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Salt wasting syndrom

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573057/cisplatin-induced-renal-salt-wasting-requiring-over-12-liters-of-3-saline-replacement
#1
Phuong-Chi Pham, Pavani Reddy, Shaker Qaqish, Ashvin Kamath, Johana Rodriguez, David Bolos, Martina Zalom, Phuong-Thu Pham
Cisplatin is known to induce Fanconi syndrome and renal salt wasting (RSW). RSW typically only requires transient normal saline (NS) support. We report a severe RSW case that required 12 liters of 3% saline. A 57-year-old woman with limited stage small cell cancer was admitted for cisplatin (80 mg/m(2)) and etoposide (100 mg/m(2)) therapy. Patient's serum sodium (SNa) decreased from 138 to 133 and 125 mEq/L within 24 and 48 hours of cisplatin therapy, respectively. A diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) was initially made...
2017: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557682/an-infant-presenting-with-failure-to-thrive-and-hyperkalaemia-owing-to-transient-pseudohypoaldosteronism-case-report
#2
Marieke De Clerck, Johan Vande Walle, Evelyn Dhont, Joke Dehoorne, Werner Keenswijk
A 3-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive and a history of a prenatally detected unilateral hydroureteronephrosis which was confirmed after birth. His growth and developmental milestones had been normal during the first 2 months but in the third month his appetite was poor with reduced intake but no vomiting. At presentation, his temperature was normal, there was mild dehydration and there was weight loss (his weight had decreased by 270 g in the past month). Haemoglobin was 11.9 g/dL, total white cell count 20...
May 30, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555110/reduced-membrane-insertion-of-clc-k-by-v33l-barttin-results-in-loss-of-hearing-but-leaves-kidney-function-intact
#3
Hua Tan, Stefanie Bungert-Plümke, Christoph Fahlke, Gabriel Stölting
In the mammalian ear, transduction of sound stimuli is initiated by K(+) entry through mechano-sensitive channels into inner hair cells. K(+) entry is driven by a positive endocochlear potential that is maintained by the marginal cell layer of the stria vascularis. This process requires basolateral K(+) import by NKCC1 Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K(+) co-transporters as well as Cl(-) efflux through ClC-Ka/barttin or ClC-Kb/barttin channels. Multiple mutations in the gene encoding the obligatory CLC-K subunit barttin, BSND, have been identified in patients with Bartter syndrome type IV...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478813/exophytic-bulbar-pilocytic-astrocytoma-and-post-operative-cerebral-salt-wasting-syndrome
#4
P O Champagne, A Sajadi, C Huot, M Traistaru, C Mercier, A G Weil, L Crevier
Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a well-described consequence of several neurological disorders. Although the exact etiology of CSWS is still not completely elucidated, it is believed that the hypothalamus plays a pivotal role in the genesis of this disorder. We report for the first time 3 cases of CSWS occurring during the post-operative course following surgical resection of exophytic bulbar pilocytic astrocytomas in children. Since these 3 cases shared in common a medial implication of the medulla, we suggest that specific interconnectivity between the dorso-medial portion of the medulla oblongata and the hypothalamus might thus represent an anatomical pathway of interest in the pathogenesis of CSWS...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476513/animal-models-of-cachexia-and-sarcopenia-in-chronic-illness-cardiac-function-body-composition-changes-and-therapeutic-results
#5
REVIEW
Junichi Ishida, Masakazu Saitoh, Wolfram Doehner, Stephan von Haehling, Markus Anker, Stefan D Anker, Jochen Springer
Cachexia is defined as a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness that is characterized by the loss of body weight consisting of muscle and fat mass wasting. Sarcopenia is defined as the ageing related loss of muscle mass in health and disease that may not have an effect on body weight. As millions of patients are in cachectic or sarcopenic states, both conditions contribute to high numbers to death worldwide. A number of treatments have been proposed for cachexia and sarcopenia, but these are either in the preclinical stage or in clinical trials and hence not available to the general population...
April 2, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458890/cerebral-salt-wasting-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Peter Taylor, Sasan Dehbozorgi, Arshiya Tabasum, Anna Scholz, Harsh Bhatt, Philippa Stewart, Pranav Kumar, Mohd S Draman, Alastair Watt, Aled Rees, Caroline Hayhurst, Stephen Davies
SUMMARY: Hyponatraemia is the most commonly encountered electrolyte disturbance in neurological high dependency and intensive care units. Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is the most elusive and challenging of the causes of hyponatraemia, and it is vital to distinguish it from the more familiar syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Managing CSW requires correction of the intravascular volume depletion and hyponatraemia, as well as mitigation of on-going substantial sodium losses...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446151/novel-mutation-in-the-slc12a3-gene-in-a-sri-lankan-family-with-gitelman-syndrome-coexistent-diabetes-a-case-report
#7
Chandrika Jayakanthi Subasinghe, Nirmala Dushyanthi Sirisena, Chula Herath, Knut Erik Berge, Trond Paul Leren, Uditha Bulugahapitiya, Vajira Harshadeva Weerabaddana Dissanayake
BACKGROUND: Gitelman syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited salt-wasting tubulopathy associated with mutations in the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes for NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in the kidney. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we describe two siblings from a Sri Lankan non-consanguineous family presenting with hypokalaemia associated with renal potassium wasting, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria and hypereninemic hyperaldosteronism with normal blood pressure...
