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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449274/a-dna-barcode-library-for-germany-s-mayflies-stoneflies-and-caddisflies-ephemeroptera-plecoptera-trichoptera
#1
Jérôme Morinière, Lars Hendrich, Michael Balke, Arne J Beermann, Tobias König, Monika Hess, Stefan Koch, Reinhard Müller, Florian Leese, Paul D N Hebert, Axel Hausmann, Christoph F Schubart, Gerhard Haszprunar
Mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) are prominent representatives of aquatic macroinvertebrates, commonly used as indicator organisms for water quality and ecosystem assessments. However, unambiguous morphological identification of EPT species, especially their immature life stages, is a challenging, yet fundamental task. However, a comprehensive DNA barcode library based upon taxonomically well-curated specimens can overcome the problematic identification. Once available, this library will support the implementation of fast, cost-efficient, and reliable DNA-based identifications and assessments of ecological status...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448056/a-multi-hole-cryovial-eliminates-freezing-artifacts-when-muscle-tissues-are-directly-immersed-in-liquid-nitrogen
#2
Yizhong Huang, Maozhang He, Qingjie Zeng, Lin Li, Zhen Zhang, Junwu Ma, Yanyu Duan
Studies on skeletal muscle physiology face the technical challenge of appropriately processing the specimens to obtain sections with clearly visible cytoplasmic compartments. Another hurdle is the tight apposition of myofibers to the surrounding tissues. Because the process of tissue fixation and paraffin embedding leads to the shrinkage of muscle fibers, freezing is an optimal means of hardening muscle tissue for sectioning. However, a commonly encountered issue, the formation of ice crystals, occurs during the preparation of frozen sections because of the high water content of muscle...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447376/reduced-fasting-periods-increase-intestinal-permeability-in-chickens
#3
S Gilani, G S Howarth, C D Tran, R Barekatain, S M Kitessa, R E A Forder, R J Hughes
Fasting of up to 24 hr has been shown to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. The aim of this study was to determine whether fasting duration of 4.5 and 9 hr increased IP and whether l-glutamine (a non-essential amino acid) supplementation before fasting provided some protection of barrier function as shown in other species. Ross 308 male broilers (n = 96) were fed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% glutamine from d0 to d38 post-hatch. On d37, the birds were assigned to single-bird metabolism cages and were fasted for either 0, 4...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446501/dietary-long-chain-fatty-acids-and-carbohydrate-biomarker-evaluation-in-a-controlled-feeding-study-in-participants-from-the-women-s-health-initiative-cohort
#4
Xiaoling Song, Ying Huang, Marian L Neuhouser, Lesley F Tinker, Mara Z Vitolins, Ross L Prentice, Johanna W Lampe
Background: Biomarkers of macronutrient intake are lacking. Controlled human feeding studies that preserve the normal variation in nutrient and food consumption are necessary for the development and validation of robust nutritional biomarkers.Objective: We aimed to assess the utility of serum phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) as biomarkers of dietary intakes of fatty acids, total fat, and carbohydrate.Design: We used an individualized controlled feeding study in which 153 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) were provided with a 2-wk controlled diet that mimicked each individual's habitual food intake...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445768/polymer-free-electrospun-nanofibers-from-sulfobutyl-ether7-beta-cyclodextrin-sbe7-%C3%AE-cd-inclusion-complex-with-sulfisoxazole-fast-dissolving-and-enhanced-water-solubility-of-sulfisoxazole
#5
Zehra Irem Yildiz, Asli Celebioglu, Tamer Uyar
In this study, our aim was to develop solid drug-cyclodextrin inclusion complex system having nanofibrous morphology in order to have fast-dissolving property and enhanced water-solubility of poorly water-soluble drug. Here, we prepared a highly concentrated aqueous solution of inclusion complex between sulfisoxazole and sulfobutyl ether7-beta-cyclodextrin (SBE7-β-CD, Captisol(®)), and then, without using any polymeric matrix, the electrospinning of sulfisoxazole/SBE7-β-CD-IC nanofibers was performed in order to obtain free-standing and handy nanofibrous web...
