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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033968/dancing-with-hormones-a-current-perspective-of-nitrate-signaling-and-regulation-in-arabidopsis
#1
REVIEW
Peizhu Guan
In nature and agriculture, nitrate availability is a main environmental cue for plant growth, development and stress responses. Nitrate signaling and regulation are hence at the center of communications between plant intrinsic programs and the environment. It is also well known that endogenous phytohormones play numerous critical roles in integrating extrinsic cues and intrinsic responses, regulating and refining almost all aspects of plant growth, development and stress responses. Therefore, interaction between nitrate and phytohormones, such as auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, and ethylene, is prevalent...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025011/significance-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-signaling-for-acquisition-of-meiotic-and-developmental-competence-in-mammalian-oocytes
#2
Radek Prochazka, Milan Blaha, Lucie Nemcová
The surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) in preovulatory ovarian follicles triggers the resumption of oocyte meiosis accompanied by expansion of surrounding cumulus cells and ovulation of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) into the oviduct. Over the last 15 years, substantial progress has been made in elucidating the key pathways by which the LH signal spreads within the preovulatory follicle and in identifying the molecules responsible for maintaining oocyte arrest and meiosis resumption. It is now clear that the adenylcyclase-mediated rise in intracellular cAMP leads to activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) network in granulosa and cumulus cells...
August 31, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017438/hsd11b2-runx3-and-line-1-methylation-in-placental-dna-of-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-patients
#3
Aleksandra Majchrzak-Celińska, Katarzyna Kosicka, Julia Paczkowska, Franciszek K Główka, Grzegorz H Bręborowicz, Mariola Krzyścin, Anna Siemiątkowska, Marcin Szaumkessel, Wanda Baer-Dubowska
Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDsP) remain leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Growing evidence suggests the involvement of epigenetic factors, such as gene-specific and global DNA methylation changes, both in the etiology and as an effect of HDsP. In this study, we investigated the potential association between placental DNA methylation status in selected CpGs of HSD11B2 cortisol level controlling gene, RUNX3 tumor suppressor gene, and long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements and HDsP-preeclampsia (PE), gestational hypertension (GH), and chronic hypertension (CH)...
November 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991311/selenium-fortification-of-infant-formulas-does-selenium-form-matter
#4
REVIEW
Bo Lönnerdal, Eugenia Vargas-Fernández, Mark Whitacre
Selenium is a trace element essential for the health and development of the growing infant. It is a necessary component of proteins and enzymes required for a variety of functions, including antioxidant defense, modulation of the inflammatory response, and production of thyroid hormones. In breast-fed infants, selenium stores depend on the selenium content of the mother's diet. In formula-fed infants, selenium levels are correlated to the residual selenium stores accumulated in utero and the level and type of selenium fortification used in the formula...
October 9, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990566/-some-insulins-to-orchestrate-growth
#5
Emilie Boone, Laura Boulan, Ditte S Andersen, Nuria Romero, Pierre Léopold, Julien Colombani
Body size is an intrinsic property of living organisms that is intimately linked to the developmental program to produce fit individuals with proper proportions. Final size is the result of both genetic determinants and sophisticated mechanisms adapting size to available resources. Even though organs grow according to autonomous programs, some coordination mechanisms ensure that the different body parts adjust their growth with the rest of the body. In Drosophila, Dilp8, a hormone of the Insulin/Relaxin family is a key player in this inter-organs coordination and is required together with its receptor Lgr3 to limit developmental variability...
June 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987899/plasma-lipoproteins-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-patients-compared-to-healthy-controls-and-their-associations-with-the-hpa-and-hpt-axis
#6
Giel-Jan de Vries, Roel Mocking, Johanna Assies, Aart Schene, Miranda Olff
BACKGROUND: Based on studies among primarily male veteran subjects, lipoproteins are thought to mediate the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, recent civilian studies with female samples or samples with both sexes represented provide little evidence for this association. Gender, diet and sex-specific effects of stress hormones on lipoproteins may explain this dissociation in findings. METHOD: Cross-sectional analysis of plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG) in a male and female sample of 49 PTSD-patients due to civilian trauma and 45 healthy controls...
September 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985528/chromatin-and-single-cell-rna-seq-profiling-reveal-dynamic-signaling-and-metabolic-transitions-during-human-spermatogonial-stem-cell-development
#7
Jingtao Guo, Edward J Grow, Chongil Yi, Hana Mlcochova, Geoffrey J Maher, Cecilia Lindskog, Patrick J Murphy, Candice L Wike, Douglas T Carrell, Anne Goriely, James M Hotaling, Bradley R Cairns
Human adult spermatogonial stem cells (hSSCs) must balance self-renewal and differentiation. To understand how this is achieved, we profiled DNA methylation and open chromatin (ATAC-seq) in SSEA4(+) hSSCs, analyzed bulk and single-cell RNA transcriptomes (RNA-seq) in SSEA4(+) hSSCs and differentiating c-KIT(+) spermatogonia, and performed validation studies via immunofluorescence. First, DNA hypomethylation at embryonic developmental genes supports their epigenetic "poising" in hSSCs for future/embryonic expression, while core pluripotency genes (OCT4 and NANOG) were transcriptionally and epigenetically repressed...