April 26, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433659/carbonic-anhydrase-xii-functions-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Abdul Waheed, William S Sly
Human CAXII was initially identified as a cancer marker in different cancers and tumors. Expression of CAXII is regulated by hypoxia and estrogen receptors. CAXII expression has been also detected in several tissues, whereas in cancer and tumor tissues its expression is several fold higher. In brain tumors, an alternatively spliced form of CAXII is expressed. Higher expression of CAXII in breast cancer is indicative of lower grade disease. CAXII plays a key role in several physiological functions. Mutation in the CAXII gene causes cystic fibrosis-like syndrome and salt wasting disease...
August 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393593/a-study-of-hyponatremia-in-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-a-prospective-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-india
#9
Usha Kant Misra, Jayantee Kalita, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Sanjeev Kumar Bhoi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency and causes of hyponatremia in acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and its effect on outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with AES were subjected to neurological evaluation including Glasgow Coma Scale, focal weakness, movement disorder, and reflex changes. The etiology of AES was based on blood and cerebrospinal fluid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction. We have categorized patients into neurological or systemic AES...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377801/current-best-practice-in-the-management-of-patients-after-pituitary-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Alessandro Prete, Salvatore Maria Corsello, Roberto Salvatori
Sellar and parasellar masses are a common finding, and most of them are treated surgically via transsphenoidal approach. This type of surgery has revolutionized the approach to several hypothalamic-pituitary diseases and is usually effective, and well-tolerated by the patient. However, given the complex anatomy and high density of glandular, neurological and vascular structures in a confined space, transsphenoidal surgery harbors a substantial risk of complications. Hypopituitarism is one of the most frequent sequelae, with central adrenal insufficiency being the deficit that requires a timely diagnosis and treatment...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377333/prenatal-diagnosis-of-bartter-syndrome-amniotic-fluid-aldosterone
#11
Myriam Rachid, Sophie Dreux, Gauthier Pean de Ponfilly, Rosa Vargas-Poussou, Isabelle Czerkiewicz, Didier Chevenne, Jean-François Oury, Georges Deschênes, Françoise Muller
Bartter syndrome is a severe inherited tubulopathy characterized at birth by salt wasting, severe polyuria, dehydration, growth retardation and secondary hyperaldosteronism. Prenatally, the disease is usually discovered following onset of severe polyhydramnios. We studied amniotic fluid aldosterone concentration in cases of Bartter syndrome and in control groups. Amniotic fluid aldosterone was assayed by radioimmunoassay. We undertook a retrospective case-control study based on 36 cases of postnatally diagnosed Bartter syndrome and 144 controls matched for gestational age...
April 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321069/cerebral-salt-wasting-syndrome-and-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-syndrome-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhaging
#12
Hanako Nakajima, Hiroshi Okada, Kazuki Hirose, Toru Murakami, Yayoi Shiotsu, Mayuko Kadono, Mamoru Inoue, Goji Hasegawa
Hyponatremia is a common finding after subarachnoid hemorrhaging (SAH) and can be caused by either cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Distinguishing between these two entities can be difficult because they have similar manifestations, including hyponatremia, serum hypo-osmolality, and high urine osmolality. We herein report the case of a 60-year-old man who suffered from SAH complicated by hyponatremia. During his initial hospitalization, he was diagnosed with CSWS...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316939/application-of-established-pathophysiologic-processes-brings-greater-clarity-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia
#13
EDITORIAL
John K Maesaka, Louis J Imbriano, Nobuyuki Miyawaki
Hyponatremia, serum sodium < 135 mEq/L, is the most common electrolyte abnormality and is in a state of flux. Hyponatremic patients are symptomatic and should be treated but our inability to consistently determine the causes of hyponatremia has hampered the delivery of appropriate therapy. This is especially applicable to differentiating syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) from cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or more appropriately, renal salt wasting (RSW), because of divergent therapeutic goals, to water-restrict in SIAD and administer salt and water in RSW...
