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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231697/the-fecal-microbiota-composition-of-boar-duroc-yorkshire-landrace-and-hampshire-pigs
#1
Yingping Xiao, Kaifeng Li, Yun Xiang, Weidong Zhou, Guohong Gui, Hua Yang
To investigate the effect of host genetics on gut microbial diversity, we performed a structural survey of the fecal microbiota of four purebred boar pig lines: Duroc, Landrace, Hampshire and Yorkshire. The V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced. A total of 783 OTUs were shared by all breeds, whereas other OTUs were breed-specific. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominated the majority of the fecal microbiota; Clostridia, Bacilli and Bacteroidia were the major classes. Nine predominant genera were observed in all breeds and eight of them can produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
February 23, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231638/comparison-of-the-shock-absorption-capacities-of-different-mouthguards
#2
Melina Simonetta Bochnig, Min-Jung Oh, Theresa Nagel, Fred Ziegler, Paul-Georg Jost-Brinkmann
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In this in vitro study the protective qualities of different mouthguard types were examined during small hard object collisions. The aim was to investigate inconclusive aspects of hard inserts, nylon nets and air spaces as reinforcements in the anterior region and the protection qualities of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five different mouthguards with a labial thickness between 2 mm and 11 mm made of materials of varying stiffness were investigated...
February 23, 2017: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231624/targets-and-mechanisms-in-prevention-of-parkinson-s-disease-through-immunomodulatory-treatments
#3
REVIEW
Marianne von Euler Chelpin, Thomas Vorup-Jensen
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, however, there is no cure for it. Current treatments only relieve some of the symptoms, without ceasing the disease, and lose efficacy with prolonged treatment. Considerable evidence shows that persistent inflammatory responses, involving T cell infiltration and glial cell activation, are common characteristics of human patients and play a crucial role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, it is important to develop therapeutic strategies that can impede or halt the disease through the modulation of the peripheral immune system by aiming at controlling the existing neuroinflammation...
February 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231330/the-effects-of-exogenous-hormones-on-rooting-process-and-the-activities-of-key-enzymes-of-malus-hupehensis-stem-cuttings
#4
Wangxiang Zhang, Junjun Fan, Qianqian Tan, Mingming Zhao, Ting Zhou, Fuliang Cao
Malus hupehensis is an excellent Malus rootstock species, known for its strong adverse-resistance and apomixes. In the present study, stem cuttings of M. hupehensis were treated with three types of exogenous hormones, including indole acetic acid (IAA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), or green growth regulator (GGR). The effects and mechanisms of exogenous hormone treatment and antioxidant enzyme activity on adventitious root formation were investigated. The results showed that the apparent morphology of the adventitious root had four stages, including root pre-emergence stage (S0), early stage of root formation (S1), massive root formation stage (S2), and later stage of root formation (S3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231169/an-evaluation-of-alternatives-to-nitrites-and-sulfites-to-inhibit-the-growth-of-salmonella-enterica-and-listeria-monocytogenes-in-meat-products
#5
Alexandre Lamas, José Manuel Miranda, Beatriz Vázquez, Alberto Cepeda, Carlos Manuel Franco
In recent years, the use of nitrites and sulfites as food preservatives has been a cause for concern due to the health problems that these additives can cause in humans. Natural products have been studied as an alternative, but most of them have hardly been applied in the food industry for technological and economic reasons. In this sense, organic salts such as sodium acetate are a good alternative due to their affordability. Thus, this study evaluated the capacity of sodium nitrite, sodium sulfite, a sodium acetate product (TQI C-6000), and chitosan to inhibit two important foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes...
October 31, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231164/essential-oil-characterization-of-thymus-vulgaris-from-various-geographical-locations
#6
Prabodh Satyal, Brittney L Murray, Robert L McFeeters, William N Setzer
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1) linalool; (2) borneol; (3) geraniol; (4) sabinene hydrate; (5) thymol; (6) carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
October 27, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231155/correlations-between-polyacetylene-concentrations-in-carrot-daucus-carota-l-and-various-soil-parameters
#7
Lars Kjellenberg, Eva Johansson, Karl-Erik Gustavsson, Artur Granstedt, Marie E Olsson
This study assessed the concentrations of three falcarinol-type polyacetylenes (falcarinol, falcarindiol, falcarindiol-3-acetate) in carrots and the correlations between these and different soil traits. A total of 144 carrot samples, from three different harvests taken a single season, were analysed in terms of their polyacetylene concentrations and root development. On one of the harvesting occasions, 48 soil samples were also taken and analysed. The chemical composition of the soil was found to influence the concentrations of falcarinol-type polyacetylenes in carrots...
