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etiology for copd

Michele Cox, Darshan Thota, Ruth Trevino
A 71-yr-old male with a medical history significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented to emergency department for worsening cough, right-sided pleuritic chest pain, and dyspnea. This was the patient's third visit to the emergency department in 4 d. The patient was initially treated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation and subsequently evaluated for congestive heart failure. He was ultimately diagnosed with a spontaneous herniation of the lung parenchyma through the chest wall...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Gagandeep Kaur, Prathyusha Bagam, Rakeysha Pinkston, Dhirendra P Singh, Sanjay Batra
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, life-threatening disease that causes irreversible lung damage. Cigarette smoking is the chief etiologic factor for the commencement of this condition. Despite constant efforts to develop therapeutic interventions and to ascertain the molecular mechanism leading to the pathophysiology of this disease, much remains unknown. However, pattern recognition receptor (PRRs), i.e., Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are believed to play important roles in this disease and could serve as effective therapeutic targets...
February 28, 2018: Toxicology
Thomas F X O'Donnell, Chloe Powell, Sarah E Deery, Jeremy D Darling, Kakra Hughes, Kristina A Giles, Grace J Wang, Marc L Schermerhorn
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies identified significant racial disparities as well as regional variation in outcomes of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). We aimed to determine whether regional variation contributes to these racial disparities. METHODS: We identified all white or black patients who underwent infrainguinal revascularization or amputation in 15 deidentified regions of the Vascular Quality Initiative between 2003 and 2017. We excluded three regions with <100 procedures...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Lifang Wen, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Frank Petersen, Xinhua Yu
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation based on obstructive bronchiolitis, emphysema, and chronic pulmonary inflammation. Inhaled toxic gases and particles, e.g., cigarette smoke, are major etiologic factors for COPD, while the pathogenesis of the disease is only partially understood. Over the past decade, an increasing body of evidence has been accumulated for a link between COPD and autoimmunity. Studies with clinical samples have demonstrated that autoantibodies are present in sera of COPD patients and some of these antibodies correlate with specific disease phenotypes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ashok Kuwal, Vinod Joshi, Naveen Dutt, Surjit Singh, Kailash Chand Agarwal, Gopal Purohit
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial infections are the major cause of acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD). The relationship between lung functions and respiratory failure (arterial blood gas parameters) with the etiology of AE-COPD has not been clearly understood. We conducted this study to determine the bacterial profile in AE-COPD and to identify the associated risk factors and drug sensitivity pattern. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two patients hospitalized for AE-COPD were prospectively evaluated...
January 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
Kristin M Burkart, Tamar Sofer, Stephanie J London, Ani Manichaikul, Fernando P Hartwig, Qi Yan, María Soler Artigas, Lydiana Avila, Wei Chen, Sonia Davis Thomas, Alejandro A Diaz, Ian P Hall, Bernardo L Horta, Robert C Kaplan, Cathy C Laurie, Ana M Menezes, Jean V Morrison, Elizabeth C Oelsner, Deepa Rastogi, Stephen S Rich, Manuel Soto-Quiros, Adrienne M Stilp, Martin D Tobin, Louise V Wain, Juan C Celedón, R Graham Barr
RATIONALE: Lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heritable traits. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous pulmonary function and COPD loci, primarily in cohorts of European ancestry. OBJECTIVES: Perform a GWAS of COPD-phenotypes in Hispanic/Latino populations to identify loci not previously detected in European populations. METHODS: GWAS of lung function and COPD in Hispanic/Latino participants from a population-based cohort...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Xuefang Liu, Sugai Yin, Yulong Chen, Yaosong Wu, Wanchun Zheng, Haoran Dong, Yan Bai, Yanqin Qin, Jiansheng Li, Suxiang Feng, Peng Zhao
