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Aldehyde dehydrogenase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144959/induction-of-innervation-by-encapsulated-adipocytes-with-engineered-vitamin-a-metabolism
#1
Q Shen, R Yasmeen, J Marbourg, L Xu, J L Yu, P Fadda, A Flechtner, L J Lee, P G Popovich, O Ziouzenkova
Innervation is a fundamental basis for function and survival of tissues. In the peripheral tissues, degenerative diseases create a neurotoxic metabolic milieu that either causes neurodegeneration or fails to sustain regenerative growth and reinnervation of injured/diseased tissues. Encapsulation of cells producing neurotrophic factors can augment axon growth and neuron survival; however, sustained innervation in vivo requires a combination of factors promoting axon growth and guidance pathway that are released in a tissue-specific context...
October 28, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143978/production-of-1-2-propanediol-in-photoautotrophic-synechocystis-is-linked-to-glycogen-turn-over
#2
Christian David, Andreas Schmid, Lorenz Adrian, Annegret Wilde, Katja Bühler
We utilized a photoautotrophic organism to synthesize 1,2-propanediol from carbon dioxide and water fueled by light. A synthetic pathway comprising mgsA (methylglyoxal synthase), yqhD (aldehyde reductase), and adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) was inserted into Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 to convert dihydroxyacetone phosphate to methylglyoxal, which is subsequently reduced to acetol and then to 1,2-propanediol. 1,2-propanediol could be successfully produced by Synechocystis, at an approximate rate of 55 µmol h(-1) gCDW(-1) ...
November 16, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142822/development-of-a-plasmid-based-expression-system-in-clostridium-thermocellum-and-its-use-to-screen-heterologous-expression-of-bifunctional-alcohol-dehydrogenases-adhes
#3
Shuen Hon, Anthony A Lanahan, Liang Tian, Richard J Giannone, Robert L Hettich, Daniel G Olson, Lee R Lynd
Clostridium thermocellum is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, but requires metabolic engineering to improve ethanol yield. A key gene in the ethanol production pathway is the bifunctional aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase, adhE. To explore the effects of overexpressing wild-type, mutant, and exogenous adhEs, we developed a new expression plasmid, pDGO144, that exhibited improved transformation efficiency and better gene expression than its predecessor, pDGO-66. This new expression plasmid will allow for many other metabolic engineering and basic research efforts in C...
December 2016: Metabolic Engineering Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141533/targeting-cancer-stem-cells-and-non-stem-cancer-cells-the-potential-of-lipid-based-nanoparticles
#4
Ana Filipa Cruz, Nuno Andre Fonseca, Vera Moura, Sergio Simoes, Joao Nuno Moreira
Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been described as a relevant contributor to tumorigenicity, metastasis, tumor recurrence and drug resistance, making this cell population a relevant target in solid tumors. METHODS: This has stimulated the development of different therapeutic strategies often targeting surface markers (CD44, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and nucleolin) and/or signaling pathways that are aberrantly activated and contribute to CSCs proliferation and survival...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137351/microrna-200-associated-with-metastatic-breast-cancer-promotes-traits-of-mammary-luminal-progenitor-cells
#5
Lourdes Sánchez-Cid, Mònica Pons, Juan José Lozano, Nuria Rubio, Marta Guerra-Rebollo, Aroa Soriano, Laia Paris-Coderch, Miquel F Segura, Raquel Fueyo, Judit Arguimbau, Erika Zodda, Raquel Bermudo, Immaculada Alonso, Xavier Caparrós, Marta Cascante, Arash Rafii, Yibin Kang, Marian Martínez-Balbás, Stephen J Weiss, Jerónimo Blanco, Montserrat Muñoz, Pedro L Fernández, Timothy M Thomson
MicroRNAs are critical regulators of gene networks in normal and abnormal biological processes. Focusing on invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC), we have found dysregulated expression in tumor samples of several microRNAs, including the miR-200 family, along progression from primary tumors to distant metastases, further reflected in higher blood levels of miR-200b and miR-7 in IDC patients with regional or distant metastases relative to patients with primary node-negative tumors. Forced expression of miR-200s in MCF10CA1h mammary cells induced an enhanced epithelial program, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, mammosphere growth and ability to form branched tubuloalveolar structures while promoting orthotopic tumor growth and lung colonization in vivo...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136221/facial-flushing-after-alcohol-intake-as-a-predictor-for-a-high-risk-of-synchronous-or-metachronous-cancer-of-the-upper-gastrointestinal-tract
#6
Hiroyuki Harada, Shogo Shinohara, Shinji Takebayashi, Masahiro Kikuchi, Keizo Fujiwara, Tetsuhiko Michida, Ryosuke Yamamoto, Kazuki Hayashi, Koji Saida, Yasushi Naito
Background: In Japan, there has been a lot of reports showing an association between facial flushing after light alcohol consumption and heterozygosity for inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2). Persons with inactive ALDH2 may have a higher risk of alcohol-related oral, pharyngeal and esophageal cancers, compared with those with wild-type ALDH2. The purpose of this study was to examine whether flushers with oral or pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma have an increased risk of synchronous or metachronous cancer of the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract...
