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nutrition for children burn

M C Plancq, L Goffinet, V Duquennoy-Martinot
Burn is still a frequent accident in children and particularly occurs in young children under 4years. The majority were caused by hot liquids (scalds) with mixed-dermal burns and is commonly treated conservatively with surgery performed at 10-15 days post-injury after healing of superficial burn. Patients with burns greater than 10% need early fluid resuscitation and adequate nutritional support to avoid deepening with infection, improve healing and survival. Hypovolemic shock could be very abrupt in children...
October 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Ari Joffe, Natalie Anton, Laurance Lequier, Ben Vandermeer, Lisa Tjosvold, Bodil Larsen, Lisa Hartling
BACKGROUND: Nutritional support in the critically ill child has not been well investigated and is a controversial topic within paediatric intensive care. There are no clear guidelines as to the best form or timing of nutrition in critically ill infants and children. This is an update of a review that was originally published in 2009. . OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the impact of enteral and parenteral nutrition given in the first week of illness on clinically important outcomes in critically ill children...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Catherine Porter, Radhika Goyal
We investigate the impact of a large-scale social protection scheme, the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) in Ethiopia, on child nutritional outcomes. Children living in households that receive cash transfers should experience improved child nutrition. However, in the case of the PSNP, which for the majority of participants is a public works program, there are several potential threats to finding effects: first, without conditionality on child inputs, increased household income may not be translated into improved child nutrition...
June 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Jennifer Burns, Jillian A Emerson, Kimberly Amundson, Shannon Doocy, Laura E Caulfield, Rolf D W Klemm
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are determinants of poor child nutritional status. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, few children are fed according to international guidelines; this combined with endemic poverty and food insecurity have contributed to the high prevalence of child undernutrition. OBJECTIVE: To characterize IYCF practices and barriers and enablers to optimal child feeding in South Kivu. METHODS: Focus group discussions, structured and in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age, mothers of children <2 years, and health workers were conducted in 2012 as part of formative research for the US Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Jenga Jamaa II multiyear assistance program...
June 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Shumei Xu, Ying Xue
Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21-24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16-18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, liver and kidney diseases and causes reproductive dysfunction in adults...
January 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Koen Joosten, Esther van Puffelen, Sascha Verbruggen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes the current best available evidence on optimal nutrition in the paediatric intensive care based on different levels of outcome, which can be divided in surrogate and hard clinical outcome parameters. RECENT FINDINGS: Undernutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, whereas in specific cohorts of critically ill children, such as those with burn injury, obesity is associated with more complications, longer length of stay, and decreased likelihood of survival...
March 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Daniela Nasu Monteiro Medeiros, Juliana Ferreira Ferranti, Artur Figueiredo Delgado, Werther Brunow de Carvalho
AIM: The goal of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature assessing the use of colloids for the initial treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock in pediatric patients. DESIGN: The PICO [Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome] method was used for the selection of studies, and the Cochrane Bias Tool was used to analyze the quality of the selected studies. DATA SEARCH: Relevant studies were sought using the following databases: EMBASE (1980 to March 2014), PubMed (1970 to March 2014), Cochrane (1980 to March 2014), Web of Science, and Scopus...
November 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
Abukari I Issaka, Kingsley E Agho, Andrew N Page, Penelope L Burns, Garry J Stevens, Michael J Dibley
Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013...
October 2015: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Eva C Diaz, David N Herndon, Jinhyung Lee, Craig Porter, Matthew Cotter, Oscar E Suman, Labros S Sidossis, Elisabet Børsheim
BACKGROUND: Following a major burn, skeletal muscle protein synthesis rate increases but is often insufficient to compensate for massively elevated muscle protein breakdown rates. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that muscle protein synthesis rate would be chronically elevated in severely burned children. The objectives of this study were to characterize muscle protein synthesis rate of burned children over a period of 24 months after injury and to identify predictors that influence this response...
April 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
David M Homa, Linda J Neff, Brian A King, Ralph S Caraballo, Rebecca E Bunnell, Stephen D Babb, Bridgette E Garrett, Connie S Sosnoff, Lanqing Wang
Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), respiratory infections, ear infections, and asthma attacks in infants and children, and coronary heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer in adult nonsmokers. No risk-free level of SHS exposure exists. SHS exposure causes more than 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults and 400 deaths in infants each year, and approximately $5.6 billion annually in lost productivity. Although population exposure to SHS has declined over the past 2 decades, many nonsmokers remain exposed to SHS in workplaces, public places, homes, and vehicles...
February 6, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Raquel Gonzalez, Christina M Shanti
Burn injuries affect approximately a million children in the United States on an annual basis. Moderate to severe burns require hospitalization, usually under the direction of a Pediatric Surgical service. Despite advancements in burn treatment, pediatric burn injuries account for approximately 2500 deaths annually. This article provides an overview of the initial evaluation and resuscitative measures for pediatric burn patients, most current wound care, indications for grafting, and the role of nutrition, including use of pharmacologic adjuncts...