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major outer surface membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, is one of the main etiological factors in the pathogenesis of several lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The respiratory epithelium and the macrophages comprise the dynamic interface between the outside environment and the host response to bacterial infection via cytokine secretion. In the present study, the mechanisms of LPS induced‑inflammatory response in human lung cells and macrophages were investigated...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Nawaf M Alotaibi, Virginia Chen, Zsuzsanna Hollander, Cameron J Hague, Darra T Murphy, Jonathon A Leipsic, Mari L DeMarco, J Mark FitzGerald, Bruce M McManus, Raymond T Ng, Don D Sin
Rationale: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are caused by a variety of different etiologic agents. Our aim was to phenotype COPD exacerbations using imaging (chest X-ray [CXR] and computed tomography [CT]) and to determine the possible role of the blood tests (C-reactive protein [CRP], the N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) as diagnostic biomarkers. Materials and methods: Subjects who were hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of AECOPD and who had had CXRs, CT scans, and blood collection for CRP and NT-proBNP were assessed in this study...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Kentaro Tamura, Koichiro Matsumoto, Satoru Fukuyama, Keiko Kan-O, Yumiko Ishii, Ken Tonai, Miyoko Tatsuta, Aimi Enokizu, Hiromasa Inoue, Yoichi Nakanishi
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic airway inflammatory diseases characterized by airflow limitation, have different etiologies and pathophysiologies. Asthma-COPD Overlap (ACO) has recently been used for patients with mixed asthma and COPD. The pathophysiological mechanisms of ACO have not been clearly understood due to the lack of an appropriate murine model. To investigate its pathophysiology, we examined a murine model by allergen challenge in surfactant protein-D (SP-D)-deficient mice that spontaneously developed pulmonary emphysema...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
Megahed M Hassan, Mona T Hussein, Ahmed Mamdouh Emam, Usama M Rashad, Ibrahim Rezk, Al Hussein Awad
OBJECTIVE: Optimal pulmonary air support is essential pre-requisite for efficient phonation. The objective is to correlate pulmonary and vocal functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to find out whether the reduced pulmonary function per se could induce dysphonia. METHODS: In this prospective case-control study, sixty subjects with stable COPD underwent evaluation of pulmonary and vocal functions. The pulmonary functions measured include {Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF)}...
January 8, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Justin J Choi, Matthew W McCarthy
Acute dyspnea is a common chief complaint among patients who visit an emergency room and presents diagnostic challenges for clinicians in both identifying the etiology and determining the clinical severity. The study of biomarkers in the prognostication and risk stratification of these patients has been increasing, including the investigation of the prognostic value for mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM). Areas Covered: In this review, the authors cover what is known about MR-proADM testing in patients presenting with acute dyspnea and the supporting evidence of its prognostic value in common conditions in medical patients with acute dyspnea, including acute heart failure, community acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute pulmonary embolism...
January 10, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Carla R Copeland, Hrudaya Nath, Nina L J Terry, Carla G Wilson, Young-Il Kim, David A Lynch, Sandeep Bodduluri, J Michael Wells, Mark T Dransfield, Alejandro A Díaz, George R Washko, Marilyn G Foreman, Surya P Bhatt
RATIONALE: Expiratory central airway collapse (ECAC) is associated with respiratory morbidity independent of underlying lung disease. However, not all smokers develop ECAC and the etiology of ECAC in adult smokers is unclear. Paraseptal emphysema in the paratracheal location, by untethering airway walls, may predispose smokers to developing ECAC. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether paratracheal paraseptal emphysema (paratracheal PSE) is associated with ECAC. METHODS: We analyzed paired inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography scans from participants enrolled in a multicenter study (COPDGene) of smokers aged 45-80 years...