August 31, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231089/identification-of-aroma-compounds-of-lamiaceae-species-in-turkey-using-the-purge-and-trap-technique
#8
Ahmet Salih Sonmezdag, Hasim Kelebek, Serkan Selli
The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes...
February 8, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230867/ultrafast-electron-and-hole-transfer-dynamics-of-a-solar-cell-dye-containing-hole-acceptors-on-mesoporous-tio2-and-al2o3
#9
Mirko Scholz, Oliver Flender, Gerrit Boschloo, Kawon Oum, Thomas Lenzer
The stability of dye cations against recombination with conduction band electrons in mesoporous TiO2 electrodes is a key property for improving light harvesting in dye-sensitised solar cells. Using ultrafast transient broadband absorption spectroscopy, we monitor efficient intramolecular hole transfer in the solar cell dye E6 having two peripheral triarylamine acceptors. After photoexcitation, two hole transfer mechanisms are identified: a concerted mechanism for electron injection and hole transfer (2.4 ps) and a sequential mechanism with time constants of 3...
February 23, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230766/extraction-and-identification-of-phlorotannins-from-the-brown-alga-sargassum-fusiforme-harvey-setchell
#10
Yajing Li, Xiaoting Fu, Delin Duan, Xiaoyong Liu, Jiachao Xu, Xin Gao
Phlorotannins are a group of complex polymers of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene), which are unique compounds from marine brown algae. In our present study, a procedure for extraction and enrichment of phlorotannins from S. fusiforme with highly antioxidant potentials was established. After comparison of different extraction methods, the optimal extraction conditions were established as follows. The freeze-dried seaweed powder was extracted with 30% ethanol-water solvent with a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 at temperature of 25 °C for 30 min...
February 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230375/three-component-coupling-of-triflyloxy-substituted-benzocyclobutenones-organolithium-reagents-and-arynophiles-promoted-by-generation-of-aryne-via-carbon-carbon-bond-cleavage
#11
Keisuke Uchida, Suguru Yoshida, Takamitsu Hosoya
Treatment of benzocyclobutenones bearing a triflyloxy group adjacent to the four-membered ring with organolithium reagents in the presence of arynophiles efficiently affords three-component coupled α-arylketones. Mechanistic studies indicate that the reaction is promoted by generation of the aryne via carbon-carbon bond cleavage of a benzocyclobutenoxide intermediate, which led us to find a fluoride-mediated aryne generation method from triflyloxy-substituted benzocyclobutenone silyl acetal precursors.
February 23, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230323/simultaneous-determination-of-seven-nitrogen-containing-phenyl-ethers-in-cosmetics-by-gas-chromatography-with-mass-spectrometry-and-dispersive-solid-phase-extraction
#12
Jiale Huang, Langjun Zhou, Zhiqing Xun, Qiang Wang, Senyu Lin, Xindong Guo, Yongtong Cai
An analytical method was established for the simultaneous determination of seven nitrogen-containing phenyl ethers (2-anisidine, 3-anisidine, 4-anisidine, 2-nitroanisole, 3-nitroanisole, 4-nitroanisole and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine) in cosmetics by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in this work. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and purified with primary secondary amine during the dispersed solid phase extraction. The analytes were separated by a DB-17MS column and detected in the electron ionization mode of mass spectrometry in the selected ions monitoring mode...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230284/formation-of-%C3%AE-lactones-with-anti-baeyer-villiger-regiochemistry-investigations-into-the-mechanism-of-the-cerium-catalyzed-aerobic-coupling-of-%C3%AE-oxoesters-with-enol-acetates
#13
Jens Christoffers, Irina Geibel, Anna Dierks, Thomas Müller
The cerium-catalyzed, aerobic coupling of β-oxoesters with enol acetates and dioxygen yields δ-lactones with a 1,4-diketone moiety. In contrast to the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation (BVO), where the higher substituted residue migrates, in this case of an oxidative C-C coupling reaction the less substituted alkyl residue undergoes a 1,2-shift. An endoperoxidic oxycarbenium ion comparable to the Criegee intermediate in the BVO is proposed as a reaction intermediate and submitted to conformational analysis by computational methods...