November 9, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133591/chemokine-signaling-facilitates-early-stage-breast-cancer-survival-and-invasion-through-fibroblast-dependent-mechanisms
#7
Gage Brummer, Diana S Acevedo, Qingting Hu, Mike Portsche, Wei Fang, Min Yao, Brandon Zinda, Megan Myers, Nehemiah S Alvarez, Patrick Fields, Yan Hong, Fariba Behbod, Nikki Cheng
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the most common form of breast cancer, with 50,000 cases diagnosed every year in the United States. Over-treatment and under-treatment remain significant clinical challenges in patient care. Identifying key mechanisms associated with DCIS progression could uncover new biomarkers to better predict patient prognosis and improve guided treatment. Chemokines are small soluble molecules that regulate cellular homing through molecular gradients. CCL2-mediated recruitment of CCR2+ macrophages are a well-established mechanism for metastatic progression...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130663/-capsaicin-alleviate-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-attenuating-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress
#8
Juan-Xia Zhu, Ling-Heng Kong, Chao-Feng Zhang, Na Sun, Jin-Rui Chang, Yan Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of capsaicin (CAP) in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Twentyfour adult male SD rats were randomized into 4 groups,namely the control group,ischemia reperfusion group,ischemia reperfusion with CAP group,and ischemia reperfusion with CAPZ and CAP group. Isolated rat hearts underwent Langendorff perfusion. Left ventricular enddiastolic pressure (LVEDP) andleft ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) was calculated to evaluate myocardial performance at 30 min of reperfusion...
September 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128638/ulk1-regulated-autophagy-a-mechanism-in-cellular-protection-for-aldh2-against-hyperglycemia
#9
Min Liu, Songhe Lu, Wei He, Le Zhang, Ying Ma, Ping Lv, Meijuan Ma, Wenjun Yu, Jiaxing Wang, Mingming Zhang, Yingmei Zhang, Yan Li
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), an important enzyme in the elimination of toxic aldehydes, is involved in cardioprotection against diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to examine the mechanism behind ALDH2-offered protection against high glucose exposure with a focus on autophagy. H9C2 cells were cultured with normal or high glucose medium in the presence or absence of the ALDH2 agonist Alda-1. GFP-LC3 puncta and immunofluorescence were employed to assess autophagosome formation. Western blotting was applied to evaluate autophagy protein markers Atg5, LC3, p62, ULK1 phosphorylation and ALDH2...
