managed conservatively as an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thoracic surgery was consulted but advised against bullectomy...
October 2016: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Michael H K Nguyen, Krista M Isaac, Rebecca Dougherty
Gastrointestinal perforations are a complication of 2-10% of duodenal ulcers. There are a variety of etiologies associated with duodenal ulcer formation and its complications. Corticosteroid use is associated with an increased risk of duodenal ulcer perforation, with the first documented case in 1950. Other important medications associated with perforation include NSAIDS and opioids. Beyond medication, one of the most common disease processes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has been found to be associated with peptic ulcer disease...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Daphne J Karel
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as persistent airflow limitation due to irritant-induced chronic inflammation. A postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio of 0.7 or less is diagnostic in a patient with dyspnea, chronic cough or sputum production, and a history of irritant exposure. Tobacco smoking is the most significant etiology, and smoking cessation is the only intervention shown to slow disease progression. Long-acting beta2-agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists are first-line treatments for patients with persistently symptomatic COPD with an FEV1 of 80% or less of predicted...
September 2016: FP Essentials
Tanveer Ahmad, Isaac K Sundar, Ana M Tormos, Chad A Lerner, Janice Gerloff, Hongwei Yao, Irfan Rahman
Lung cellular senescence and inflammatory response are the key events in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) where cigarette smoke (CS) is the main etiological factor. Telomere dysfunction is induced by either critical shortening or disruption of the shelterin complex, leading to cellular senescence. However, it remains unknown whether disruption of shelterin complex is responsible for CS-induced lung cellular senescence. Here we show that TPP1 levels are reduced on telomeres in mouse lungs with emphysema, as well as in lungs from smokers and COPD patients...
August 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Carmen Pizarro, Fabian van Essen, Fabian Linnhoff, Robert Schueler, Christoph Hammerstingl, Georg Nickenig, Dirk Skowasch, Marcel Weber
BACKGROUND: COPD and congestive heart failure represent two disease entities of growing global burden that share common etiological features. Therefore, we aimed to identify the degree of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in COPD as a function of COPD severity stages and concurrently placed particular emphasis on the presence of overlapping obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: A total of 85 COPD outpatients (64.1±10.4 years, 54.1% males) and 20 controls, matched for age, sex, and smoking habits, underwent speckle tracking echocardiography for LV longitudinal strain imaging...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Jacob A Winther, Jon Brynildsen, Arne Didrik Høiseth, Ivar Følling, Pål H Brekke, Geir Christensen, Tor-Arne Hagve, Joseph G Verbalis, Torbjørn Omland, Helge Røsjø
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is prevalent and associated with mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). The prevalence and prognostic implications of hyponatremia in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary (AECOPD) have not been established. METHOD: We included 313 unselected patients with acute dyspnea who were categorized by etiology of dyspnea according to established guidelines (derivation cohort). Serum Na+ was determined on hospital admission and corrected for hyperglycemia, and hyponatremia was defined as [Na+]<137 mmol/L...
2016: PloS One
F E Aleva, L W L M Voets, S O Simons, Q de Mast, A J A M van der Ven, Y F Heijdra
BACKGROUND: COPD patients encounter episodes of increased inflammation, so-called acute exacerbations of COPD (AE-COPD). In 30% of AE-COPD no clear etiology is found. Since there is a well-known crosstalk between inflammation and thrombosis, the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, embolus localization and clinical relevance, and clinical markers of pulmonary embolism (PE) in unexplained AE-COPD. METHODS: A systematic search was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE platforms from 1974 - October 2015...
