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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743038/physiological-vascular-and-nanomechanical-assessment-of-hybrid-poplar-leaf-traits-in-micropropagated-plants-and-plants-propagated-from-root-cuttings-a-contribution-to-breeding-programs
#1
Jaroslav Ďurkovič, Hana Husárová, Lucia Javoříková, Ingrid Čaňová, Miriama Šuleková, Monika Kardošová, Ivan Lukáčik, Miroslava Mamoňová, Rastislav Lagaňa
Micropropagated plants experience significant stress from rapid water loss when they are transferred from an in vitro culture to either greenhouse or field conditions. This is caused both by inefficient stomatal control of transpiration and the change to a higher light intensity and lower humidity. Understanding the physiological, vascular and biomechanical processes that allow micropropagated plants to modify their phenotype in response to environmental conditions can help to improve both field performance and plant survival...
July 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741595/3d-range-modulator-for-scanned-particle-therapy-development-monte-carlo-simulations-and-experimental-evaluation
#2
Yuri Simeonov, Uli Weber, Petar Penchev, Toke Printz Ringbæk, Christoph Schuy, Stephan Brons, Rita Engenhart-Cabillic, Jens Bliedtner, Klemens Zink
The purpose of this work was to design and manufacture a 3D range-modulator for scanned particle therapy. The modulator is intended to create a highly conformal dose distribution with only one fixed energy, simultaneously reducing considerably the treatment time. As a proof of concept, a 3D range-modulator was developed for a spherical target volume with a diameter of 5 cm, placed at a depth of 25 cm in a water phantom. It consists of a large number of thin pins with a well-defined shape and different lengths to modulate the necessary shift of the Bragg peak...
July 25, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741139/characterization-of-a-liquid-crystal-system-for-sustained-release-of-a-peptide-bms-686117
#3
Yan Xu, Vivian Li, Jinjiang Li, Duohai Pan, Gerd Langenbucher, Neil Mathias
Liquid crystal lipid-based formulations are an effective approach to prolong pharmacokinetics and reduce burst release of a drug on subcutaneous delivery. The objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of phase structures of a lipid-based liquid crystal delivery system and its associated mechanical properties on the release profile of a peptide. It was hypothesized that release of drug molecules are closely related to the mechanical properties that are controlled by phase structures. Experimentally, the relationship between phase structures of lipid liquid crystal system-soy phosphatidyl choline (SPC) and glycerol dioleate (GDO) in water were characterized by polarized light microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction...
July 24, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740979/transport-of-water-molecules-through-noncylindrical-pores-in-multilayer-nanoporous-graphene
#4
Majid Shahbabaei, Daejoong Kim
In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to examine the water transport properties through asymmetric hourglass-shaped pores in multilayer nanoporous graphene with a constant interlayer separation of 6 Å. The properties of the tested asymmetric hourglass-shaped pores [with the models having long cone (l1, -P) and short cone (l2, +P) entrances] are compared to a symmetric pore model. The study findings indicate that the water occupancy increases across the asymmetric pore (l1, -P) compared to (l2, +P), because of the length effect...
