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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906488/total-synthesis-of-leupyrrins-a1-and-b1-highly-potent-antifungal-agents-from-the-myxobacterium-sorangium-cellulosum
#1
Sebastian Thiede, Paul R Wosniok, Daniel Herkommer, Thomas Debnar, Maoqun Tian, Tongtong Wang, Michael Schrempp, Dirk Menche
Full details on the design, elaboration and application of efficient strategies for the high-yielding total syntheses of leupyrrins A1 and B1, unique antifungal agents from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum are reported. A sequential zirconocene-mediated diyne-cyclization and regioselective opening of the zirconacyclopentadiene intermediate enabled a concise entry into the unique dihydrofuran fragment, while another domino reaction was developed for the butyrolactone involving a one-pot lactol opening, stereoselective aldehyde addition and in situ-lactonization...
December 1, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906461/measurement-of-intestinal-and-peripheral-cholesterol-fluxes-by-a-dual-tracer-balance-method
#2
Onne A H O Ronda, Theo H van Dijk, H J Verkade, Albert K Groen
Long-term elevated plasma cholesterol levels put individuals at risk for developing atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol levels are determined by the balance between cholesterol input and output fluxes. Here we describe in detail the methodology to determine the different cholesterol fluxes in mice. The percentage of absorbed cholesterol is calculated from a stable isotope-based double-label method. Cholesterol synthesis is calculated from MIDA after (13) C-acetate enrichment. Cholesterol is removed from the body via the feces...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906142/electrospun-cellulose-acetate-membrane-for-size-separating-and-antibacterial-screening-of-crude-polysaccharides
#3
Jiraporn Chumpol, Sineenat Siri
This study aims to produce electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) membrane as the alternative supporting medium for a separation of crude polysaccharides by electrophoresis and a screening of their antibacterial activity. Among the tested conditions of fabrication, electrospun CA membrane at 57% porosity showed the best separation of each polysaccharide from the standard mixture and the crude extract of Aloe vera via electrophoresis. As compared with the commercial CA membrane, the produced electrospun CA membrane demonstrated more separated spots of polysaccharides...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905924/current-knowledge-and-perspectives-of-paenibacillus-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Elliot Nicholas Grady, Jacqueline MacDonald, Linda Liu, Alex Richman, Ze-Chun Yuan
Isolated from a wide range of sources, the genus Paenibacillus comprises bacterial species relevant to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Many Paenibacillus species can promote crop growth directly via biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and release of siderophores that enable iron acquisition. They can also offer protection against insect herbivores and phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905542/defining-an-olfactory-receptor-function-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#5
William H Aisenberg, Jessie Huang, Wanqu Zhu, Premraj Rajkumar, Randy Cruz, Lakshmi Santhanam, Niranjana Natarajan, Hwan Mee Yong, Breann De Santiago, Jung Jin Oh, A-Rum Yoon, Reynold A Panettieri, Oliver Homann, John K Sullivan, Stephen B Liggett, Jennifer L Pluznick, Steven S An
Pathways that control, or can be exploited to alter, the increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and cellular remodeling that occur in asthma are not well defined. Here we report the expression of odorant receptors (ORs) belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), as well as the canonical olfaction machinery (Golf and AC3) in the smooth muscle of human bronchi. In primary cultures of isolated human ASM, we identified mRNA expression for multiple ORs. Strikingly, OR51E2 was the most highly enriched OR transcript mapped to the human olfactome in lung-resident cells...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905538/potential-and-optimization-of-two-phase-anaerobic-digestion-of-oil-refinery-waste-activated-sludge-and-microbial-community-study
#6
Qinghong Wang, Ying Liang, Peng Zhao, Qing X Li, Shaohui Guo, Chunmao Chen
Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905288/cyclospora-cayetanensis-opportunistic-protozoan-parasite-in-van-province-turkey-a-report-of-seven-cases
#7
Zeynep Taş Cengiz, Yunus Emre Beyhan, Hasan Yılmaz
