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Vitamin D AND alzheimers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911294/deleterious-effect-of-butyrylcholinesterase-k-variant-in-donepezil-treatment-of-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
Sophie Sokolow, Xiaohui Li, Lucia Chen, Kent D Taylor, Jerome I Rotter, Robert A Rissman, Paul S Aisen, Liana G Apostolova
BACKGROUND: Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor frequently prescribed for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) though not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for this indication. In Alzheimer's disease, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity increases with disease progression and may replace acetylcholinesterase function. The most frequent polymorphism of BChE is the K-variant, which is associated with lower acetylcholine-hydrolyzing activity. BChE-K polymorphism has been studied in Alzheimer's disease progression and donepezil therapy, and has led to contradictory results...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860527/roles-of-ppar-transcription-factors-in-the-energetic-metabolic-switch-occurring-during-adult-neurogenesis
#2
E Di Giacomo, E Benedetti, L Cristiano, A Antonosante, M d'Angelo, A Fidoamore, D Barone, S Moreno, R Ippoliti, M P Cerù, A Giordano, A Cimini
PPARs are a class of ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the superfamily of receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones, retinoids and vitamin D that control the expression of a large number of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. The role of PPARs in the CNS has been primarily associated with lipid and glucose metabolism; however, these receptors are also implicated in neural cell differentiation and death, as well as neuronal maturation...
November 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856775/genetically-decreased-vitamin-d-and-risk-of-alzheimer-disease
#3
Lauren E Mokry, Stephanie Ross, John A Morris, Despoina Manousaki, Vincenzo Forgetta, J Brent Richards
OBJECTIVE: To test whether genetically decreased vitamin D levels are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) using mendelian randomization (MR), a method that minimizes bias due to confounding or reverse causation. METHODS: We selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (p < 5 × 10(-8)) from the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) Consortium (N = 33,996) to act as instrumental variables for the MR study...
November 16, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792188/the-impact-of-vitamin-e-and-other-fat-soluble-vitamins-on-alzheimer%C3%A2-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Marcus O W Grimm, Janine Mett, Tobias Hartmann
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population, currently affecting 46 million people worldwide. Histopathologically, the disease is characterized by the occurrence of extracellular amyloid plaques composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles containing the microtubule-associated protein tau. Aβ peptides are derived from the sequential processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by enzymes called secretases, which are strongly influenced by the lipid environment...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783938/vitamin-d-promotes-protein-homeostasis-and-longevity-via-the-stress-response-pathway-genes-skn-1-ire-1-and-xbp-1
#5
Karla A Mark, Kathleen J Dumas, Dipa Bhaumik, Birgit Schilling, Sonnet Davis, Tal Ronnen Oron, Dylan J Sorensen, Mark Lucanic, Rachel B Brem, Simon Melov, Arvind Ramanathan, Bradford W Gibson, Gordon J Lithgow
Vitamin D has multiple roles, including the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis. Deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the major circulating form of vitamin D, is associated with an increased risk of age-related chronic diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cognitive impairment, and cancer. In this study, we utilized Caenorhabditis elegans to examine the mechanism by which vitamin D influences aging. We found that vitamin-D3-induced lifespan extension requires the stress response pathway genes skn-1, ire-1, and xbp-1...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772736/vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-and-cognitive-decline-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Nicole M Gatto, Kimberly C Paul, Janet S Sinsheimer, Jeff M Bronstein, Yvette Bordelon, Rebecca Rausch, Beate Ritz
We and others have suggested that vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms influence susceptibility for Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or overall cognitive functioning. Here we examine VDR polymorphisms and cognitive decline in patients with PD. Non-Hispanic Caucasian PD patients (n=190) in the Parkinson Environment Gene (PEG) study were successfully genotyped for seven VDR polymorphisms. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) at baseline and at a maximum of three follow-up exams...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767993/effect-size-analyses-of-souvenaid-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Jeffrey Cummings, Philip Scheltens, Ian McKeith, Rafael Blesa, John E Harrison, Paulo H F Bertolucci, Kenneth Rockwood, David Wilkinson, Wouter Wijker, David A Bennett, Raj C Shah
BACKGROUND: Souvenaid® (uridine monophosphate, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium), was developed to support the formation and function of neuronal membranes. OBJECTIVE: To determine effect sizes observed in clinical trials of Souvenaid and to calculate the number needed to treat to show benefit or harm. METHODS: Data from all three reported randomized controlled trials of Souvenaid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia (Souvenir I, Souvenir II, and S-Connect) and an open-label extension study were included in analyses of effect size for cognitive, functional, and behavioral outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716664/normal-vitamin-levels-and-nutritional-indices-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-or-dementia-with-normal-body-mass-indexes
#8
Ingun Ulstein, Thomas Bøhmer
Evidence supports an association between vitamin deficiencies and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). If vitamin deficiencies are causative for AD development, they should be detectable during very early stages of AD. Here we investigated nutritional factors among home-living patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia due to AD, compared to healthy controls. Our study included 73 patients with AD (25 with MCI, 48 with dementia) and 63 cognitively intact age-matched controls...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692178/the-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-health-and-disease
#9
G Díaz-Soto, A Rocher, C García-Rodríguez, L Núñez, C Villalobos
The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a unique G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by extracellular Ca(2+) and by other physiological cations including Mg(2+), amino acids, and polyamines. CaSR is the most important master controller of the extracellular Ca(2+) homeostatic system being expressed at high levels in the parathyroid gland, kidney, gut and bone, where it regulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, vitamin D synthesis, and Ca(2+) absorption and resorption, respectively. Gain and loss of function mutations in the CaSR are responsible for severe disturbances in extracellular Ca(2+) metabolism...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651008/vitamin-d-and-cognition-in-older-adults-international-consensus-guidelines
#10
Cédric Annweiler, Erdinç Dursun, Francois Féron, Duygu Gezen-Ak, Allan V Kalueff, Thomas Littlejohns, David Llewellyn, Pascal Millet, Tammy Scott, Katherine L Tucker, Selma Yilmazer, Olivier Beauchet
Hypovitaminosis D, a common condition in older adults, is associated with brain changes and dementia. Given the fast growing contribution of literature in this research field, clear guidance is needed for clinicians and researchers. International experts met at the invitational summit on "Vitamin D and cognition in older adults" in Boston, MA, July 2013. Based upon literature and expert opinion, the task force focused on key questions on the role of vitamin D in Alzheimer disease and related disorders. Each question was discussed and voted using a Delphi-like approach...
