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Aldehyde dehydrogenase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630000/betaine-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-expression-during-physiological-cardiac-hypertrophy-induced-by-pregnancy
#1
Jesús Alfredo Rosas-Rodríguez, José Guadalupe Soñanez-Organis, José Arquimides Godoy-Lugo, Juan Alberto Espinoza-Salazar, Cesar Jeravy López-Jacobo, Norma Aurora Stephens-Camacho, Guadalupe González-Ochoa
Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (betaine aldehyde: NAD(P)(+) oxidoreductase, (E.C. 1.2.1.8; BADH) catalyze the irreversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde (BA) to glycine betaine (GB) and is essential for polyamine catabolism, γ-aminobutyric acid synthesis, and carnitine biosynthesis. GB is an important osmolyte that regulates the homocysteine levels, contributing to a vascular risk factor reduction. In this sense, distinct investigations describe the physiological roles of GB, but there is a lack of information about the GB novo synthesis process and regulation during cardiac hypertrophy induced by pregnancy...
June 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618204/bacterial-weathering-of-fossil-organic-matter-and-organic-carbon-mobilization-from-subterrestrial-kupferschiefer-black-shale-long-term-laboratory-studies
#2
Robert Stasiuk, Agnieszka Włodarczyk, Przemysław Karcz, Marcin Janas, Aleksandra Skłodowska, Renata Matlakowska
A large part of the organic carbon present in the lithosphere is trapped in fossil organic matter deposited in sedimentary rocks. Only specialized microorganisms are able to degrade it contributing to the return of the carbon to the global cycle. The role of bacteria in this process is not yet completely understood. In the present laboratory studies, subterrestrial organic-rich ∼256-million-year-old Kupferschiefer black shale was exposed to the activity of an indigenous consortium of lithobiontic bacteria for 365 days under aerobic conditions...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618138/expansion-of-umbilical-cord-blood-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-expressing-cells-generates-myeloid-progenitor-cells-that-stimulate-limb-revascularization
#3
David M Putman, Tyler T Cooper, Stephen E Sherman, Ayesh K Seneviratne, Mark Hewitt, Gillian I Bell, David A Hess
Uncompromised by chronic disease-related comorbidities, human umbilical cord blood (UCB) progenitor cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(hi) cells) stimulate blood vessel regeneration after intra-muscular transplantation. However, implementation of cellular therapies using UCB ALDH(hi) cells for critical limb ischemia, the most severe form of severe peripheral artery disease, is limited by the rarity (<0.5%) of these cells. Our goal was to generate a clinically-translatable, allogeneic cell population for vessel regenerative therapies, via ex vivo expansion of UCB ALDH(hi) cells without loss of pro-angiogenic potency...
June 15, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616914/-expressions-and-significance-of-aldh1-hif-1%C3%AE-and-vegf-in-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
Yan Zhao, Xin Jin, Nan Li, Yan-Zi Qin, Jun Qian
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expressions of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1(ALDH1), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α(HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma(LSCC) and their relationships with clinical significance. METHODS: In situ hybridization (ISH) method and immuohistochemical staining were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of ALDH1, HIF-1α and VEGF in 120 LSCC specimens and 60 cases of normal laryngeal tissue...
May 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611799/endophytic-paecilomyces-formosus-lhl10-augments-glycine-max-l-adaptation-to-ni-contamination-through-affecting-endogenous-phytohormones-and-oxidative-stress
#5
Saqib Bilal, Abdul L Khan, Raheem Shahzad, Sajjad Asaf, Sang-Mo Kang, In-Jung Lee
This study investigated the Ni-removal efficiency of phytohormone-producing endophytic fungi Penicillium janthinellum, Paecilomyces formosus, Exophiala sp., and Preussia sp. Among four different endophytes, P. formosus LHL10 was able to tolerate up to 1 mM Ni in contaminated media as compared to copper and cadmium. P. formosus LHL10 was further assessed for its potential to enhance the phytoremediation of Glycine max (soybean) in response to dose-dependent increases in soil Ni (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mM). Inoculation with P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607029/age-dependent-protein-abundance-of-cytosolic-alcohol-and-aldehyde-dehydrogenases-in-human-liver
#6
Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Andrea Gaedigk, Robin E Pearce, J Steven Leeder, Bhagwat Prasad
Hepatic cytosolic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADHs and ALDHs) catalyze the biotransformation of xenobiotics (e.g., cyclophosphamide and ethanol) and vitamin A. Because age-dependent hepatic abundance of these proteins is unknown, we quantified protein expression of ADHs and ALDH1A1 in a large cohort of pediatric and adult human livers by LC-MS/MS proteomics. Purified proteins were used as calibrators. Two to three surrogate peptides per protein were quantified in trypsin digests of liver cytosolic samples and calibrator proteins under optimal conditions of reproducibility...