The aim of this study is to report seven Cyclospora cayetanensis (C.cayetanensis) cases determined in Yuzuncu Yil University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory, Van province, Turkey. In the study native-Lugol, formalin-ethyl acetate and modified acid-fast staining methods were performed to stool samples of the patients sent from outpatient clinics of the hospital. All of the patients infected with C. cayetanensis were older than 15 years. In our cases there were not a history of international travel. Only one of our seven cases was immunosuppressed...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905123/selective-precipitation-reaction-a-novel-diagnostic-test-for-tissue-pathology-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-infected-with-salmonid-alphavirus-sav3
#8
M Braceland, J Tinsley, D Cockerill, R Bickerdike, M F McLoughlin, P D Eckersall
While investigating biomarkers for infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the cause of pancreas disease (PD), a selective precipitation reaction (SPR) has been discovered in serum which could be an on-farm qualitative test and an in-laboratory quantitative assay for health assessments in aquaculture. Mixing serum from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, with SAV infection with a sodium acetate buffer caused a visible precipitation which does not occur with serum from healthy salmon. Proteomic examination of the precipitate has revealed that the components are a mix of muscle proteins, for example enolase and aldolase, along with serum protein such as serotransferrin and complement C9...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905068/inhibition-of-mevalonate-pathway-and-synthesis-of-the-storage-lipids-in-human-liver-derived-and-non-liver-cell-lines-by-lippia-alba-essential-oils
#9
Sandra Montero-Villegas, Mónica Polo, Marianela Galle, Boris Rodenak-Kladniew, María Castro, Ana Ves-Losada, Rosana Crespo, Margarita García de Bravo
The essential oils (EOs) of Lippia alba, an herb extensively used as a folk medicine in Latin America, are today promoted as an effective means of eliminating problems caused by hyperlipemia. We hypothesized that L.alba EOs inhibited cholesterol and triacylglycerols synthesis and decreased the intracellular depots of those lipids (lipid droplets), mechanisms involving the induction of a hypolipidemic response. Our aim was, therefore, to evaluate the hypolipogenic capability of the EOs of four L. alba chemotypes on liver-derived (HepG2) and non-liver (A549) human cell lines and to identify the potential biochemical targets of those chemotypes, particularly within the mevalonate pathway (MP)...
November 30, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904937/separation-of-cyclic-lipopeptide-puwainaphycins-from-cyanobacteria-by-countercurrent-chromatography-combined-with-polymeric-resins-and-hplc
#10
José Cheel, Petra Urajová, Jan Hájek, Pavel Hrouzek, Marek Kuzma, Elodie Bouju, Karine Faure, Jiří Kopecký
Puwainaphycins are a recently described group of β-amino fatty acid cyclic lipopeptides of cyanobacterial origin that possess interesting biological activities. Therefore, the development of an efficient method for their isolation from natural sources is necessary. Following the consecutive adsorption of the crude extract on Amberlite XAD-16 and XAD-7 resins, countercurrent chromatography (CCC) was applied to separate seven puwainaphycin variants from a soil cyanobacterium (Cylindrospermum alatosporum CCALA 988)...
November 30, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904924/sequential-lignin-depolymerization-by-combination-of-biocatalytic-and-formic-acid-formate-treatment-steps
#11
Christoph A Gasser, Monika Čvančarová, Erik M Ammann, Andreas Schäffer, Patrick Shahgaldian, Philippe F-X Corvini
Lignin, a complex three-dimensional amorphous polymer, is considered to be a potential natural renewable resource for the production of low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds. In the present study, a novel sequential lignin treatment method consisting of a biocatalytic oxidation step followed by a formic acid-induced lignin depolymerization step was developed and optimized using response surface methodology. The biocatalytic step employed a laccase mediator system using the redox mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole...
November 30, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904735/urinary-metabolomics-of-young-italian-autistic-children-supports-abnormal-tryptophan-and-purine-metabolism
#12
Federica Gevi, Lello Zolla, Stefano Gabriele, Antonio M Persico
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still diagnosed through behavioral observation, due to a lack of laboratory biomarkers, which could greatly aid clinicians in providing earlier and more reliable diagnoses. Metabolomics on human biofluids provides a sensitive tool to identify metabolite profiles potentially usable as biomarkers for ASD. Initial metabolomic studies, analyzing urines and plasma of ASD and control individuals, suggested that autistic patients may share some metabolic abnormalities, despite several inconsistencies stemming from differences in technology, ethnicity, age range, and definition of "control" status...