April 23, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445637/control-of-charge-carriers-trapping-and-relaxation-in-hematite-by-oxygen-vacancy-charge-ab-initio-non-adiabatic-molecular-dynamics
#6
Zhaohui Zhou, Jin Liu, Run Long, Linqiu Li, Liejin Guo, Oleg V Prezhdo
Ultrafast charge recombination in hematite (α-Fe2O3) severely limits its applications in solar energy conversion and utilization, for instance, in photo-electrochemical water splitting. We report the first time-domain ab initio study of charge relaxation dynamics in α-Fe2O3 with and without the oxygen vacancy (Ov) defect, using non-adiabatic molecular dynamics implemented within time-dependent density functional theory. The simulations show that the hole trapping is the rate-limiting step in the electron-hole recombination process for both neutral and ionized Ov systems...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444591/biotechnological-application-of-sustainable-biogas-production-through-dry-anaerobic-digestion-of-napier-grass
#7
Natthawud Dussadee, Rameshprabu Ramaraj, Tapana Cheunbarn
Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), represents an interesting substrate for biogas production. The research project evaluated biogas potential production from dry anaerobic digestion of Napier grass using batch experiment. To enhance the biogas production from ensiled Napier grass, thermal and alkaline pre-treatments were performed in batch mode. Alkali hydrolysis of Napier grass was performed prior to batch dry anaerobic digestion at three different mild concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The study results confirmed that NaOH pretreated sample produced high yield of biogas than untreated (raw) and hot water pretreated samples...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443329/direct-hyperpolarization-of-nitrogen-15-in-aqueous-media-with-parahydrogen-in-reversible-exchange
#8
Johannes F P Colell, Meike Emondts, Angus W J Logan, Kun Shen, Junu Bae, Roman V Shchepin, Gerardo X Ortiz, Peter Spannring, Qiu Wang, Steven J Malcolmson, Eduard Y Chekmenev, Martin C Feiters, Floris P J T Rutjes, Bernhard Bluemich, Thomas Theis, Warren S Warren
Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange (SABRE) is an inexpensive, fast, and even continuous hyperpolarization technique that uses para-hydrogen as hyperpolarization source. However, current SABRE faces a number of stumbling blocks for translation to biochemical and clinical settings. Difficulties include inefficient polarization in in water, relatively short lived (1)H-polarization, and relatively limited substrate scope. Here we use a water soluble polarization transfer catalyst to hyperpolarize nitrogen-15 in a variety of molecules with SABRE-SHEATH (SABRE in Shield Enables Alignment Transfer to Heteronuclei)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442768/synergistic-effect-of-nitrate-doped-tio2-aerosols-on-the-fast-photochemical-oxidation-of-formaldehyde
#9
Jing Shang, Wei Wei Xu, Chun Xiang Ye, Christian George, Tong Zhu
The uptake of formaldehyde (HCHO) on mineral dust affects its budget as well as particle properties, yet the process has not yet been fully investigate. Here, TiO2 and nitrate-doped TiO2 aerosols were used as proxies for mineral dust, and the uptake of HCHO was explored in a chamber under both dark and illuminated conditions. The uptake loss of HCHO on UV-illuminated aerosols is 2-9 times faster than its gaseous photolysis in our experimental system. The uptake coefficient in the range of 0.43-1.68 × 10(-7) is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than previous reports on model mineral dust particles...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440630/a-hydrolytically-stable-luminescent-cationic-metal-organic-framework-for-highly-sensitive-and-selective-sensing-of-chromate-anion-in-natural-water-systems
#10
Wei Liu, Yanlong Wang, Zhuanling Bai, Yuxiang Li, Yaxing Wang, Lanhua Chen, Lin Xu, Juan Diwu, Zhifang Chai, Shuao Wang
The effective detection of chromate anion in aqueous solution is highly desirable due to its high solubility, environmental mobility, carcinogenicity, and bioaccumulation effect. New strategy for precise detection of chromate anion in the presence of large excess of other anions such as Cl-, NO3-, HCO3- in drinking water and natural water systems remains a challenge. Herein, a hydrolytically stable cationic luminescent europium(III) based metal organic framework (MOF) 1 is successfully synthesized and investigated as a luminescent sensor which exhibits instant and selective luminescence quenching property toward CrO42- in aqueous solutions...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439942/assessment-of-motion-of-colonic-contents-in-the-human-colon-using-mri-tagging
#11
S E Pritchard, J Paul, G Major, L Marciani, P A Gowland, R C Spiller, C L Hoad
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a non-invasive, semi-automated technique to assess motility of the wall of the ascending colon (AC) using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. This study investigated the feasibility of using a tagged MRI technique to visualize and assess the degree of flow within the human ascending colon in healthy subjects and those suffering from constipation. METHODS: An open-labeled study of 11 subjects with constipation and 11 subjects without bowel disorders was performed...
