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Vitamin D AND Nrf2

J Zhou, B Y H Lam, S G Neogi, G S H Yeo, A E D Teo, C Maniero, E A B Azizan, M J Brown
OBJECTIVE: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common type of secondary hypertension occurring in ∼10% of hypertensive patients. Up to 50% of PA is caused by aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). We recently performed a microarray assay using 21 pairs of zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata (ZF), and 14 paired APAs. This study is to identify the potential biological processes and canonical pathways involved with aldosterone regulation, APA formation, or APA and ZG cell functions...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Michael J Berridge
Vitamin D is a hormone that maintains healthy cells. It functions by regulating the low resting levels of cell signalling components such as Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its role in maintaining phenotypic stability of these signalling pathways depends on the ability of vitamin D to control the expression of those components that act to reduce the levels of both Ca(2+) and ROS. This regulatory role of vitamin D is supported by both Klotho and Nrf2. A decline in the vitamin D/Klotho/Nrf2 regulatory network may enhance the ageing process, and this is well illustrated by the age-related decline in cognition in rats that can be reversed by administering vitamin D...
August 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Mark R Haussler, G Kerr Whitfield, Carol A Haussler, Marya S Sabir, Zainab Khan, Ruby Sandoval, Peter W Jurutka
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) is the renal metabolite of vitamin D that signals through binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR). The ligand-receptor complex transcriptionally regulates genes encoding factors stimulating calcium and phosphate absorption plus bone remodeling, maintaining a skeleton with reduced risk of age-related osteoporotic fractures. 1,25D/VDR signaling exerts feedback control of Ca/PO4 via regulation of FGF23, klotho, and CYP24A1 to prevent age-related, ectopic calcification, fibrosis, and associated pathologies...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
Angélica Saraí Jiménez-Osorio, Susana González-Reyes, José Pedraza-Chaverri
Prediabetes and diabetes are rising worldwide. Control of blood glucose is crucial to prevent or delay diabetic complications that frequently result in increased morbidity and mortality. Most strategies include medical treatment and changes in lifestyle and diet. Some nutraceutical compounds have been recognized as adjuvants in diabetes control. Many of them can activate the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which has been recognized as a master regulator of the antioxidant response. Recent studies have described the role of Nrf2 in obesity, metabolic syndrome, nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy, where its activation prevents the development of diabetes and its complications...
August 25, 2015: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Michael J Berridge
There is increasing evidence that a deficiency in vitamin D contributes to many human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The ability of vitamin D to maintain healthy cells seems to depend on its role as a guardian of phenotypic stability particularly with regard to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ signalling systems. Vitamin D maintains the expression of those signalling components responsible for stabilizing the low-resting state of these two signalling pathways...
June 2015: Biochemical Society Transactions
Michael J Berridge
Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to many human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), hypertension and cardiovascular disease. A Vitamin D phenotypic stability hypothesis, which is developed in this review, attempts to describe how this vital hormone acts to maintain healthy cellular functions. This role of Vitamin D as a guardian of phenotypic stability seems to depend on its ability to maintain the redox and Ca(2+) signalling systems. It is argued that its primary action is to maintain the expression of those signalling components responsible for stabilizing the low resting state of these two signalling pathways...
April 24, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ting Wang, Guojie Di, Li Yang, Yaoyan Dun, Zhiwei Sun, Jingzhi Wan, Ben Peng, Chaoqi Liu, Guangrun Xiong, Changcheng Zhang, Ding Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neuroprotective effects of saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ) on D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain ageing, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: SPJ were analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were randomly divided into four groups: control group (saline), D-gal-treated group (400 mg/kg, subcutaneously), D-gal + SPJ groups (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) and vitamin E group (100 mg/kg)...
September 2015: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Ingrid Elisia, David D Kitts
The present study investigates the relative ability of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (Toc) to modulate cell signaling events that are associated with inflammatory responses in fetal-derived intestinal (FHs 74 Int) cells. Secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 in FHs 74 Int cells was stimulated in the following order: α-Toc<γ-Toc<δ-Toc. A similar proinflammatory response was observed when inflammation was induced in FHs 74 Int cells. Modulation of IL-8 expression by Toc corresponded to an isoform-specific modulation of NF-κB and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) cell signaling pathways involved in expression of proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant enzymes, respectively...
December 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Kentaro Nakai, Hideki Fujii, Keiji Kono, Shunsuke Goto, Riko Kitazawa, Sohei Kitazawa, Michinori Hirata, Masami Shinohara, Masafumi Fukagawa, Shinichi Nishi
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is a major risk of end-stage kidney disease. Many complex factors relate to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Using nonobese type 2 diabetes model rats, we confirmed that oxidative stress was a crucial factor. Because recent studies suggest that vitamin D could suppress oxidative stress, we explored whether the active vitamin D analog, maxacalcitol, could also attenuate oxidative stress and prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Diabetic rats aged 20 weeks were divided into 3 groups and treated with insulin, maxacalcitol, and vehicle...
April 2014: American Journal of Hypertension
Rina Wassermann, Victoria Novik, Michael Danilenko
Plant polyphenols have been shown to enhance the differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells induced by the hormonal form of vitamin D(3) (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3); 1,25D). However, how these agents modulate 1,25D effects in different subtypes of AML cells remains poorly understood. Here, we show that both carnosic acid (CA) and silibinin (SIL) synergistically enhancd 1,25D-induced differentiation of myeloblastic HL60 cells. However, in promonocytic U937 cells, only CA caused potentiation while SIL attenuated 1,25D effect...