2016: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904401/comparison-of-cultivable-acetic-acid-bacterial-microbiota-in-organic-and-conventional-apple-cider-vinegar
#13
Aleksandra Štornik, Barbara Skok, Janja Trček
Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904400/16s-rrna-in-situ-hybridization-followed-by-flow-cytometry-for-rapid-identification-of-acetic-acid-bacteria-involved-in-submerged-industrial-vinegar-production
#14
Janja Trček, Luka Lipoglavšek, Gorazd Avguštin
Acetic acid bacteria are involved in many biotechnological processes such as vitamin C, gluconic acid, miglitol or acetic acid production, and others. For a technologist trying to control the industrial process, the ability to follow the microbiological development of the process is thus of importance. During the past few years hybridization in a combination with flow cytometry has often been used for this purpose. Since vinegar is a liquid, it is an ideal matrix for flow cytometry analysis. In this work we have constructed a specific probe for highly acetic acid-resistant species of the acetic acid bacteria and a protocol for in situ hybridization, which in combination with flow cytometry enables direct monitoring of bacteria producing vinegar with >10% of acetic acid...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904397/antibacterial-activity-of-indian-borage-plectranthus-amboinicus-benth-leaf-extracts-in-food-systems-and%C3%A2-against-natural-microflora-in-chicken-meat
#15
Sandeep Kumar Gupta, Pradeep Singh Negi
The ability of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of a traditional Indian medicinal plant, Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) to prevent spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and papaya) and natural microflora of chicken meat was evaluated. These extracts were able to reduce the bacterial counts in all food systems; however, the effective concentration varied with the complexity of the system (cabbage<papaya<chicken). A probable mode of action of extracts was investigated by analyzing the changes they cause in bacterial cell wall and leakage of nucleic acid from bacterial cells...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903429/polyhydroxyalkanoate-as-a-slow-release-carbon-source-for-in-situ-bioremediation-of-contaminated-aquifers-from-laboratory-investigation-to-pilot-scale-testing-in-the-field
#16
Lucia Pierro, Bruna Matturro, Simona Rossetti, Marco Sagliaschi, Salvatore Sucato, Eduard Alesi, Ernst Bartsch, Firoozeh Arjmand, Marco Petrangeli Papini
A pilot-scale study aiming to evaluate the potential use of poly-3-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB) as an electron donor source for in situ bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater was conducted. Compared with commercially available electron donors, PHB offers a restricted fermentation pathway (i.e., through acetic acid and molecular hydrogen) by avoiding the formation of any residual carbon that could potentially spoil groundwater quality. The pilot study was carried out at an industrial site in Italy, heavily contaminated by different chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)...
November 26, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903321/impact-of-fat-source-and-dietary-fibers-on-feed-intake-plasma-metabolites-litter-gain-and-the-yield-and-composition-of-milk-in-sows
#17
U Krogh, T S Bruun, J Poulsen, P K Theil
Sow lactation diets often include fat sources without considering the impact on digestion, metabolism and performance. Fiber ingredients may reduce feed intake and are often completely excluded from lactation diets, although locally available ingredients may be cost-efficient alternatives to partly replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903085/bio-medically-active-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-using-extremophilic-actinobacterium-streptomyces-sp-ma30-and-its-characterization
#18
Thangavel Shanmugasundaram, Ramasamy Balagurunathan
The present study describes the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) using an extremophilic actinobacterial cell-free extract, supplied with aqueous zinc acetate solution. Crystalline nature, morphological features, and polydispersed nanoparticles size (15-30 nm) were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force and electron microscopic analysis with dynamic light scattering (DLS) study. The interaction between biomolecules and ZnO-NPs was analyzed using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR)...
November 30, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902335/defluviitalea-raffinosedens-sp-nov-a-novel-thermophilic-anaerobic-saccharolytic-bacterium-isolated-from-an-anaerobic-batch-digester-treating-animal-manure-and-rice-straw
#19
Shichun Ma, Yan Huang, Cong Wang, Hui Fan, Lirong Dai, Zheng Zhou, Xing Liu, Yu Deng
A thermophilic, anaerobic, fermentative bacterium, strain A6T, was obtained from an anaerobic batch digester treating animal manure and rice straw. The strain was Gram-positive, slightly curved rods with a size of 0.6-1 μm × 2.5-8.2 μm, non-motile, and produced terminal spores. The temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration ranges for growth were 40°C-60°C, 6.5-8.0, and 0-15.0 g/L, with optimum growth noted at 50°C-55°C, pH 7.5, and in the absence of NaCl, respectively. Yeast extract was required for growth...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902279/desulfonatronospira-sulfatiphila-sp-nov-and-desulfitispora-elongata-sp-nov-the-two-novel-haloalkaliphilic-sulfidogenic-bacteria-from-soda-lakes
#20
Dimitry Y Sorokin, Nikolai A Chernyh
Two novel haloalkaliphilic bacteria with dissimilatory sulfidogenic metabolism were recovered from syntrophic associations obtained from anaerobic sediments of hypersaline soda lakes in Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia). Strain ASO3-2T was a member of a sulfidogenic syntrophic association oxidizing acetate at extremely haloalkaline conditions, and was isolated in pure culture using formate as electron donor and sulfate as electron acceptor. It was identified as a new member of the genus Desulfonatronospira within the Deltaproteobacteria...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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