November 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123032/pregnane-x-receptor-promotes-ethanol-induced-hepatosteatosis-in-mice
#10
Sora Choi, Prince Neequaye, Samuel W French, Frank J Gonzalez, Maxwell A Gyamfi
The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is a xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor that modulates the metabolic response to drugs and toxic agents. Both PXR activation and deficiency promote hepatic triglyceride accumulation, a hallmark feature of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, the molecular mechanism of PXR-mediated activation of ethanol (EtOH)-induced steatosis is unclear. Here, using male wild type (WT) and Pxr-null mice we examined PXR-mediated regulation of chronic EtOH-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatotoxicity...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122986/identification-of-dehydrogenases-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-the-monoterpene-moiety-of-pyrethrin
#11
Haiyang Xu, Gaurav D Moghe, Krystle Wiegert-Rininger, Anthony L Schilmiller, Cornelius S Barry, Robert L Last, Eran Pichersky
Flowers of Tanacetum cinerariifolium produce a set of compounds known collectively as pyrethrins, which are commercially important pesticides that are strongly toxic to flying insects but not to most vertebrates. A pyrethrin molecule is an ester consisting of either trans-chrysanthemic acid or its modified form, pyrethric acid, and one of three alcohols - jasmolone, pyrethrolone, and cinerolone - that appear to be derived from jasmonic acid. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS), the first enzyme involved in the synthesis of trans-chrysanthemic acid, was previously characterized and its gene isolated...
November 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113223/cd44-cd24-phenotype-predicts-a-poor-prognosis-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#12
Hui Wang, Li Wang, Ying Song, Shuhuai Wang, Xu Huang, Qijia Xuan, Xinmei Kang, Qingyuan Zhang
Cancer stem cells are enriched in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumor tissues, which present strong capacities of proliferation and tumorigenicity. The present study detected the distribution of cancer stem cell markers cluster of differentiation (CD)44/CD24 and analyzed the clinical outcomes of different CD44/CD24 phenotypes in patients with TNBC. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed with regard to the prognostic value of cancer stem cell markers CD44/CD24, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and other baseline clinical characteristics, including tumor size, lymph node involved, adjuvant chemotherapy, Ki-67, breast cancer susceptibility gene 1, cellular tumor antigen p53, vimentin and basal-like status...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112953/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-isoenzyme-expression-as-a-marker-of-cancer-stem-cells-correlates-to-histopathological-features-in-head-and-neck-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#13
Yue Dong, Sebastian Ochsenreither, Chengxuan Cai, Andreas M Kaufmann, Andreas E Albers, Xu Qian
There is a lack of predictive biomarkers that can identify patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) who will experience treatment failure and develop drug resistance, recurrence, and metastases. Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) were identified as a subset of cells within the tumor in a variety of solid tumors including HNSCC. CSC are considered the tumor-initiating population responsible for recurrence or metastasis and are associated with therapy resistance. This meta-analysis including fourteen studies with altogether 1258 patients updates and summarizes all relevant data on the impact of ALDH1+ CSC on the prognosis of HNSCC and its association with clinicopathological parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110615/effects-of-molecular-hydrogen-assessed-by-an-animal-model-and-a-randomized-clinical-study-on-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Kiyomi Nishimaki, Takashi Asada, Ikuroh Ohsawa, Etsuko Nakajima, Chiaki Ikejima, Takashi Yokota, Naomi Kamimura, Shigeo Ohta
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is one of the causative factors in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We previously reported that molecular hydrogen (H2) acts as a therapeutic and preventive antioxidant. OBJECTIVE: We assess the effects of drinking H2-water (water infused with H2) on oxidative stress model mice and subjects with MCI. METHODS: Transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative form of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 were used as a dementia model...
November 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104736/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-helps-identify-a-subpopulation-of-murine-adipose-derived-stem-cells-with-enhanced-adipogenic-and-osteogenic-differentiation-potential
#15
Harumichi Itoh, Shimpei Nishikawa, Tomoya Haraguchi, Yu Arikawa, Shotaro Eto, Masato Hiyama, Toshie Iseri, Yoshiki Itoh, Munekazu Nakaichi, Yusuke Sakai, Kenji Tani, Yasuho Taura, Kazuhito Itamoto
AIM: To identify and characterize functionally distinct subpopulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). METHODS: ADSCs cultured from mouse subcutaneous adipose tissue were sorted fluorescence-activated cell sorter based on aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, a widely used stem cell marker. Differentiation potentials were analyzed by utilizing immunocytofluorescece and its quantitative analysis. RESULTS: Approximately 15% of bulk ADSCs showed high ALDH activity in flow cytometric analysis...