2012: Leukemia Research and Treatment
Hiddo J Lambers Heerspink, Dick de Zeeuw
Renal and cardiovascular complications make type 2 diabetes one of the most morbid conditions in medicine. The kidney frequently gets involved in this "multi-organ disease". Of the large proportion of patients who progress with further loss of renal function, most prematurely die or end up in dialysis. Many interventions have targeted a decelerated progression of renal function loss, including metabolic control, blood pressure, and lipid management. Recently, modulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) have been combined with the existing therapeutic armamentarium...
2011: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
Irene Bobilev, Victoria Novik, Itai Levi, Ofer Shpilberg, Joseph Levy, Yoav Sharoni, George P Studzinski, Michael Danilenko
1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) is a powerful differentiation agent, which has potential for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but induces severe hypercalcemia at pharmacologically active doses. We have previously shown that carnosic acid (CA), the polyphenolic antioxidant from rosemary plant, markedly potentiates differentiation induced by low concentrations of 1,25D in human AML cell lines. Here, we demonstrated similar enhanced differentiation responses to the 1,25D/CA combination in primary leukemic cells derived from patients with AML, and determined the role of the Nrf2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) pathway in these effects using U937 human monoblastic leukemia cells as the model...
February 1, 2011: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo, Tania Fernandes, Maria Flavia Ribeiro, Neelam Khaper, Adriane Belló-Klein
The present study was conducted to test whether adaptation in the antioxidant system would differentially modulate prosurvival and proapoptotic proteins in hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control, vitamin E (20 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1) subcutaneously, 28 days), thyroxine (T4) (12 mg/L in drinking water for 28 days), and T4 + vitamin E. Cardiac mass, redox ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), peroxiredoxin-6 (Prx-6), phospho-extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (p-ERK 1/2)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) myocardial protein expression were quantified...
November 2010: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the most abundant carcinogens in our environment, and the development of non-melanoma skin cancers, the most common type of human malignancy worldwide, represents one of the major consequences of excessive exposure. Because of growing concerns that the level of UV radiation is increasing as a result of depletion of the stratospheric ozone and climate change, the development of strategies for protection of the skin is an urgent need. Many phytochemicals that belong to various families of secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids (caffeine, sanguinarine), flavonoids [(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate, genistein, silibinin], carotenoids ( beta-carotene, lycopene), and isothiocyanates (sulforaphane), offer exciting platforms for the development of such protective strategies...
October 2008: Planta Medica
Xiu Jun Wang, John D Hayes, Colin J Henderson, C Roland Wolf
Isothiocyanates and phenolic antioxidants can prevent cancer through activation of Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45-related factor 2), a transcription factor that controls expression of cytoprotective genes through the antioxidant response element (ARE) enhancer. Using a human mammary MCF7-derived AREc32 reporter cell line, we now report that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and other retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) agonists, markedly reduces the ability of Nrf2 to mediate induction of ARE-driven genes by cancer chemopreventive agents including the metabolite of butylated hydroxyanisole, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ)...
December 4, 2007: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bhagavathi A Narayanan
Chemoprevention has the potential to be a major component of colon, breast, prostate and lung cancer control. Epidemiological, experimental, and clinical studies provide evidence that antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and several other phytochemicals possess unique modes of action against cancer growth. However, the mode of action of several of these agents at the gene transcription level is not completely understood. Completion of the human genome sequence and the advent of DNA microarrays using cDNAs enhanced the detection and identification of hundreds of differentially expressed genes in response to anticancer drugs or chemopreventive agents...
December 2006: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Xiu Jun Wang, John D Hayes, C Roland Wolf
The NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates cytoprotective genes that contain an antioxidant response element (ARE) in their promoters. To investigate whether anticancer drugs can induce ARE-driven gene expression, we have developed a stable human mammary MCF7-derived reporter cell line called AREc32, which contains a luciferase gene construct controlled by eight copies of the cis-element. In these cells, luciferase activity was increased up to 50-fold following treatment with 50 mumol/L tert-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ)...
November 15, 2006: Cancer Research
Birgit M Dietz, Young-Hwa Kang, Guowen Liu, Aimee L Eggler, Ping Yao, Lucas R Chadwick, Guido F Pauli, Norman R Farnsworth, Andrew D Mesecar, Richard B van Breemen, Judy L Bolton
The female parts of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) show estrogenic effects as well as cancer chemopreventive potential. We analyzed the chemopreventive mechanism of hops by studying its antioxidative activities and its effect on the detoxification of a potentially toxic quinone (menadione). The detoxification enzyme quinone reductase [(NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, QR] protects against quinone-induced toxicity and has been used as a marker in cancer chemoprevention studies. Although the hop extract was only a weak quencher of free radicals formed from 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, it demonstrated strong QR induction in Hepa 1c1c7 cells...
August 2005: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Aimee L Eggler, Guowen Liu, John M Pezzuto, Richard B van Breemen, Andrew D Mesecar
The risks of cancer and other degenerative diseases caused by reactive oxygen species and electrophiles can be reduced by the up-regulation of detoxifying enzymes. A major mechanism whereby these protective enzymes are induced occurs through activation of the antioxidant response element (ARE) by the oxidative-stress sensor protein Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Under basal conditions, Keap1 sequesters Nrf2 in the cytoplasm by binding to its Neh2 domain...
July 19, 2005: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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