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Grow hormone

David W Miller, Zoe Prosser, Edward Y W Chee, Christian F Hansen, Frank R Dunshea, Bruce P Mullan, John R Pluske
BACKGROUND: Three experiments were conducted to examine the overall hypothesis that addition of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) into the diets of young and growing pigs would stimulate the endogenous somatotropic axis to improve growth and performance. RESULTS: In Experiment 1, weaner pigs were given either a 5 d dietary supplement of 5 % MCT (n = 8) or a control diet (n = 8). MCT increased the plasma concentration of growth hormone (GH; P < 0...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Cristina Talarico, Vincenzo Dattilo, Lucia D'Antona, Miranda Menniti, Cataldo Bianco, Francesco Ortuso, Stefano Alcaro, Silvia Schenone, Nicola Perrotti, Rosario Amato
The serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK) family consists of three members, SGK1, SGK2 and SGK3, all displaying serine/threonine kinase activity and sharing structural and functional similarities with the AKT family of kinases. SGK1 was originally described as a key enzyme in the hormonal regulation of several ion channels and pumps. Over time, growing and impressive evidence has been accumulated, linking SGK1 to the cell survival, de-differentiation, cell cycle control, regulation of caspases, response to chemical, mechanical and oxidative injury in cancer models as well as to the control of mitotic stability...
October 24, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Alexandre Caron, Denis Richard
With the still-growing prevalence of obesity worldwide, major efforts are made to understand the various behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that promote excess fat gain. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, which emphasizes the importance of deciphering the mechanisms behind energy balance regulation to understand its physiopathology. The control of energy balance is assured by brain systems/circuits capable of generating adequate ingestive and thermogenic responses to maintain the stability of energy reserves, which implies a proper integration of the homeostatic signals that inform about the status of the energy stores...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Joseph F O'Grady, Laura S Hoelters, Martin T Swain, David C Wilcockson
BACKGROUND: Talitrus saltator is an amphipod crustacean that inhabits the supralittoral zone on sandy beaches in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. T. saltator exhibits endogenous locomotor activity rhythms and time-compensated sun and moon orientation, both of which necessitate at least one chronometric mechanism. Whilst their behaviour is well studied, currently there are no descriptions of the underlying molecular components of a biological clock in this animal, and very few in other crustacean species...
2016: PeerJ
Paula A van Luijt, Eveline Am Heijnsdijk, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Solveig Hofvind, Harry J de Koning
OBJECTIVE: Fluctuations in the incidence of breast cancer in Norway in the last three decades are partly explained by the use of hormone replacement therapy and mammography screening, but overdiagnosis has also been suggested as a cause. We assessed the trends in breast cancer incidence and overdiagnosis in Norway. METHODS: We calibrated our microsimulation model to Norwegian Cancer Registration data. The model takes into account the use of mammography (both within and outside the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme) and of hormone replacement therapy...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
W Wu, J Xie, H Zhang
Dietary fibers (DFs), widely used as food additives to replace fat, can benefit metabolic disorders. Soluble and highly fermentable inulin (INU) and insoluble and less fermentable microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) have hypolipidemic or cholesterol-lowering effects, respectively. The current study was aimed at identifying plasma metabolite signatures and metabolic pathways associated with inclusion of DFs with different physiochemical properties, which will lead to a better understanding of functional pathways for DFs to improve metabolic health...
October 18, 2016: Food & Function
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Zachery R Reichert, Maha Hussain
The development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) signals the terminal disease phase. The preceding hormone-dependent disease setting is effectively managed with androgen deprivation therapy. This foundation of treatment has a high rate of biochemical and clinical response and meaningful clinical benefit but is finite in duration as most cancers will progress to castration resistance. Historically, treatment for mCRPC entailed androgen receptor (AR) inhibitors (nilutamide, flutamide, bicalutamide), nonspecific steroidal biosynthesis inhibitors (ketoconazole, itraconazole), steroids (prednisone, diethylstilbesterol, dexamethasone), or palliative chemotherapy (mitoxantrone, estramustine), but none of these strategies impacted survival...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
K Dziendzikowska, A Krawczyńska, M Oczkowski, T Królikowski, K Brzóska, A Lankoff, M Dziendzikowski, T Stępkowski, M Kruszewski, J Gromadzka-Ostrowska
The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in various applications, including consumer, agriculture and medicine products, has raised many concerns about the potential risks of nanoparticles (NPs) to human health and the environment. An increasing body of evidence suggests that AgNPs may have adverse effects of humans, thus the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AgNPs on the male reproductive system. Silver particles (20nm AgNPs (groups Ag I and Ag II) and 200nm Ag sub-micron particles (SPs) (group Ag III)) were administered intravenously to male Wistar rats at a dose of 5 (groups Ag I and Ag III) or 10 (group Ag II) mg/kg of body weight...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Jana Ježková, Josef Marek
Adenomas which secrete thyrotropic hormone (thyrotropinomas) are rare and constitute less than 3 % of pituitary adenomas. In laboratory studies there is a typical elevation of thyroid hormones with nonsupressible TSH. In differential diagnostics it is necessary to distinguish above all the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormones. Clinical symptoms are usually mild and correspond to symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Goiter is a common finding. In 80 % of cases thyrotropinomas are diagnosed in a stage of invasively growing macroadenoma...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Dinushan Nesan, Deborah M Kurrasch
The hypothalamus is a critical regulator of body homeostasis, influencing the autonomic nervous system and releasing trophic hormones to modulate the endocrine system. The developmental mechanisms that govern formation of the mature hypothalamus are becoming increasingly understood as research in this area grows, leading us to gain appreciation for how these developmental programs are susceptible to disruption by maternal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals or other environmental factors in utero. These vulnerabilities, combined with the prominent roles of the various hypothalamic nuclei in regulating appetite, reproductive behavior, mood, and other physiologies, create a window whereby early developmental disruption can have potent long-term effects...