August 11, 2016: Chest
Rosario Menéndez, Beatriz Montull, Soledad Reyes, Isabel Amara-Elori, Rafael Zalacain, Alberto Capelastegui, Javier Aspa, Luis Borderías, Juan J Martín-Villasclaras, Salvador Bello, Inmaculada Alfageme, Felipe Rodríguez de Castro, Jordi Rello, Luis Molinos, Juan Ruiz-Manzano, Antoni Torres
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a serious infection that may occasionally rapidly evolve provoking organ dysfunctions. We aimed to characterize CAP presenting with organ dysfunctions at the emergency room, with regard to host factors and causative microorganisms, and its impact on 30-day mortality. 460 of 4070 (11.3%) CAP patients had ≥2 dysfunctions at diagnosis, with a 30-day mortality of 12.4% vs. 3.4% in those with one or no dysfunctions. Among them, the most frequent causative microorganisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae, gram-negatives and polymicrobial etiology...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Infection
Leila Yazdanpanah, Zamzam Paknahad, Ali Javad Moosavi, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Mohammad Masoud Zaker
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem worldwide. Smoking is the number one cause of COPD; however, genetic, environmental and dietary factors contribute to the etiology of this disease. In this study, we assessed the association between three diet quality indices -the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), and Mediterranean Diet Score (MED)- and the severity of disease in COPD patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed at Rasul-e-Akram Hospital in Tehran on 121 COPD patients with the mean age of (SD) of 66...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Ryan M Seals, Ole Gredal, Murray A Mittleman, Johnni Hansen, Marc G Weisskopf
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. We investigated the association between ALS diagnosis and prior cardiovascular disease (CVD), and CVD-specific, hospital admissions in the Danish population. We conducted a population based nested case-control study, including 3182 Danish residents diagnosed with ALS at age ≥20 years (1982-2009) and 100 randomly selected controls for each case, matched on age, gender and vital status. We estimated odds ratios (OR) associated with CVD, and CVD-specific hospital admissions, adjusting for socioeconomic and marital status, region of residence and past diabetes and obesity diagnoses...
July 20, 2016: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Joan Carles Trullàs, Luís Manzano, Francesc Formiga, Oscar Aramburu-Bodas, María Angustias Quesada-Simón, José Luís Arias-Jiménez, David García-Escrivá, Jorge Manuel Romero-Requena, Rosa Jordana-Comajuncosa, Manuel Montero-Pérez-Barquero
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with heart failure (HF) who recover left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), termed here as 'Rec-HF', have a distinct clinical profile and prognosis compared with patients with HF and reduced LVEF (HF-REF) or HF and preserved LVEF (HF-PEF). METHODS: We evaluated and classified patients from the Spanish Heart Failure Registry into three categories based on enrollment/follow-up echocardiograms: HF-PEF (LVEF ≥50%), HF-REF (LVEF persistently <50%) and Rec-HF (LVEF on enrollment <50% but normalized during follow-up)...
July 19, 2016: Cardiology
Joslaine de Oliveira Nunes, Kelly Regina Pereira Alves Pillon, Patrícia Lira Bizerra, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes, Marilene Rodrigues Chang
Simultaneous infections with Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum are rare and typically occur in immunocompromised individuals, particularly AIDS patients. Because both of those fungi can spur the development of latent infections, it is generally unknown which organism was first present. The diagnosis of one fungus can hide the diagnosis of the other, leading to underdiagnoses and poor prognosis. We report a case of C. neoformans and H. capsulatum co-infection. We also performed a systematic review of the literature...
July 16, 2016: Mycopathologia
Carlos M Luna, Ileana Palma, Michael S Niederman, Evangelina Membriani, Vanina Giovini, Timothy L Wiemken, Paula Peyrani, Julio Ramirez
RATIONALE: Comorbidities, age, severity of illness, and high risk pathogens are well-known outcome determinants in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). How these factors interact has not yet been clarified. OBJECTIVES: We conducted this study to analyze the complex interaction of comorbidities, age, illness severity, and pathogens in relation to CAP. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization database to evaluate the impact of age in different age groups (<65, 65-79, and ≥80 yr), comorbidities (malignant disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal and liver disease, cerebrovascular accident, congestive heart failure, and diabetes mellitus), severity of illness at admission, and etiology on the mortality of patients admitted to the hospital with CAP...