April 25, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438401/a-control-system-for-ultrasound-devices-utilized-for-inactivating-e-coli-in-wastewater
#12
H Ohrdes, I Ille, J Twiefel, J Wallaschek, R Nogueira, K-H Rosenwinkel
Sonochemical processes applied to wastewater treatment have an influence on the behavior of ultrasonic systems. This is especially due to the load characteristic of the sonochemical process itself and the temperature increase caused by internal damping within the converter. Hence, a controlling device is needed to guarantee the operation in resonance and to keep the vibration amplitude constant. This paper presents a digital control system for the operation of weak to strong damped ultrasonic devices and its application for inactivating Escherichia coli in wastewater...
April 16, 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437580/differential-gene-expression-in-narrow-and-broad-headed-european-glass-eels-anguilla-anguilla-points-to-a-transcriptomic-link-of-head-shape-dimorphism-with-growth-rate-and-chemotaxis
#13
J De Meyer, G E Maes, R P Dirks, D Adriaens
One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to understand the mechanisms underlying morphological dimorphism and plasticity, including the genomic basis of traits and links to ecology. At the yellow eel stage of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), two morphotypes are found: broad- and narrow-heads. This dimorphism has been linked to dietary differences, with broad-heads feeding on harder, larger prey than narrow-heads. However, recent research showed that both morphotypes could be distinguished at the glass eel stage, the non-feeding predecessor of the yellow eel stage, implying that non-dietary factors play a role in the development of this head shape dimorphism...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437263/a-randomised-trial-to-evaluate-preoperative-oral-carbohydrate-administration-on-insulin-resistance-in-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-patients
#14
Bora Lee, Sarah Soh, Jae-Kwang Shim, Ha Y Kim, Hyelin Lee, Young-Lan Kwak
BACKGROUND: In fasting cardiac surgery patients, preoperative carbohydrate (CHO) drink intake attenuated insulin resistance and improved cardiac metabolism, although its beneficial effects were not evident after cardiac surgery possibly due to cardiopulmonary bypass-related extreme systemic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether preoperative CHO intake affected insulin resistance and free-fatty acid (FFA) concentrations in off-pump coronary revascularisation...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436674/general-dialdehyde-click-chemistry-for-amine-bioconjugation
#15
Sina Elahipanah, Paul J O'Brien, Dmitry Rogozhnikov, Muhammad N Yousaf
The development of methods for conjugating a range of molecules to primary amine functional groups has revolutionized the fields of chemistry, biology, and material science. The primary amine is a key functional group and one of the most important nucleophiles and bases used in all of synthetic chemistry. Therefore, tremendous interest in the synthesis of molecules containing primary amines and strategies to devise chemical reactions to react with primary amines has been at the core of chemical research. In particular, primary amines are a ubiquitous functional group found in biological systems as free amino acids, as key side chain lysines in proteins, and in signaling molecules and metabolites and are also present in many natural product classes...