June 12, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604744/emp2-is-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-endometrial-cancer-stem-cells
#7
M H Kiyohara, C Dillard, J Tsui, S R Kim, J Lu, D Sachdev, L Goodglick, M Tong, V F Torous, C Aryasomayajula, W Wang, P Najafzadeh, L K Gordon, J Braun, S McDermott, M S Wicha, M Wadehra
Previous studies have suggested that overexpression of the oncogenic protein epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2) correlates with endometrial carcinoma progression and ultimately poor survival from disease. To understand the role of EMP2 in the etiology of disease, gene analysis was performed to show transcripts that are reciprocally regulated by EMP2 levels. In particular, EMP2 expression correlates with and helps regulate the expression of several cancer stem cell associated markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1)...
June 12, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601433/characterization-of-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes-of-a-reconstructed-human-epidermal-model-from-adult-hair-follicles
#8
Daniel Bacqueville, Carine Jacques, Laure Duprat, Emilien L Jamin, Beatrice Guiraud, Elisabeth Perdu, Sandrine Bessou-Touya, Daniel Zalko, Hélène Duplan
In this study, a comprehensive characterization of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) based on gene expression and enzyme functionality was made in a reconstructed skin epidermal model derived from the outer root sheath (ORS) of hair follicles (ORS-RHE). The ORS-RHE model XME gene profile was consistent with native human skin. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) consistently reported to be detected in native human skin were also present at the gene level in the ORS-RHE model. The highest Phase I XME gene expression levels were observed for alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases and (carboxyl) esterases...
June 7, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599714/effects-of-moderate-alcohol-consumption-on-gene-expression-related-to-colonic-inflammation-and-antioxidant-enzymes-in-rats
#9
DawnKylee S Klarich, Jerrold Penprase, Patricia Cintora, Octavio Medrano, Danielle Erwin, Susan M Brasser, Mee Young Hong
Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor associated with colorectal cancer; however, some studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption may not contribute additional risk for developing colorectal cancer while others suggest that moderate alcohol consumption provides a protective effect that reduces colorectal cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of moderate voluntary alcohol (20% ethanol) intake on alternate days for 3 months in outbred Wistar rats on risk factors associated with colorectal cancer development...
June 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594837/genetic-variants-in-aldh1b1-and-alcohol-dependence-risk-in-a-british-and-irish-population-a-bioinformatic-and-genetic-study
#10
Michael J Way, M Adam Ali, Andrew McQuillin, Marsha Y Morgan
Alcohol is metabolized in the liver via the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Polymorphisms in the genes encoding these enzymes, which are common in East Asian populations, can alter enzyme kinetics and hence the risk of alcohol dependence and its sequelae. One of the most important genetic variants, in this regards, is the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs671 in ALDH2, the gene encoding the primary acetaldehyde metabolizing enzyme ALDH2. However, the protective allele of rs671 is absent in most Europeans although ALDH1B1, which shares significant sequence homology with ALDH2, contains several, potentially functional, missense SNPs that do occur in European populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594397/establishment-of-a-quick-and-highly-accurate-breath-test-for-aldh2-genotyping
#11
Ikuo Aoyama, Shinya Ohashi, Yusuke Amanuma, Kenshiro Hirohashi, Ayaka Mizumoto, Makiko Funakoshi, Mihoko Tsurumaki, Yukie Nakai, Katsuyuki Tanaka, Mariko Hanada, Aki Uesaka, Tsutomu Chiba, Manabu Muto
OBJECTIVES: Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is a definite carcinogen for the esophagus, head, and neck; and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of acetaldehyde. The ALDH2 genotype exists as ALDH2*1/*1 (active ALDH2), ALDH2*1/*2 (heterozygous inactive ALDH2), and ALDH2*2/*2 (homozygous inactive ALDH2). Many epidemiological studies have reported that ALDH2*2 carriers are at high risk for esophageal or head and neck squamous cell carcinomas by habitual drinking...