October 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983923/the-highs-and-lows-of-programmed-cardiovascular-disease-by-developmental-hypoxia-studies-in-the-chicken-embryo
#8
N Itani, C E Salinas, M Villena, K L Skeffington, C Beck, E Villamor, C E Blanco, D A Giussani
It is now established that adverse conditions during pregnancy can trigger a fetal origin of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or increase the risk of heart disease in later life. Sub-optimal environmental conditions during early life that may promote the development of cardiovascular dysfunction in the offspring include alterations in fetal oxygenation and nutrition as well as fetal exposure to stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids. There has been growing interest in identifying the partial contributions of each of these stressors to programming of cardiovascular dysfunction...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980234/hormonal-responses-to-a-potential-mate-in-male-birds
#9
Yasuko Tobari, Yoshimi Sato, Kazuo Okanoya
Social interactions rapidly modulate circulating hormone levels and behavioral patterns in most male animals. In male birds, sexual interaction or visual exposure to a conspecific female usually causes an increase in the levels of peripheral reproductive hormones, such as gonadotropins and androgens. Although the perception of a female presence is processed in the brain and peripheral hormonal levels are regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, the specific neural circuitry and neurochemical systems that translate social signals into reproductive physiology in male birds were not well understood until 2008...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978940/association-of-residual-feed-intake-with-growth-and-slaughtering-performance-blood-metabolism-and-body-composition-in-growing-lambs
#10
Xiaoxue Zhang, Weimin Wang, Futao Mo, Yongfu La, Chong Li, Fadi Li
The aim of this study was to determine the association of residual feed intake (RFI) with growth performance, blood metabolic parameters, and body composition factors in growing lambs. Individual body weight (BW) and dry matter intake (DMI) were determined in 137 male Hu lambs that were given a pellet feed four times a day for 50 d. RFI did not show a correlation with metabolic BW (MBW) or average daily gain (ADG), but it showed a positive correlation with DMI and feed conversation ratio (FCR). Organ weight and intestine length had a large influence on RFI in lambs...
October 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978430/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-the-growth-regulating-factor-family-in-tobacco-nicotiana-tabacum
#11
Jianfeng Zhang, Zefeng Li, Jingjing Jin, Xiaodong Xie, Hui Zhang, Qiansi Chen, Zhaopeng Luo, Jun Yang
Growth-regulating factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that have important functions in regulating plant growth and development. GRF gene families have been described in several plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of the GRF gene family in tobacco has not yet been reported. In this study, we identified 25 NtabGRF genes in N. tabacum. The gene structures, motifs, and cis-acting regulatory elements of the NtabGRF genes were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis divided the genes into six clusters...
October 1, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977588/hexarelin-a-growth-hormone-secretagogue-improves-lipid-metabolic-aberrations-in-nonobese-insulin-resistant-male-mkr-mice
#12
Rasha Mosa, Lili Huang, Yeda Wu, Chungyan Fung, Oshini Mallawakankanamalage, Derek LeRoith, Chen Chen
Despite the occurrence of dyslipidemia and its contribution to the development of insulin resistance in obese subjects, a growing number of studies have described abnormal lipid profiles among leaner persons. For example, individuals with an abnormal paucity or distribution of fat (lipodystrophy) develop severe insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Deranged adipocyte metabolism and differentiation contribute to ectopic fat deposition and consequent development of insulin resistance. Growth hormone (GH) therapy has been shown to correct body composition abnormalities in some lipodystrophy patients...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973885/metamorphosis-is-induced-by-food-absence-rather-than-a-critical-weight-in-the-solitary-bee-osmia-lignaria
#13
Bryan R Helm, Joseph P Rinehart, George D Yocum, Kendra J Greenlee, Julia H Bowsher
Body size is an important phenotypic trait that correlates with performance and fitness. For determinate growing insects, body size variation is determined by growth rate and the mechanisms that stop growth at the end of juvenile growth. Endocrine mechanisms regulate growth cessation, and their relative timing along development shapes phenotypic variation in body size and development time. Larval insects are generally hypothesized to initiate metamorphosis once they attain a critical weight. However, the mechanisms underlying the critical weight have not been resolved even for well-studied insect species...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972798/the-role-of-levothyroxine-in-obstetric-practice
#14
Inés Velasco, Peter Taylor
Thyroid hormones play a pivotal role in somatic growth, metabolic regulation and neurodevelopment. There is growing evidence regarding adverse obstetric and perinatal consequences of maternal thyroid hypofunction during early stages of pregnancy. These include: early pregnancy loss, preterm delivery and lower intelligence quotient (IQ) in children. Different clinical guidelines have been published by scientific societies for the management of thyroid diseases during pregnancy and levothyroxine (LT4) has become a therapeutic agent increasingly prescribed by obstetricians...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972158/ligand-dependent-corepressor-lcor-represses-the-transcription-factor-c-ebp%C3%AE-during-early-adipocyte-differentiation