July 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738649/well-defined-magnetic-surface-imprinted-nanoparticles-for-selective-enrichment-of-2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid-in-real-samples
#5
Le Sheng, Yulong Jin, Yonghuan He, Yanyan Huang, Liushui Yan, Rui Zhao
Superparamagnetic core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MIPs) were prepared via surface initiated reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer (si-RAFT) polymerization for the selective recognition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in real samples. The construction of uniform core-shell structure with a 50nm MIP layer was successfully accomplished, which favored mass transfer and resulted in fast recognition kinetics. The static equilibrium experiments revealed the satisfied adsorption capacity and imprinting efficiency of Fe3O4@MIP...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738578/a-simple-method-for-the-multi-elemental-analysis-of-beer-using-total-reflection-x-ray-fluorescence
#6
Ednilton M Gama, Clésia C Nascentes, Roberta P Matos, Gabrielle de C Rodrigues, Guilherme D Rodrigues
A method of direct analysis for quantification of 15 inorganic elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, As, Rb, Sr and Pb) in beers by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) was developed. The experimental conditions were optimized. Direct analysis was compared with the acid digestion procedure to evaluate the effect matrix and the results were satisfactory. The evaluation of the accuracy and precision was realized by analysis of two certified reference materials of natural and waste water. For the majority of the elements, good agreement was achieved between the certified value and the value measured in the CRM´s...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738506/taxonomy-or-trait-based-ecological-assessment-for-tropical-rivers-case-study-on-benthic-diatoms-in-mayotte-island-france-indian-ocean
#7
Kálmán Tapolczai, Agnès Bouchez, Csilla Stenger-Kovács, Judit Padisák, Frédéric Rimet
Diatom-based ecological quality assessment methods have been implemented and used regularly in the Water Framework Directive. These indices use the species' abundance profiles along a specific environmental gradient, which they aim to assess. However, this approach has several problematic issues including the unstable and fast-changing diatom taxonomy. The use of traits can be a solution if their responses to the environmental pressure are well-defined. Here, we developed taxonomy-based and trait-based diatom assemblage indices to assess the ecological status of riverine sites on a tropical island...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738281/edta-functionalized-fe3o4-graphene-oxide-for-efficient-removal-of-u-vi-from-aqueous-solutions
#8
Donglin Zhao, Qi Zhang, Han Xuan, Yan Chen, Kehua Zhang, Shaojie Feng, Ahmed Alsaedi, Tasawar Hayat, Changlun Chen
In this study, a regenerable magnetic ligand material (EDTA-mGO) was fabricated by binding chelating groups (EDTA) onto Fe3O4/graphene oxide and applied to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution. The sorption experiments were investigated under different experimental conditions, such as temperature, contact time and pH. EDTA-mGO showed fast removal capacity for U(VI) (<1.5h) with high sorption ability (277.43mg/g). The removal mechanisms mainly attributed to the metal-binding organic ligand (EDTA) and the electrostatic attractions between U(VI) and oxygenic functional groups...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737409/low-buffer-capacity-and-alternating-motility-along-the-human-gastrointestinal-tract-implications-for-in-vivo-dissolution-and-absorption-of-ionizable-drugs
#9
Bart Hens, Yasuhiro Tsume, Marival Bermejo, Paulo Paixao, Mark Koenigsknecht, Jason R Baker, William L Hasler, R Lionberger, Jianghong Fan, Joseph Dickens, Kerby A Shedden, Bo Wen, Jeffrey Wysocki, Raimar Löbenberg, Allen Lee, Ann F Fioritto, Gregory E Amidon, Alex Yu, Gail Benninghoff, Niloufar Salehi, Arjang Talattof, Duxin Sun, Gordon L Amidon
In this study, we determined the pH and buffer capacity of human gastrointestinal (GI) fluids (aspirated from the stomach, duodenum, proximal jejunum and mid/distal jejunum) as a function of time, from 37 healthy subjects after oral administration of an 800 mg immediate-release tablet of ibuprofen (reference listed drug; RLD) under typical prescribed bioequivalence (BE) study protocol conditions in both fasted and fed state (simulated by ingestion of a liquid meal). Simultaneously, motility was continuously monitored using water-perfused manometry...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735713/superparamagnetic-graphene-oxide-magnetite-nanoparticle-composites-for-uptake-of-actinide-ions-from-mildly-acidic-feeds
#10
Trilochan Gadly, Prasanta K Mohapatra, Dinesh K Patre, Rajesh B Gujar, Alka Gupta, Anand Ballal, Sunil K Ghosh
Super paramagnetic graphene oxide (GO) - Fe3O4 nanoparticle composites were prepared and characterized by conventional techniques such as XRD, SEM, EDX, FT-IR, Raman, XPS, DLS and zeta potential, etc. TEM studies have confirmed nanoparticle nature of the composites. The GO-magnetic nanoparticle composites can be dispersed in mildly acidic aqueous solutions and get concentrated in a small volume under application of an external magnetic field. The composites were evaluated for the uptake of actinide ions such as Am(3+), UO2(2+), Th(4+) and Pu(4+) from mildly acidic aqueous solutions...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735541/photoresponsive-foams-generated-by-a-rigid-surfactant-derived-from-dehydroabietic-acid
#11
Lan Lei, Danhua Xie, Binglei Song, Jianzhong Jiang, Xiaomei Pei, Zhenggang Cui
Innovation in the structure of surfactants is crucial to the construction of a surfactant-based system with intriguing properties. With dehydroabietic acid as a starting material, a nearly totally rigid azobenzene surfactant (R-azo-Na) was synthesized. The trans-R-azo-Na formed stable foams with half-lives of 636, 656, 976, and 872 min for 0.3, 1, 2, and 4 mmol∙L-1 aqueous solutions, respectively. Under UV light irradiation, a fast collapse of the foams was observed, showing an in situ response. The excellent foam stability of trans-R-azo-Na leads to the extremely high photoresponsive efficiency...