June 8, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588718/renal-cell-carcinoma-with-synchronous-ipsilateral-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-renal-pelvis
#12
Qun Lu, Junlong Zhuang, Hongqian Guo
The simultaneous occurrence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and urothelial carcinoma (UC) in the same kidney is extraordinarily rare, and is also known as multiple primary malignant tumors. The present study reports the case of a 76-year-old female with synchronous ipsilateral RCC and UC of the renal pelvis, who underwent operation, chemotherapy and reoperation when recurrence of RCC or UC was identified. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) is one of the promising markers for identifying cancer stem cells in various solid tumors, along with aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 A1 (ALDH1A1)...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583404/thermophilic-ethanol-fermentation-from-lignocellulose-hydrolysate-by-genetically-engineered-moorella-thermoacetica
#13
Farida Rahayu, Yuto Kawai, Yuki Iwasaki, Koichiro Yoshida, Akihisa Kita, Takahisa Tajima, Junichi Kato, Katsuji Murakami, Tamotsu Hoshino, Yutaka Nakashimada
A transformant of Moorella thermoacetica was constructed for thermophilic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass by deleting two phosphotransacetylase genes, pdul1 and pdul2, and introducing the native aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (aldh) controlled by the promoter from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The transformant showed tolerance to 540mM and fermented sugars including fructose, glucose, galactose and xylose to mainly ethanol. In a mixed-sugar medium of glucose and xylose, all of the sugars were consumed to produce ethanol at the yield of 1...
May 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582728/mitochondrial-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-deficiency-compromises-therapeutic-effect-of-aldh-bright-cell-on-peripheral-ischemia
#14
Xiaolei Sun, Hong Zhu, Zhen Dong, Xiangwei Liu, Xin Ma, Shasha Han, Fei Lu, Peng Wang, Sanli Qian, Cong Wang, Cheng Shen, Xiaona Zhao, Yunzeng Zou, Junbo Ge, Aijun Sun
The autologous ALDH bright (ALDH(br)) cell therapy for ischemic injury is clinically safe and effective, while the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated that the glycolysis dominant metabolism of ALDH(br) cells is permissive to restore blood flow in an ischemic hind limb model compared with bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs). PCR array analysis showed overtly elevated Aldh2 expression of ALDH(br) cells following hypoxic challenge. Notably, ALDH(br) cells therapy induced blood flow recovery in this model was reduced in case of ALDH2 deficiency...
May 29, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581518/activation-of-tumor-suppressor-lkb1-by-honokiol-abrogates-cancer-stem-like-phenotype-in-breast-cancer-via-inhibition-of-oncogenic-stat3
#15
S Sengupta, A Nagalingam, N Muniraj, M Y Bonner, P Mistriotis, A Afthinos, P Kuppusamy, D Lanoue, S Cho, P Korangath, M Shriver, A Begum, V F Merino, C-Y Huang, J L Arbiser, W Matsui, B Győrffy, K Konstantopoulos, S Sukumar, P A Marignani, N K Saxena, D Sharma
Tumor suppressor and upstream master kinase Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) plays a significant role in suppressing cancer growth and metastatic progression. We show that low-LKB1 expression significantly correlates with poor survival outcome in breast cancer. In line with this observation, loss-of-LKB1 rendered breast cancer cells highly migratory and invasive, attaining cancer stem cell-like phenotype. Accordingly, LKB1-null breast cancer cells exhibited an increased ability to form mammospheres and elevated expression of pluripotency-factors (Oct4, Nanog and Sox2), properties also observed in spontaneous tumors in Lkb1(-/-) mice...