October 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096698/limitations-of-lymphoblastoid-cell-lines-for-functional-analysis-of-snps
#16
Hansi Pathak, Helge Frieling, Mathias Rhein, Alexandra Burkert
OBJECTIVE: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are widely linked to the susceptibility and penetrance of diseases. SNP rs886205 (A/G) located in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) promoter is associated with esophageal carcinoma in alcohol-dependent patients. Previously, we found an interaction of the SNP with the methylation of promoter regions as well as the protein levels of ALDH2 in alcohol-dependent patients. To study the DNA-protein interactions involved in rs886205 mediated regulation of ALDH2, we chose lymphoblastoid cell lines harboring AA/GA/GG genotype and acquired two for each genotype from National Human Genome Research Institute repository...
November 2, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095919/raldh1-promotes-adiposity-during-adolescence-independently-of-retinal-signaling
#17
Di Yang, Charles R Krois, Priscilla Huang, Jinshan Wang, Jin Min, Hong Sik Yoo, Yinghua Deng, Joseph L Napoli
All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) inhibits adipogenesis in established preadipocyte cell lines. Dosing pharmacological amounts of RA reduces weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet, i.e. counteracts diet-induced obesity (DIO). The aldehyde dehydrogenase Raldh1 (Aldh1a1) functions as one of three enzymes that converts the retinol metabolite retinal into RA, and one of many proteins that contribute to RA homeostasis. Female Raldh1-ablated mice resist DIO. This phenotype contrasts with ablations of other enzymes and binding-proteins that maintain RA homeostasis, which gain adiposity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093680/mechanistic-study-of-bakuchiol-induced-anti-breast-cancer-stem-cell-and-in-vivo-anti-metastasis-effects
#18
Li Li, Chi C Liu, Xueping Chen, Shisan Xu, Sinai Hernandez Cortes-Manno, Shuk H Cheng
Cancer stem cells are involved in cancer establishment, progression, and resistance to current treatments. We demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo anti-breast cancer effect of bakuchiol in a previous study. However, the ability of bakuchiol to target breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) and inhibit breast cancer metastasis remains unknown. In the current study, we used the cell surface markers CD44 and CD24 to distinguish BCSCs from MCF-7 cells. Bakuchiol inhibited mammosphere formation and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in BCSCs...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093298/synthesis-of-3-arylmethyl-2-oxindole-derivatives-and-their-effects-on-neuronal-cell-death
#19
Kyoji Furuta, Yosuke Mizuno, Masahide Maeda, Hiroko Koyama, Yoko Hirata
Various 3-arylmethyl-2-oxindole derivatives were synthesized by the Knoevenagel condensation of oxindole and aromatic aldehydes followed by palladium-mediated hydrogenation or hydride-reduction. Further substituted derivatives at C-3 and/or N-1 of the oxindole skeleton were prepared from the condensation products. Their protective effect against neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase assay. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that compounds with any of the dialkylamino, nitro or hydroxy groups on the 3-arylmethyl moieties elicit a superior potency to suppress cell death, while others are ineffective...
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090935/discovery-of-the-membrane-binding-domain-in-trifunctional-proline-utilization-a
#20
Shelbi Christgen, Weidong Zhu, Nikhilesh Sanyal, Bushra Mariam Bibi, John J Tanner, Donald Frederick Becker
Escherichia coli proline utilization A (EcPutA) is the archetype of trifunctional PutA flavoproteins, which function both as regulators of the proline utilization operon and bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the four-electron oxidation of proline to glutamate. EcPutA shifts from a self-regulating transcriptional repressor to a bifunctional enzyme in a process known as functional switching. The flavin redox state dictates the function EcPutA. Upon proline oxidation, the flavin becomes reduced, triggering a conformational change that causes EcPutA to dissociate from the put regulon and bind to the cellular membrane...
November 1, 2017: Biochemistry
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