July 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734706/emerging-minimally-invasive-treatment-options-for-male-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms
#12
REVIEW
Giuseppe Magistro, Christopher R Chapple, Mostafa Elhilali, Peter Gilling, Kevin T McVary, Claus G Roehrborn, Christian G Stief, Henry H Woo, Christian Gratzke
CONTEXT: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are one of the most common and troublesome nonmalignant conditions affecting quality of life in aging men. A spectrum of established medical and surgical options is available to provide relief of bothersome LUTS. Both the adverse events of medication and the morbidity with surgical treatment modalities have to be counterbalanced against efficacy. Novel minimally invasive treatment options aim to be effective, ideally to be performed in an ambulatory setting under local anaesthesia and to offer a more favourable safety profile than existing reference techniques...
July 19, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733616/capturing-3d-water-flow-in-rooted-soil-by-ultra-fast-neutron-tomography
#13
Christian Tötzke, Nikolay Kardjilov, Ingo Manke, Sascha E Oswald
Water infiltration in soil is not only affected by the inherent heterogeneities of soil, but even more by the interaction with plant roots and their water uptake. Neutron tomography is a unique non-invasive 3D tool to visualize plant root systems together with the soil water distribution in situ. So far, acquisition times in the range of hours have been the major limitation for imaging 3D water dynamics. Implementing an alternative acquisition procedure we boosted the speed of acquisition capturing an entire tomogram within 10 s...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733151/chewing-gum-decreases-energy-intake-at-lunch-following-a-controlled-breakfast
#14
Kathleen J Melanson, Daniel L Kresge
The impact of chewing gum on fasting appetite or meal intake has not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that chewing gum would decrease lunch intake after a controlled breakfast, and reduce hunger in fasting and fed states. Seventeen males and sixteen females (21.4 ± 6.3y, BMI 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum a total of one hour on the test day (GC), and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). The 1 h of gum chewing included 20 min while fasting, and two 20-min sessions between breakfast and lunch...