April 24, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436161/dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-as-an-effective-pre-analytical-step-for-the-determination-of-estradiol-in-human-urine
#16
Elena Kupcová, Katarína Reiffová
In this work, a fast and effective dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the isolation and pre-concentration of free 17β-estradiol, the main human estrogen, from real human urine samples. To optimize the extraction technique, few important parameters such as type and volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, centrifugation conditions, effect of salt addition, and extraction time were studied. Optimal conditions were obtained when injecting 600 μL mixture of tetrachloromethane as extraction solvent and ethanol as dispersive solvent (1:5; v/v) into 2 mL of urine containing 8% NaCl and following centrifugation at 10 000 rpm, thus reaching enrichment factor 28 and extraction recovery 98% for estradiol...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435879/fast-moving-soft-electronic-fish
#17
Tiefeng Li, Guorui Li, Yiming Liang, Tingyu Cheng, Jing Dai, Xuxu Yang, Bangyuan Liu, Zedong Zeng, Zhilong Huang, Yingwu Luo, Tao Xie, Wei Yang
Soft robots driven by stimuli-responsive materials have unique advantages over conventional rigid robots, especially in their high adaptability for field exploration and seamless interaction with humans. The grand challenge lies in achieving self-powered soft robots with high mobility, environmental tolerance, and long endurance. We are able to advance a soft electronic fish with a fully integrated onboard system for power and remote control. Without any motor, the fish is driven solely by a soft electroactive structure made of dielectric elastomer and ionically conductive hydrogel...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433142/enhanced-degradation-of-chitosan-by-applying-plasma-treatment-in-combination-with-oxidizing-agents-for-potential-use-as-an-anticancer-agent
#18
Chayanaphat Chokradjaroen, Ratana Rujiravanit, Anyarat Watthanaphanit, Sewan Theeramunkong, Nagahiro Saito, Kazuko Yamashita, Ryuichi Arakawa
Solution plasma (SP) treatment in combination with oxidizing agents, i.e., hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2) were adopted to chitosan degradation in order to achieve fast degradation rate, low chemicals used and high yield of low-molecular-weight chitosan and chitooligosaccharide (COS). Among the studied oxidizing agents, H2O2 was found to be the best choice in terms of appreciable molecular weight reduction without major change in chemical structure of the degraded products of chitosan...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429831/one-step-fabrication-of-monolithic-electrodes-comprising-co9s8-particles-supported-on-cobalt-foam-for-efficient-and-durable-oxygen-evolution-reaction
#19
Dehua Xiong, Qingqing Zhang, Sitaramanjaneya Mouli Thalluri, Junyuan Xu, Wei Li, Xiuli Fu, Lifeng Liu
We report a very easy and cost-effective approach to the fabrication of monolithic Co9S8 water oxidation electrodes (Co@Co9S8), which is fabricated by one-step hydrothermal treatment of commercially available cobalt foam in the presence of thiourea. The morphology, crystal structure, microstructure, and composition of as-fabricated Co@Co9S8 electrodes are examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and their electrochemical properties are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)...
April 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429586/bubble-mediated-ultrasensitive-multiplex-detection-of-metal-ions-in-three-dimensional-dna-nanostructure-encoded-microchannels
#20
Xiangmeng Qu, Fan Yang, Hong Chen, Jiang Li, Hongbo Zhang, Guo-Jun Zhang, Li Li, Lihua Wang, Shiping Song, Yang Tian, Hao Pei
The development of rapid and sensitive point-of-test devices for the on-site monitoring of heavy-metal contamination has great scientific and technological importance. However, developing fast, inexpensive, and sensitive microarray sensors to achieve such goal remains challenging. In this work, we present a DNA nanostructured microarray (DNM) with tubular three-dimensional (3D) sensing surface and ordered nanotopography. This microarray enables enhanced molecular interaction toward the rapid and sensitive multiplex detection of heavy-metal ions...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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