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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911704/primary-cilia-a-link-between-hormone-signalling-and-endocrine-related-cancers
#1
REVIEW
Samuel M O'Toole, J Paul Chapple
Primary cilia are sensory organelles that play a role as signalling hubs. Disruption of primary cilia structure and function is increasingly recognised in a range of cancers, with a growing body of evidence suggesting that ciliary disruption contributes to tumourigenesis. This review considers the role of primary cilia in the pathogenesis of endocrine-related cancers.
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908890/pathology-of-human-coronary-and-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Kazuyuki Yahagi, Frank D Kolodgie, Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891212/the-role-of-sex-differential-biology-in-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Donna M Werling
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition that affects approximately four times as many males as females, a strong sex bias that has not yet been fully explained. Understanding the causes of this biased prevalence may highlight novel avenues for treatment development that could benefit patients with diverse genetic backgrounds, and the expertise of sex differences researchers will be invaluable in this endeavor. In this review, I aim to assess current evidence pertaining to the sex difference in ASD prevalence and to identify outstanding questions and remaining gaps in our understanding of how males come to be more frequently affected and/or diagnosed with ASD...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872245/the-transcription-factor-athb5-affects-ga-mediated-plasticity-in-hypocotyl-cell-growth-during-seed-germination
#4
Petra Stamm, Alexander T Topham, Nur K Mukhtar, Matthew Jackson, Daniel Tome, Jim L Beynon, George W Bassel
The seed to seedling transition is driven exclusively by cell shape changes within the axis of the plant embryo. Using digital single cell analysis of 3D cellular growth, here we identify the presence of two spatially and temporally distinct cell expansion modules within subdomains of the growing embryo. The second growth module is within the hypocotyl and drives the final phase of the completion of germination under optimal conditions. Using network inference, we identified the transcription factor ATHB5 as a genetic factor specifically induced and localized to the hypocotyl prior to its expansion...
November 21, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870396/impact-of-gender-on-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-noradrenergic-sensitivity-in-cocaine-use-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Aimee L McRae-Clark, Angie M Cason, Amy S Kohtz, Megan Moran Santa-Maria, Gary Aston-Jones, Kathleen T Brady
Responses to stress may be important in understanding gender differences in substance use disorders and may also be a target for development of treatment interventions. A growing body of both preclinical and clinical research supports important underlying gender differences in the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and noradrenergic systems, which may contribute to drug use. Preclinical models have demonstrated increased sensitivity of females to CRF and noradrenergic-induced drug reinstatement compared with males, and, consistent with these findings, human laboratory studies have demonstrated greater sensitivity to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and noradrenergic stimulation in cocaine-dependent women compared with men...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868174/-acromegaly-recognition-of-a-rare-disease-in-psychiatric-practice
#6
A J de Kort, D Postulart, G A A M Wetzer, S H P P Roerink
Acromegaly is a rare disease which is caused by a tumour in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The tumour stimulates excessive production of the growth hormone. As a result, all the organs and tissues in the body are induced to grow. This growth is responsible for a wide range of symptoms, some of which can be neuro-psychiatric.<br/> AIM: To promote the early detection of acromegaly so that treatment can be started as soon as possible and further damage can be prevented.<br/> METHOD: We searched PubMed for articles relating to quality of life and cognitive, psychological and psychiatric symptoms and personality changes associated with acromegaly...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864534/microbiome-and-nutrition-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-knowledge-and-research-needs
#7
Kirsten Berding, Sharon M Donovan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder in the United States. Besides genetic risks, environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the increase in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Several studies have reported abnormalities in microbiota composition and differences in microbial metabolites in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal discomfort is commonly reported in children with ASD. Additionally, food selectivity and picky eating patterns are commonly reported...