February 23, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230157/highly-sensitive-and-adaptable-fluorescence-quenched-pair-discloses-the-substrate-specificity-profiles-in-diverse-protease-families
#14
Marcin Poreba, Aleksandra Szalek, Wioletta Rut, Paulina Kasperkiewicz, Izabela Rutkowska-Wlodarczyk, Scott J Snipas, Yoshifumi Itoh, Dusan Turk, Boris Turk, Christopher M Overall, Leszek Kaczmarek, Guy S Salvesen, Marcin Drag
Internally quenched fluorescent (IQF) peptide substrates originating from FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) are powerful tool for examining the activity and specificity of proteases, and a variety of donor/acceptor pairs are extensively used to design individual substrates and combinatorial libraries. We developed a highly sensitive and adaptable donor/acceptor pair that can be used to investigate the substrate specificity of cysteine proteases, serine proteases and metalloproteinases. This novel pair comprises 7-amino-4-carbamoylmethylcoumarin (ACC) as the fluorophore and 2,4-dinitrophenyl-lysine (Lys(DNP)) as the quencher...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230074/lack-of-resistance-development-in-bemisia-tabaci-to-isaria-fumosorosea-after-multiple-generations-of-selection
#15
Tianni Gao, Zhaolei Wang, Yü Huang, Nemat O Keyhani, Zhen Huang
The emergence of insecticide resistant insect pests is of significant concern worldwide. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is an important agricultural pest and has shown incredible resilience developing resistance to a number of chemical pesticides. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Isaria fumosorosea offer an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for insect control, and this fungus has been shown to be an effective pathogen of B. tabaci. Little is known concerning the potential for the development of resistance to I...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229941/dual-high-resolution-inhibition-profiling-and-hplc-hrms-spe-nmr-analysis-for-identification-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-radical-scavenging-inhibitors-in-solanum-americanum-mill
#16
Eder L Silva, Rita C Almeida-Lafetá, Ricardo M Borges, Dan Staerk
Solanum americanum is one of the most prominent species used to treat type 2 diabetes in Guatemala. In our ongoing efforts to find antidiabetic and antioxidative compounds from natural sources, an ethyl acetate extract of this medicinal herb was investigated using dual high-resolution α-glucosidase/radical scavenging inhibition profiling. The high-resolution biochromatograms obtained by this technique were used to target subsequent structural elucidation by HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis towards the bioactive constituents...
February 13, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229586/chlorhexidine-loaded-amorphous-calcium-phosphate-nanoparticles-for-inhibiting-degradation-and-inducing-mineralization-of-type-i-collagen
#17
Xue Cai, Bing Han, Yan Liu, Fucong Tian, Fuxin Liang, Xiaoyan Wang
A major shortcoming of contemporary dentin adhesives is their limited durability. Exposed collagen fibrils within the bonding interface are degraded by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), resulting in aging of the resin-dentin bond. In this study, chlorhexidine-loaded amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanoparticles were synthesized to induce the mineralization of collagen fibrils. The nanoparticles sustainably released chlorhexidine, to inhibit MMPs during mineralization. Three types of ACP nanoparticles were prepared: N-ACP containing no chlorhexidine, C-ACP containing chlorhexidine acetate, and G-ACP containing chlorhexidine gluconate, which had a higher drug-loading than C-ACP...
February 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229391/kudsuphilactone-b-a-nortriterpenoid-isolated-from-schisandra-chinensis-fruit-induces-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-in-human-ovarian-cancer-a2780-cells
#18
Miran Jeong, Hye Mi Kim, Hyun Ji Kim, Jung-Hye Choi, Dae Sik Jang
A phytochemical study on the fruits of Schisandra chinensis led to the isolation and characterization of nineteen compounds. The structures of the isolates were determined to be schizandrin, deoxyschizandrin, angeloylgomisin H, gomisin A, gomisin J, (-)-gomisin L1, (-)-gomisin L2, wuweizisu C, gomisin N, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid, kadsuphilactone B, α-ylangenol, α-ylangenyl acetate, β-chamigrenal, β-chamigrenic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-methylcarvacrol, and indole-3-acetic acid...
February 22, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228851/solution-phase-automated-synthesis-of-an-%C3%AE-amino-aldehyde-as-a-versatile-intermediate
#19
Hisashi Masui, Sae Yosugi, Shinichiro Fuse, Takashi Takahashi
A solution-phase automated synthesis of the versatile synthetic intermediate, Garner's aldehyde, was demonstrated. tert-Butoxycarbonyl (Boc) protection, acetal formation, and reduction of the ester to the corresponding aldehyde were performed utilizing our originally developed automated synthesizer, ChemKonzert. The developed procedure was also useful for the synthesis of Garner's aldehyde analogues possessing fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) or benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz) protection.
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228141/factors-associated-with-contraceptive-use-in-tigray-north-ethiopia
#20
Araya Abrha Medhanyie, Alem Desta, Mussie Alemayehu, Tesfay Gebrehiwot, Tesfu Alemu Abraha, Atakelti Abrha, Hagos Godefay
BACKGROUND: Family planning interventions are cost-effective and have several cross-cutting benefits. Despite these benefits of family planning, progress in ensuring universal access to family planning to women in developing countries has been slow. In light of this; this study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with contraceptive use in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 1966 women of reproductive age group (15-49) in 13 districts (3 urban and 10 rural) from May-June 2015...
February 23, 2017: Reproductive Health
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