#15
Hongchao Cao, Shengjie Zhang, Shifang Shan, Chao Sun, Yan Li, Hui Wang, Shuxian Yu, Yi Liu, Feifan Guo, Qiwei Zhai, Yu-Cheng Wang, Jingjing Jiang, Hui Wang, Jun Yan, Wei Liu, Hao Ying
Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate gene transcription by recruiting coregulators, involved in chromatin remodeling and assembly of the basal transcription machinery. The NR-associated protein ligand-dependent corepressor (LCoR) has previously been shown to suppress hepatic lipogenesis by decreasing the binding of steroid receptor coactivators to thyroid hormone receptor. However, the role of LCoR in adipogenesis has not been established. Here, we show that LCoR expression is reduced in the early stage of adipogenesis in vitro...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958500/using-rna-seq-to-determine-patterns-of-sex-bias-in-gene-expression-in-the-brain-of-the-sex-role-reversed-gulf-pipefish-syngnathus-scovelli
#16
Andria P Beal, F Douglas Martin, Matthew C Hale
Sex-bias in gene expression is a widespread mechanism for controlling the development of phenotypes that differ between males and females. Most studies on sex-bias in gene expression have focused on species that exhibit traditional sex-roles (male-male competition and female parental care). By contrast the Syngnathid fishes (sea horses, pipefish, and sea dragons) are a group of organisms where many species exhibit male brooding and sex-role reversal (female-female competition for mates and paternal parental care), and little is known about how patterns of sex-bias in gene expression vary in species with sex-role reversal...
September 22, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955251/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-mediated-regulation-of-bk-channels
#17
REVIEW
Zhen-Ye Zhang, Ling-Ling Qian, Ru-Xing Wang
Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) belong to a family of Ca(2+)-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channels and play a vital role in various physiological activities in the human body. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is acknowledged as being vital in the body's hormone system and plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. There is growing evidence that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has profound influences on the expression and bioactivity of BK channels...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954706/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-a-review
#18
REVIEW
C D'Amore, F Marsico, A Parente, S Paolillo, F De Martino, P Gargiulo, F Ferrazzano, A M De Roberto, L La Mura, C Marciano, S Dellegrottaglie, B Trimarco, P Perrone Filardi
AIM: The aim of this review was to summarize evidence on the role of Vitamin D deficiency in heart failure (HF), from pathophysiological mechanisms to clinical effects of Vitamin D supplementation. DATA SYNTHESIS: Chronic HF secondary to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction is a growing health problem, still associated with poor clinical outcome. In recent years, experimental and epidemiological evidence focused on the role of Vitamin D in HF. Cross sectional studies demonstrated that prevalence of HF is increased in patients with Vitamin D deficiency or parathyroid hormone (PTH) plasma level increase, whereas longitudinal studies showed enhanced risk of developing new HF in patients with Vitamin D deficiency...
October 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949928/second-messenger-signaling-mechanisms-of-the-brown-adipocyte-thermogenic-program-an-integrative-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Fubiao Shi, Sheila Collins
β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are well established for conveying the signal from catecholamines to adipocytes. Acting through the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) they stimulate lipolysis and also increase the activity of brown adipocytes and the 'browning' of adipocytes within white fat depots (so-called 'brite' or 'beige' adipocytes). Brown adipose tissue mitochondria are enriched with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is a regulated proton channel that allows the dissipation of chemical energy in the form of heat...
September 26, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947610/regulating-protein-breakdown-through-proteasome-phosphorylation
#20
REVIEW
Jordan J S VerPlank, Alfred L Goldberg
The ubiquitin proteasome system degrades the great majority of proteins in mammalian cells. Countless studies have described how ubiquitination promotes the selective degradation of different cell proteins. However, there is a small but the growing literature that protein half-lives can also be regulated by post-translational modifications of the 26S proteasome. The present study reviews the ability of several kinases to alter proteasome function through subunit phosphorylation. For example, PKA (protein kinase A) and DYRK2 (dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 2) stimulate the proteasome's ability to degrade ubiquitinated proteins, peptides, and adenosine triphosphate, while one kinase, ASK1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1), inhibits proteasome function during apoptosis...
September 24, 2017: Biochemical Journal
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