December 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864225/should-i-fight-or-should-i-grow-now-the-role-of-cytokinins-in-plant-growth-and-immunity-and-in-the-growth-defence-trade-off
#8
REVIEW
Tessa Albrecht, Cristiana T Argueso
BACKGROUND: Perception and activation of plant immunity require a remarkable level of signalling plasticity and control. In Arabidopsis and other plant species, constitutive defence activation leads to resistance to a broad spectrum of biotrophic pathogens, but also frequently to stunted growth and reduced seed set. Plant hormones are important integrators of the physiological responses that influence the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. SCOPE: We review the mechanisms by which the plant hormone cytokinin regulates both plant growth and response to pathogens, and how cytokinins may connect these two processes, ultimately affecting the growth trade-offs observed in plant immunity...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859423/from-obesity-to-cancer-a-review-on-proposed-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Zoya Tahergorabi, Majid Khazaei, Mitra Moodi, Elham Chamani
Nowadays, obesity is considered as a serious and growing global health problem. It is documented that the overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a series of noncommunicable diseases, and in recent years, the obesity-cancer link has received much attention. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is associated with increased risk of several cancer types, including colon, breast, endometrium, liver, kidney, esophagus, gastric, pancreatic, gallbladder, and leukemia, and can also lead to poorer treatment...
November 9, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857040/effect-of-stress-on-structural-brain-asymmetry
#10
(no author information available yet)
There is a growing body of evidence that stressful events may affect the brain not only as a whole, but also in multiple laterality aspects. The present review is aimed at discussing the effect of stress and stress hormones on structural brain asymmetry. Differences and crossroads of functional and structural asymmetry are briefly mentioned throughout the document. The first part of this review summarizes major findings in the field of structural brain asymmetries in animals and humans from the evolutionary perspective...
September 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856396/oestrogens-prolactin-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-and-schizophrenic-psychoses
#11
REVIEW
Anita Riecher-Rössler
Interest is growing in the potential effect of gonadal hormones, prolactin, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in schizophrenic psychoses. Many studies from clinical, epidemiological, and fundamental research have confirmed that oestradiol, the main component of oestrogens, can have protective effects in schizophrenic psychoses. Furthermore, many patients with schizophrenic psychoses-even in the untreated prodromal stages-have hyperprolactinaemia and gonadal dysfunction, with oestrogen deficiency in women and testosterone deficiency in men...
November 11, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852727/ovarian-tissue-culture-in-presence-of-vegf-and-fetuin-stimulates-follicle-growth-and-steroidogenesis
#12
Ebrahim Asadi, Atefeh Najafi, Ashraf Moeini, Reihaneh Pirjani, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Saideh Mikaeili, Ensieh Salehi, Emmanuel Adutwum, Mansoureh Soleimani, Fariba Khosravi, Mahmood Barati, Farid Abohassani
Ovarian tissue cryopreservation together with follicle culture provides a promising technique for fertility preservation in cancer patients. The study aimed to evaluate follicle parameters in a culture medium supplemented with VEGFA165 and/or fetuin. Vitrified-warmed ovarian cortical pieces were divided randomly into four culture groups consisting of basic culture medium (control), and the basic culture medium supplemented with VEGFA165, fetuin or both. After six days of culture, we evaluated the following: percentage of resting, primary and secondary growing follicles; survival rate; steroid hormones production; levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity; and developmental and antioxidant gene expression...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848434/reducing-exposure-to-synthetic-chemicals-can-fight-diabetes
#13
(no author information available yet)
A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental 'pollutants' contribute to metabolic disorders, particularly obesity and diabetes, by disrupting the production and regulation of hormones.