July 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732995/ultrasonic-assisted-fabrication-and-characterization-of-pvc-sio2-nanocomposites-having-bovine-serum-albumin-as-a-bio-coupling-agent
#15
Shadpour Mallakpour, Hossein Yazdan Nazari
In this work, SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were modified with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under ultrasound irradiations as a green and fast route to achieve their good dispersion. Subsequently, different weight percentages of the modified NPs (3, 6, and 9wt%) were incorporated in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as the matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis of the SiO2-BSA NPs indicated that 12wt% of the modifier was loaded on the surface of SiO2 NPs. Encapsulation of the SiO2-BSA resulted in a meaningful improvement in the optical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of the prepared PVC nanocomposites (NCs)...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732991/in-situ-observation-of-ultrasonic-cavitation-induced-fragmentation-of-the-primary-crystals-formed-in-al-alloys
#16
Feng Wang, Iakovos Tzanakis, Dmitry Eskin, Jiawei Mi, Thomas Connolley
The cavitation-induced fragmentation of primary crystals formed in Al alloys were investigated for the first time by high-speed imaging using a novel experimental approach. Three representative primary crystal types, Al3Ti, Si and Al3V with different morphologies and mechanical properties were first extracted by deep etching of the corresponding Al alloys and then subjected to ultrasonic cavitation processing in distilled water. The dynamic interaction between the cavitation bubbles and primary crystals was imaged in situ and in real time...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732228/a-facile-method-for-preparation-of-emulsion-using-the-high-gravity-technique
#17
Yan Li, Ran Andy Mei, Zhongqiang Yang
This study demonstrates a new process for preparation of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion using the high gravity technique. This involves a mixture of oil and water that are passed through a rotating packed bed, under a high shear force, from which oil is emulsified into tiny droplets and subsequently dispersed in water. The process is cycled in order to break the droplets repeatedly and achieve an emulsion with small size and low polydispersity index (PDI). The advantage of the high gravity technique is that the emulsions with a desired size and polydispersity can be rapidly obtained by tuning experimental parameters, such as relative centrifugal force (RCF), cycle times (CT), liquid flow rate (VL) and surfactant concentration (Csurfactant)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731616/inversion-recovery-ultrashort-echo-time-imaging-of-ultrashort-t2-tissue-components-in-ovine-brain-at-3%C3%A2-t-a-sequential-d2-o-exchange-study
#18
Shu-Juan Fan, Yajun Ma, Eric Y Chang, Graeme M Bydder, Jiang Du
Inversion recovery ultrashort echo time (IR-UTE) imaging holds the potential to directly characterize MR signals from ultrashort T2 tissue components (STCs), such as collagen in cartilage and myelin in brain. The application of IR-UTE for myelin imaging has been challenging because of the high water content in brain and the possibility that the ultrashort T2 * signals are contaminated by water protons, including those associated with myelin sheaths. This study investigated such a possibility in an ovine brain D2 O exchange model and explored the potential of IR-UTE imaging for the quantification of ultrashort T2 * signals in both white and gray matter at 3 T...
July 21, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731319/few-layered-mo-1-x-wxs2-hollow-nanospheres-on-ni3s2-nanorods-heterostructure-as-robust-electrocatalysts-for-overall-water-splitting
#19
Meiyong Zheng, Jing Du, Baopu Hou, Cai-Ling Xu
Owing to the unique optical, electronic and catalytic properties, MoS2 have received increasing interests in electrochemical water splitting. Herein, few-layered Mo(1-x)WxS2 hollow nanospheres modified Ni3S2 heterostructures are prepared through a facile hydrothermal method to further enhance the electro-catalytic performance of MoS2. The doping of W element optimizes the electronic structure of MoS2@Ni3S2, thus improves the conductivity and charge transfer ability of MoS2@Ni3S2. In addition, benefiting from the few-layered hollow structure of Mo(1-x)WxS2, the strong electronic interactions between Mo(1-x)WxS2 and Ni3S2, and the hierarchical structure of 1D nanorods and 3D Ni foam, massive active sites and fast ion and charge transportion are obtained...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731312/gentiana-kurroo-royle-attenuates-the-metabolic-aberrations-in-diabetic-rats-swertiamarin-swertisin-and-lupeol-being-the-possible-bioactive-principles
#20
Khalid Ghazanfar, Khan Mubashir, Showkat A Dar, Tazeen Nazir, Iqra Hameed, Bashir A Ganai, Seema Akbar, Akbar Masood
Background Gentiana kuroo Royle is a medicinally important plant of north-western Himalayas used for various ailments. In the present study, the plant extracts were investigated for the antidiabetic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods The impact of the extracts on serum glucose levels of diabetic rats was compared with reference drug - glibenclamide-treated diabetic rats. Streptozotocin injection was used to induce diabetes in fasted rats. Various biochemical, physiological and histopathological parameters in diabetic rats were observed for assessing the antidiabetic activity...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
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