January 3, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Cristina Esquinas, Sabina Janciauskiene, Ricardo Gonzalo, Gemma Mas de Xaxars, Beata Olejnicka, Irene Belmonte, Miriam Barrecheguren, Esther Rodriguez, Alexa Nuñez, Francisco Rodriguez-Frias, Marc Miravitlles
Introduction: COPD has complex etiologies involving both genetic and environmental determinants. Among genetic determinants, the most recognized is a severe PiZZ (Glu342Lys) inherited alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). Nonetheless, AATD patients present a heterogeneous clinical evolution, which has not been completely explained by sociodemographic or clinical factors. Here we performed the gene expression profiling of blood cells collected from mild and severe COPD patients with PiZZ AATD...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Jean Joel Bigna, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent increasing worldwide attention towards pulmonary hypertension (PH), its epidemiology remains poorly described in Africa. Accordingly, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of PH prevalence, incidence and etiologies in Africa. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, African Journals Online, and Africa Index Medicus. Published observational studies until September 20, 2017, including adult participants residing in Africa were considered...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Feng Yan, Zhensong Wen, Rui Wang, Wenling Luo, Yufeng Du, Wenjun Wang, Xianyang Chen
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an irreversible interstitial pulmonary disease featured by high mortality, chronic and progressive course, and poor prognosis with unclear etiology. Currently, more studies have been focusing on identifying biomarkers to predict the progression of IPF, such as genes, proteins, and lipids. Lipids comprise diverse classes of molecules and play a critical role in cellular energy storage, structure, and signaling. The role of lipids in respiratory diseases, including cystic fibrosis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been investigated intensely in the recent years...
December 6, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Kohei Wakabayashi, Naoko Ikeda, Katsuya Kajimoto, Yuichiro Minami, Takehiko Keida, Kuniya Asai, Ryo Munakata, Koji Murai, Yasushi Sakata, Hiroshi Suzuki, Teruo Takano, Naoki Sato
BACKGROUND: Little information is available on non-cardiovascular (CV) death in acute heart failure (AHF) patients. The present study determined the incidence, time course, and factors associated with long-term non-CV death in AHF patients in a real-world setting. METHODS: The ATTEND registry, a nationwide, prospective observational multicenter cohort study, included 4842 consecutive patients hospitalized for AHF. The primary endpoint of the present study was non-CV death...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Jinho Yang, Yoon-Keun Kim, Tae Soo Kang, Young-Koo Jee, You-Young Kim
The role of infectious agents in the etiology of inflammatory diseases once believed to be non-infectious is increasingly being recognized. Many bacterial components in the indoor dust can evoke inflammatory lung diseases. Bacteria secrete nanometer-sized vesicles into the extracellular milieu, so-called extracellular vesicles (EV). which are pathophysiologically related to inflammatory diseases. Microbiota compositions in the indoor dust revealed the presence of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Hussain Ibrahim, Adnan Khan, Shawn P Nishi, Ken Fujise, Syed Gilani
Dyspnea accounts for more than one-fourth of the hospital admissions from Emergency Department. Chronic conditions such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Congestive Heart Failure, and Asthma are being common etiologies. Less common etiologies include conditions such as valvular heart disease, pulmonary embolism, and right-to-left shunt (RLS) from patent foramen ovale (PFO). PFO is present in estimated 20-30% of the population, mostly a benign condition. RLS via PFO usually occurs when right atrium pressure exceeds left atrium pressure...
2017: Case Reports in Pulmonology
Alexander W Nielsen, Melissa C Helm, Tammy Kindel, Rana Higgins, Kathleen Lak, Zachary M Helmen, Jon C Gould
BACKGROUND: Morbidly obese patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) after bariatric surgery. Perioperative chemoprophylaxis is used routinely with bariatric surgery to decrease the risk of VTE. When bleeding occurs, routine chemoprophylaxis is often withheld due to concerns about inciting another bleeding event. We sought to evaluate the relationship between perioperative bleeding and postoperative VTE in bariatric surgery. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) dataset between 2012 and 2014 was queried to identify patients who underwent bariatric surgery...
November 3, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
Yong Wang, Zhen-Zhen Wu, Wei Wang
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are pathologic features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the COPD development, but the molecular mechanism by which it contributes to COPD etiology and the specific role it plays in COPD pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we aimed to determine the role of ER stress in the pathogenesis of CS-induced airway inflammation and emphysema. Exposure to CS significantly increased the expression of ER stress markers in Beas-2B cells and in mouse lungs, possibly through the production of oxidative stress...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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