November 9, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834809/bidirectional-estrogen-like-effects-of-genistein-on-murine-experimental-autoimmune-ovarian-disease
#14
Qiao Ding, Yuxiao Wang, Na Li, Kexue Zhu, Jielun Hu, Sunan Wang, Fan Zhu, Shaoping Nie
This study was to investigate the bidirectional estrogen-like effects of genistein on murine experimental autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD). Female BALB/c mice were induced by immunization with a peptide from murine zona pellucida. The changes of estrous cycle, ovarian histomorphology were measured, and the levels of serum sex hormone were analyzed using radioimmunoassay. Proliferative responses of the ovary were also determined by immunohistochemistry. Administration of 25 or 45 mg/kg body weight genistein enhanced ovary development with changes in serum sex hormone levels and proliferative responses...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833978/primary-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-thyroid-a-case-report
#15
Corina Lichiardopol, Valeriu Şurlin, Maria Camelia Foarfă, Mirela Corina Ghiluşi, Simona Bondari
Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is a very rare thyroid malignancy (less than 1% of thyroid cancers) with unfavorable clinical evolution and median survival less than one year, due to highly local tumor invasiveness with airway obstruction, metastases and treatment complications. We present a 62-year-old female patient with a fixed, rapidly increasing 5 cm right thyroid nodule, generating compressive signs and significant weight loss, resembling anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid hormones, antithyroid antibodies and calcitonin were normal...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823954/molecular-characterization-of-an-adipokinetic-hormone-related-neuropeptide-akh-from-a-mollusk
#16
Marie-Pierre Dubos, Benoit Bernay, Pascal Favrel
Adipokinetic hormones (AKH) are key regulators of energy mobilization in insects. With the growing number of genome sequence available, the existence of genes encoding AKH related peptides has now been established in protostomes. Here we investigated the occurrence of a mature AKH-like neuropeptide (Cg-AKH) in the oyster Crassostrea gigas. We unambiguously elucidated the primary structure of this neuropeptide by mass spectrometry from peptidic extracts of oyster visceral ganglia. Cg-AKH mature peptide (pQVSFSTNWGS-amide) represents an additional member of the AKH family of peptides...
November 5, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823897/new-and-old-roles-of-the-peripheral-and-brain-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-raas-focus-on-cardiovascular-and-neurological-diseases
#17
REVIEW
A Mascolo, M Sessa, C Scavone, A De Angelis, C Vitale, L Berrino, F Rossi, G Rosano, A Capuano
It is commonly accepted that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a cardiovascular circulating hormonal system that plays also an important role in the modulation of several patterns in the brain. The pathway of the RAAS can be divided into two classes: the traditional pathway of RAAS, also named classic RAAS, and the non-classic RAAS. Both pathways play a role in both cardiovascular and neurological diseases through a peripheral or central control. In this regard, renewed interest is growing in the last years for the consideration that the brain RAAS could represent a new important therapeutic target to regulate not only the blood pressure via central nervous control, but also neurological diseases...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821561/the-ovarian-renin-angiotensin-system-ovras-a-major-factor-in-ovarian-function-and-disease
#18
Angela Palumbo, Julio Ávila, Frederick Naftolin
This contribution summarizes the pivotal role of the ovarian renin-angiotensin system (OVRAS) in ovarian physiology and disease, with particular emphasis on human clinical implications and established translational applications. The presence of a complete OVRAS in all studied species has been known for decades. The OVRAS has major effects on follicle development/atresia and ovulation and steroid hormone secretion, that is, it is necessary for normal reproduction. It is well established that OVRAS activity is regulated by gonadotropins and depends on activation of proteases in the area of growing follicles...
December 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815330/plants-grow-with-a-little-help-from-their-organelle-friends
#19
REVIEW
Judith Van Dingenen, Jonas Blomme, Nathalie Gonzalez, Dirk Inzé
Chloroplasts and mitochondria are indispensable for plant development. They not only provide energy and carbon sources to cells, but also have evolved to become major players in a variety of processes such as amino acid metabolism, hormone biosynthesis and cellular signalling. As semi-autonomous organelles, they contain a small genome that relies largely on nuclear factors for its maintenance and expression. An intensive crosstalk between the nucleus and the organelles is therefore essential to ensure proper functioning, and the nuclear genes encoding organellar proteins involved in photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation are obviously crucial for plant growth...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812350/possible-integrative-actions-of-leptin-and-insulin-signaling-in-the-hypothalamus-targeting-energy-homeostasis
#20
REVIEW
Mina Thon, Toru Hosoi, Koichiro Ozawa
Obesity has emerged as one of the most burdensome conditions in modern society. In this context, understanding the mechanisms controlling food intake is critical. At present, the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and the pancreatic β-cell-derived hormone insulin are considered the principal anorexigenic hormones. Although leptin and insulin signal transduction pathways are distinct, their regulation of body weight maintenance is concerted. Resistance to the central actions of leptin or insulin is linked to the emergence of obesity and diabetes mellitus...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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