March 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302238/gitelman-syndrome
#14
Qurat Ul Ain Mustafa, Zujaja Hina Haroon, Aamir Ijaz, Muhammad Tanveer Sajid, Muhammad Ayyub
Gitelman syndrome (GS) is the most frequently inherited renal salt-wasting tubulointerstitial disease. It follows variable but usually asymptomatic benign course. We present a rare case of GS that remained clinical enigma. A 22-year male presented with severe episodic fatigue involving all limbs associated with episodes of sinking, palpitations, salt craving, increased thirst and frequent micturition hampering his routine daily activities. Laboratory workup revealed serum potassium, 2.7 mmol/L, serum magnesium, 0...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286482/restoration-of-epithelial-sodium-channel-function-by-synthetic-peptides-in-pseudohypoaldosteronism-type-1b-mutants
#15
Anita Willam, Mohammed Aufy, Susan Tzotzos, Heinrich Evanzin, Sabine Chytracek, Sabrina Geppert, Bernhard Fischer, Hendrik Fischer, Helmut Pietschmann, Istvan Czikora, Rudolf Lucas, Rosa Lemmens-Gruber, Waheed Shabbir
The synthetically produced cyclic peptides solnatide (a.k.a. TIP or AP301) and its congener AP318, whose molecular structures mimic the lectin-like domain of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF), have been shown to activate the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in various cell- and animal-based studies. Loss-of-ENaC-function leads to a rare, life-threatening, salt-wasting syndrome, pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1B (PHA1B), which presents with failure to thrive, dehydration, low blood pressure, anorexia and vomiting; hyperkalemia, hyponatremia and metabolic acidosis suggest hypoaldosteronism, but plasma aldosterone and renin activity are high...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261769/evaluation-of-risk-factors-and-development-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-head-injury-and-severe-sepsis-septic-shock-patients-during-icu-treatment
#16
Ceren Kamar, Achmet Ali, Demet Altun, Günseli Orhun, Akın Sabancı, Altay Sencer, İbrahim Özkan Akıncı
BACKGROUND: There are few studies examining development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the various types of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Presently described is evaluation of risk factors and development of AKI in different groups of ICU patients. METHODS: Present study was performed in 3 different ICUs. Development of AKI was measured using Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification system. Total of 300 patients who were treated in trauma, neurosurgery, or general ICU departments (due to head injury, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage [aSAH], or severe sepsis/septic shock, respectively) were assessed for incidence, risk factors, and development of AKI...
January 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207417/adrenarche-unmasks-compound-heterozygous-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-deficiency-c-244g-a-p-ala82thr-and-the-novel-931c-t-p-gln311-variant-in-a-non-salt-wasting-severely-undervirilised-46xy
#17
Stephanie Louise Teasdale, Adam Morton
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II deficiency (3βHSD2) congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of ambiguous genitalia, resulting in abnormal virilisation in both 46XY and 46XX. We describe a case of 46XY ambiguous genitalia that was misdiagnosed as androgen insensitivity syndrome. The correct diagnosis was made after adrenarche. Genotyping demonstrated compound heterozygosity in two alleles, the previously described c.244G>A (p.Ala82Thr), and a novel 931C>T(p.Gln311*) variant. We suggest that adrenarche unmasked the condition by driving cortisol production to rates that caused the mutant 3bHSD2 enzyme to become rate limiting for cortisol production...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194285/cerebral-salt-wasting-syndrome-caused-by-minor-head-injury
#18
Toshiki Fukuoka, Yuko Tsurumi, Arihito Tsurumi
A 34-year-old woman was admitted to hospital after sustaining a head injury in a motor vehicle accident (day 1). No signs of neurological deficit, skull fracture, brain contusion, or intracranial bleeding were evident. She was discharged without symptoms on day 4. However, headache and nausea worsened on day 8, at which time serum sodium level was noted to be 121 mEq/L. Treatment with sodium chloride was initiated, but serum sodium decreased to 116 mEq/L on day 9. Body weight decreased in proportion to the decrease in serum sodium...
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125972/gitelman-syndrome-in-a-south-african-family-presenting-with-hypokalaemia-and-unusual-food-cravings
#19
Pieter Du Toit van der Merwe, Megan A Rensburg, William L Haylett, Soraya Bardien, M Razeen Davids
BACKGROUND: Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterised by renal salt wasting with hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesaemia and hypocalciuria. It is caused by mutations in SLC12A3 encoding the sodium-chloride cotransporter on the apical membrane of the distal convoluted tubule. We report a South African family with five affected individuals presenting with hypokalaemia and unusual food cravings. METHODS: The affected individuals and two unaffected first degree relatives were enrolled into the study...
January 26, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110888/cerebral-salt-wasting-is-the-most-common-cause-of-hyponatremia-in-stroke
#20
Jayantee Kalita, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Usha Kant Misra
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the frequency, severity, and causes of hyponatremia in stroke and its influence on outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive computed tomography- or magnetic resonance imaging-proven stroke patients within 7 days of stroke were included. Severity of stroke was assessed using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and consciousness using the Glasgow Coma Scale. Hyponatremia was defined if 2 consecutive serum sodium levels were <135 mEq/L and hypernatremia if >145 mEq/L...
May 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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