June 5, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581514/aldh1a3-is-epigenetically-regulated-during-melanocyte-transformation-and-is-a-target-for-melanoma-treatment
#16
M Pérez-Alea, K McGrail, S Sánchez-Redondo, B Ferrer, G Fournet, J Cortés, E Muñoz, J Hernandez-Losa, S Tenbaum, G Martin, R Costello, I Ceylan, V Garcia-Patos, J A Recio
Despite the promising targeted and immune-based interventions in melanoma treatment, long-lasting responses are limited. Melanoma cells present an aberrant redox state that leads to the production of toxic aldehydes that must be converted into less reactive molecules. Targeting the detoxification machinery constitutes a novel therapeutic avenue for melanoma. Here, using 56 cell lines representing nine different tumor types, we demonstrate that melanoma cells exhibit a strong correlation between reactive oxygen species amounts and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity...
June 5, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579829/natural-and-synthetic-progestins-enrich-cancer-stem-cell-like-cells-in-hormone-responsive-human-breast-cancer-cell-populations-in-vitro
#17
Sandy Goyette, Yayun Liang, Benford Mafuvadze, Matthew T Cook, Moiz Munir, Salman M Hyder
Clinical trials and studies have shown that combination estrogen/progestin hormone replacement therapy, but not estrogen therapy alone or placebo, increases breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Using animal models, we have previously shown that both natural and synthetic progestins (including medroxyprogesterone acetate [MPA], a synthetic progestin used widely in the clinical setting) accelerate the development of breast tumors in vivo and increase their metastasis to lymph nodes. Based on these observations, we have hypothesized that progestin-induced breast cancer tumor growth and metastasis may be mediated by an enrichment of the cancer stem cell (CSC) pool...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579596/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-identifies-a-subpopulation-of-canine-adipose-derived-stem-cells-with-higher-differentiation-potential
#18
Harumichi Itoh, Shimpei Nishikawa, Tomoya Haraguchi, Yu Arikawa, Shotaro Etoh, Toshie Iseri, Kenji Tani, Munekazu Nakaichi, Yasuho Taura, Kazuhito Itamoto
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are abundant and readily obtained, and have been studied for their clinical applicability in regenerative medicine. Some surface antigens have been identified as markers of different ADSC subpopulations in mice and humans. However, it is unclear whether functionally distinct subpopulations exist in dogs. To address this issue, we evaluated aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity-a widely used stem cell marker in mice and humans-by flow cytometry. Approximately 20% of bulk ADSCs showed high ALDH activity...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578603/aav-gene-therapy-for-alcoholism-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-enzyme-expression-in-hepatoma-cells
#19
Anamaria C Sanchez, Chengwen Li, Barbara A Andrews, Juan A Asenjo, R Jude Samulski
Most of the ethanol is broken down in the liver, through two-step by Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) enzymes, which metabolized down ethanol into acetaldehyde and then acetate. Some individuals of the Asian population who carry a mutation in the Aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH2*2) cannot metabolize acetaldehyde as efficiently, producing strong effects including facial flushing, dizziness, hypotension, and palpitations. This results in an aversion to alcohol intake and protection against alcoholism...
June 3, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572558/synthesis-and-crystal-structure-of-pyrroloquinoline-quinol-pqqh2-and-pyrroloquinoline-quinone-pqq
#20
Kazuto Ikemoto, Shigeki Mori, Kazuo Mukai
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a water-soluble quinone compound first identified as a cofactor of alcohol- and glucose-dehydrogenases (ADH and GDH) in bacteria. For example, in the process of ADH reaction, alcohol is oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde, and inversely PQQ is reduced to pyrroloquinoline quinol (PQQH2). PQQ and PQQH2 molecules play an important role as a cofactor in ADH and GDH reactions. However, crystal structure analysis has not been performed for PQQ and PQQH2. In the present study, the synthesis of PQQH2 powder crystals was performed under air, by utilizing vitamin C as a reducing agent...
June 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
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