September 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Deborah Dudgeon, Vickie E Baracos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Loss of skeletal muscle mass and cachexia are important manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and have been associated with breathlessness, functional limitation and poor prognosis. A number of other life-limiting illnesses, including cancer and chronic heart failure as well as acute conditions seen in ICU such as sepsis, are characteristically associated with cachexia and sarcopenia. These conditions may have respiratory muscle atrophy of sufficient magnitude to contribute to the development of breathlessness and associated functional limitation...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Jan C Holter, Thor Ueland, Jon Norseth, Cathrine Brunborg, Stig S Frøland, Einar Husebye, Pål Aukrust, Lars Heggelund
BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D status has been associated with short-term (30-day) mortality in hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Data on its prevalence in these patients are scarce, and impact on long-term prognosis is unknown. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy and their effect on long-term mortality in hospitalized adults with CAP. METHODS: Secondary follow-up analysis of data from a prospectively recruited (January 2008-January 2011) well-defined cohort of 241 hospital survivors of CAP (Norway, latitude 60°N)...
2016: PloS One
Hua Zhao, Xiaoting Wang, Dawei Liu, Hongmin Zhang, Huaiwu He, Yun Long
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value and potential therapeutic impact of Peking Union Medical College Hospital critical ultrasonic management (PCUM) in the early management of critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). METHODS: Patients admitted into the ICU of Peking Union Medical College Hospital for ARF were consecutively recruited over a 18-month period. Patients were randomly divided into conventional group and PCUM group (critical care ultrasonic examination was added in addition to conventional examinations)...
December 15, 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Matthieu Buscot, Héloïse Pottier, Charles-Hugo Marquette, Sylvie Leroy
BACKGROUND: Data concerning phenotypes in bronchiectasis are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, functional and microbiological phenotypes of patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: A monocentric retrospective study in a university hospital in France was conducted over 10 years (2002-2012). Non-cystic fibrosis patients with tomographic confirmation of bronchiectasis were included. The clinical, functional and microbiological data of patients were analyzed relying on the underlying etiology...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Yazan Duwayri, Jonathan Goss, William Knechtle, Ravi K Veeraswamy, Shipra Arya, Ravi R Rajani, Luke P Brewster, Thomas F Dodson, John F Sweeney
BACKGROUND: The study evaluates the readmission diagnoses after vascular surgical interventions and the associated hospital costs. METHODS: Patients readmitted after undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS), carotid endarterectomy (CEA), infrarenal endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OAAA), suprainguinal revascularization (SUPRA), or infrainguinal revascularization (INFRA) between January 1, 2008 and October 20, 2013 at a single academic institution were retrospectively identified...
October 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Yong-Hua Gao, Wei-Jie Guan, Shao-Xia Liu, Lei Wang, Juan-Juan Cui, Rong-Chang Chen, Guo-Jun Zhang
While identifying the underlying aetiology is a key part of bronchiectasis management, the prevalence and impact of identifying the aetiologies on clinical management remain unclear. We aimed to determine the etiological spectrum of bronchiectasis, and how often etiological assessment could lead to the changes in patients' management. A comprehensive search was conducted using MEDLINE (via PubMed) and EMBASE for observational studies published before October 2015 reporting aetiologies in adults with bronchiectasis...
June 19, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Holger Behrsing, Hans Raabe, Joseph Manuppello, Betsy Bombick, Rodger Curren, Kristie Sullivan, Sanjay Sethi, Richard Phipps, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Sherwin Yan, Carl D'Ruiz, Robert Tarran, Samuel Constant, Gary Phillips, Marianna Gaça, Patrick Hayden, Xuefei Cao, Carole Mathis, Julia Hoeng, Armin Braun, Erin Hill
The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 established the Food and Drug Administration Center for Tobacco Products (FDA-CTP), and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed 'modified risk'. On 8-10 December 2014, IIVS organised a workshop conference, entitled Assessment of In Vitro COPD Models for Tobacco Regulatory Science, to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia, industry and animal protection, to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA-CTP...
May 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
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