February 2015: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Anthony J Viera, Ray Antonelli
OBJECTIVES: Menu labels displaying food energy in physical activity calorie equivalents (PACE) is a possible strategy to encourage ordering meals with fewer calories and promoting physical activity. Potential effects of such labeling for children have never been examined. METHODS: We conducted a national survey of 1000 parents randomized to 1 of 4 fast food menus: no labels, calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles needed to walk to burn the calories...
February 2015: Pediatrics
Jonine Maree Jancey, Sarojini Maria Dos Remedios Monteiro, Satvinder S Dhaliwal, Peter A Howat, Sharyn Burns, Andrew P Hills, Annie S Anderson
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy dietary behaviours are one of the key risk factors for many lifestyle-related diseases worldwide. This randomised controlled trial aimed to increase the level of fruit, vegetable and fibre intake and decrease the fat and sugar consumption of mothers with young children (0-5 years) via the playgroup setting. METHODS: Playgroups located in 60 neighbourhoods in Perth, Western Australia were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 249) or control group (n = 272)...
2014: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Marla Reicks, Dennis Degeneffe, Aaron Rendahl, Marianne Smith Edge, Katie Burns, Brian O'Meara, Greg Blevins
OBJECTIVE: To describe how frequency and characteristics of traditional meal and non-meal occasions vary by age, gender, presence of children, and body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was administered to a national demographically balanced sample of adults via an online market research panel. SETTING: Online survey. SUBJECTS: Survey respondents were in the 18- to 80-year-old age range and had consumed any food or beverage at home or away from home the previous day...
2014: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Rochelle Kurmis, Kathryn Heath, Selena Ooi, Zachary Munn, Sharon Forbes, Vicki Young, Paul Rigby, Kate Wood, Frances Phillips, John Greenwood
The importance of nutrition support delivery to the severe burn-injured patient is well recognized, however, nutrition provision to the patient may be sub optimal in practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective multi-center audit across Australia and New Zealand using the Joanna Briggs Institute Burns Node Nutrition audit criteria. Thirty-four patients with severe burn injury (≥20% TBSA in adults and ≥10% TBSA in children) were identified on admission or on referral to the Dietitian at the eight participating Burn Units between February 1, 2012 and April 30, 2012 for inclusion in the study...
July 2015: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Merve Usta, Tülay Erkan, Fugen Cullu Cokugras, Nafiye Urganci, Zerrin Onal, Mahir Gulcan, Tufan Kutlu
OBJECTIVE: Caustic substance ingestion in childhood is a public health issue in developing countries, and several management protocols have been proposed to prevent the resulting esophageal strictures. The role of corticosteroids in preventing corrosive-induced strictures is controversial. Our aim was to study the influence of high doses of corticosteroids in preventing esophageal strictures. METHODS: Eighty-three children with a mean age of 4.10 6 2.63 years and with grade IIb esophageal burns (an esophagogastroscopy was performed within 24–48 hours of injury) due to corrosive substance ingestion were enrolled in our study between 2005 and 2008...
June 2014: Pediatrics
Abukari I Issaka, Kingsley E Agho, Penelope Burns, Andrew Page, Michael J Dibley
OBJECTIVE: To explore complementary feeding practices and identify potential risk factors associated with inadequate complementary feeding practices in Ghana by using the newly developed WHO infant feeding indicators and data from the nationally representative 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. DESIGN: The source of data for the analysis was the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Analysis of the factors associated with inadequate complementary feeding, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants, was done by performing multiple logistic regression modelling...
March 2015: Public Health Nutrition
Mackenzie S Burns, Shawn L Gerstenberger
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently established a new reference value (≥ 5 μg/dL) as the standard for identifying children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLs). At present, 535,000 US children aged 1 to 5 years (2.6%) are estimated to have EBLs according to the new standard, versus 0.8% according to the previous standard (≥ 10 μg/dL). Because EBLs signify the threshold for public health intervention, this new definition increases demands on lead poisoning prevention efforts. Primary prevention has been proven to reduce lead poisoning cases and is also cost effective; however, federal budget cuts threaten the existence of such programs...
June 2014: American Journal of Public Health
Janet Saul, Linda A Valle, James A Mercy, Shairi Turner, Rachel Kaufmann, Tanja Popovic
Child maltreatment is abuse or neglect of a child by a parent or other caregiver that results in potential or actual harm or threats of harm to a child. Maltreatment encompasses both acts of commission (abuse) and omission (neglect). Child maltreatment is divided into four types: 1) physical abuse (e.g., hitting, kicking, shaking, or burning); 2) sexual abuse (e.g., rape or fondling); 3) psychological abuse (e.g., terrorizing or belittling); and 4) neglect, which involves the failure to meet a child's basic physical, emotional, or educational needs (e...
March 28, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Eleanor Hollywood, Tracey O'Neill
In childhood, burn or scald injuries are comparatively common, and the greatest risk is to infants and toddlers. The extent and severity of injuries can vary greatly, which can significantly affect recovery and outcome. To provide high quality nursing care to the child who has sustained a burn injury and the family, the children's nurse should understand the pathophysiology of the trauma and the associated physical and psychological suffering. Evidence-based nursing management of these aspects is an essential component of recovery...
March 2014: Nursing Children and Young People
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