October 6, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Olga N Ivanova, Natalia A Savvina, Victoria E Egorova
INTRODUCTION: chronic renal disease (CKD) is the inevitable outcome of many chronic diseases of the kidneys, which not all survive. The number of patients with chronic renal diseases is constantly growing. Aim to study the level osteocalcin and calcitonin and parathyroid hormone and immunological features in patients with chronic renal diseases. Materials and method The study involved 10 children with chronic renal failure at the age from 7 to 14 years in the initial stage - GFR 60-40 ml/min, creatinine blood increased to 180 μmol/l, and 20 healthy patients as a control group...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Jyan-Chyun Jang
Tandem CCCH zinc finger (TZF) proteins are evolutionarily conserved regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. TZFs target AU-rich RNA elements at 3' un-translated region and recruit catabolic machineries to trigger mRNA degradation. The plant TZF families are over-represented by a class of proteins with a unique TZF domain preceded by an arginine-rich motif (RR-TZF). RR-TZF proteins are mainly involved in hormone- and environmental cues-mediated plant growth and stress responses. Numerous reports have suggested that RR-TZF proteins control seed germination, plant size, flowering time, and biotic and abiotic stress responses via regulation of gene expression...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Thierry Brue, Frederic Castinetti
Secreting pituitary adenomas that cause acromegaly and Cushing's disease, as well as prolactinomas and thyrotroph adenomas, are uncommon, usually benign, slow-growing tumours. The rarity of these conditions means that their diagnosis is not familiar to most non-specialist physicians. Consequently, pituitary adenomas may be overlooked and remain untreated, and affected individuals may develop serious comorbidities that reduce their quality of life and life expectancy. Because many signs and symptoms of pituitary adenomas overlap with those of other, more common disorders, general practitioners and non-endocrinology specialists need to be aware of the "red flags" suggestive of these conditions...
October 6, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
T Inagaki, N L Smith, K M Sherva, S Ramakrishnan
Growing evidence indicates that chronic exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) may disrupt normal brain function and behavior mediated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pathways. Previous studies have shown that low dose BPA (200ng/ml) exposure during embryogenesis altered development of extra-hypothalamic GnRH3 systems and non-reproductive locomotor behavior in medaka. Effects of parental low-dose BPA exposure on the development of GnRH3 systems and locomotor behavior of offspring are not well known. This study examines whether the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of BPA in parents (F0 generation) are carried over to their offspring (F1 generation) using stable transgenic medaka embryos/larvae with GnRH3 neurons tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP)...
October 3, 2016: Neurotoxicology
D Athauda, T Foltynie
There is growing evidence that patients with Type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease and share similar dysregulated pathways suggesting common underlying pathological mechanisms. Historically insulin was thought solely to be a peripherally acting hormone responsible for glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism. However accumulating evidence indicates insulin can cross the blood-brain-barrier and influence a multitude of processes in the brain including regulating neuronal survival and growth, dopaminergic transmission, maintenance of synapses and pathways involved in cognition...
October 3, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Marion Kessler, Michael Tenner, Michael Frey, Richard Noto
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to describe the pituitary volume (PV) in pediatric patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), idiopathic short stature (ISS) and normal controls. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients (57 male, 12 female), with a mean age of 11.9 (±2.0), were determined to have IGHD. ISS was identified in 29 patients (20 male, 9 female), with a mean age of 12.7 (±3.7). Sixty-six controls (28 female, 38 male), mean age 9.8 (±4.7) were also included...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Sylwia Mańka, Ewa Majewska
Literature data indicate a significant immunoregulatory role of melatonin. Melatonin exerts an effect directly affecting leucocytes bearing specific melatonin receptors or indirectly by means of melatonin regulating other hormones, opioids or cytokines. Despite numerous experiments, the influence of the hormone on the immune system is still controversial. Melatonin affects the immune response acting as both an activator and an inhibitor of the inflammatory process. The hormone acts as an "immunological buffer" activating impaired immunity in immunosuppression, chronic stress or old age as well as suppressing overreaction of the immune system...
October 4, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
J Delgado-Calle, X Tu, R Pacheco-Costa, K McAndrews, R Edwards, G Pellegrini, K Kuhlenschmidt, N Olivos, A Robling, M Peacock, L I Plotkin, T Bellido
Osteocytes integrate the responses of bone to mechanical and hormonal stimuli by mechanisms poorly understood. We report here that mice with conditional deletion of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor 1 (Pth1r) in DMP1-8kb-expressing cells (cKO) exhibit a modest decrease in bone resorption leading to a mild increase in cancellous bone without changes in cortical bone. However, bone resorption in response to endogenous chronic elevation of PTH in growing or adult cKO mice induced by a low calcium diet remained intact, as the increased bone remodeling and bone loss was indistinguishable from that exhibited by control littermates...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Mathilde Royer, David Cohen, Nathalie Aubry, Vera Vendramin, Simone Scalabrin, Federica Cattonaro, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot, Irène Hummel
Molecular regulation of growth must include spatial and temporal coupling of cell production and cell expansion. The underlying mechanisms, especially under environmental challenge, remain obscure. Spatial patterns of cell processes make the root apex well suited to deciphering stress signaling pathways, and to investigating both processes. Kinematics and RNA-sequencing were used to analyze the immediate growth response of hydroponically grown Populus nigra cuttings submitted to osmotic stress. About 7400 genes and unannotated transcriptionally active regions were differentially expressed between the division and elongation zones...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
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