September 1, 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643909/dementia
#11
Peter A Ljubenkov, Michael D Geschwind
Dementia often is defined as a progressive cognitive disturbance leading to a loss of independent function. Most clinicians are familiar with the typical pattern of amnestic Alzheimer's disease, the most common neurodegenerative presentation of dementia. Atypical dementia presentations, including atypical Alzheimer's variants, however, may pose a diagnostic challenge for even experienced clinicians. In this article the authors discuss clinical "pearls" for the diagnosis of various neurodegenerative dementia syndromes...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588106/effect-of-various-doses-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Qingying Zhang, Yan Cheng, Mulan He, Tingting Li, Ziwen Ma, Haidong Cheng
It has previously been reported that the influence of vitamin D on the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus is associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, cancer and other systemic diseases, and is considered an important indicator of general health. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of various doses of vitamin D supplementation on glucose metabolism, lipid concentrations, inflammation and the levels of oxidative stress of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557896/alzheimer-related-protein-apl-1-modulates-lifespan-through-heterochronic-gene-regulation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Collin Y Ewald, Vanessa Marfil, Chris Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-associated disease. Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) may be causative or protective of AD. The presence of two functionally redundant APP-like genes (APLP1/2) has made it difficult to unravel the biological function of APP during aging. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains a single APP family member, apl-1. Here, we assessed the function of APL-1 on C. elegans' lifespan and found tissue-specific effects on lifespan by overexpression of APL-1. Overexpression of APL-1 in neurons causes lifespan reduction, whereas overexpression of APL-1 in the hypodermis causes lifespan extension by repressing the function of the heterochronic transcription factor LIN-14 to preserve youthfulness...
August 24, 2016: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536986/geographical-variation-in-dementia-mortality-in-italy-new-zealand-and-chile-the-impact-of-latitude-vitamin-d-and-air-pollution
#14
Tom C Russ, Laura Murianni, Gloria Icaza, Andrea Slachevsky, John M Starr
BACKGROUND: Dementia risk is reported as being higher in the north compared to the south, which may be related to vitamin D deficiency. If this were the case, an opposite gradient of risk would be observed in the southern hemisphere, but this has not been investigated previously. METHODS: We calculated standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for deaths in 2012 where dementia (Alzheimer's disease, vascular or unspecified dementia) was recorded as the underlying cause for 20 regions in Italy, 20 District Health Board areas in New Zealand and 29 Health Service areas in Chile...
2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477351/vitamin-d2-suppresses-amyloid-%C3%AE-25-35-induced-microglial-activation-in-bv2-cells-by-blocking-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inflammatory-signaling-pathway
#15
Suchismita Raha, Ho Jeong Lee, Silvia Yumnam, Gyeong Eun Hong, Venu Venkatarame Gowda Saralamma, Yeong Lae Ha, Jeong Ok Kim, Young Suk Kim, Jeong Doo Heo, Sang Joon Lee, Eun-Hee Kim, Gon Sup Kim
AIMS: Present emerging world is emphasizing the implication of vitamin D deficiency associated with development of inflammation and neurodegenerative disorder like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The chief neuropathological hallmark of AD is aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides surrounding microglial cells in human brain. Microglial activation plays a key role in inflammatory response and neuronal injury. Naturally abundant vitamin D2 (VD2) exhibiting anti-inflammatory activities are yet to explore more...
September 15, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454859/using-multicountry-ecological-and-observational-studies-to-determine-dietary-risk-factors-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
William B Grant
UNLABELLED: Rates of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are rising worldwide. The most important risk factors seem to be linked to diet. For example, when Japan made the nutrition transition from the traditional Japanese diet to the Western diet, AD rates rose from 1% in 1985 to 7% in 2008. Foods protective against AD include fruits, vegetables, grains, low-fat dairy products, legumes, and fish, whereas risk factors include meat, sweets, and high-fat dairy products. The evidence comes from ecological and observational studies as well as investigations of the mechanisms whereby dietary factors affect risk...
July 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377727/vitamin-d-reactive-oxygen-species-and-calcium-signalling-in-ageing-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Michael J Berridge
Vitamin D is a hormone that maintains healthy cells. It functions by regulating the low resting levels of cell signalling components such as Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its role in maintaining phenotypic stability of these signalling pathways depends on the ability of vitamin D to control the expression of those components that act to reduce the levels of both Ca(2+) and ROS. This regulatory role of vitamin D is supported by both Klotho and Nrf2. A decline in the vitamin D/Klotho/Nrf2 regulatory network may enhance the ageing process, and this is well illustrated by the age-related decline in cognition in rats that can be reversed by administering vitamin D...
August 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357856/vitamin-d-deficiency-might-pose-a-greater-risk-for-apoe%C3%A9-4-non-carrier-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#18
Erdinç Dursun, Merve Alaylıoğlu, Başar Bilgiç, Haşmet Hanağası, Ebba Lohmann, Irem L Atasoy, Esin Candaş, Ömür Selin Araz, Burak Önal, Hakan Gürvit, Selma Yılmazer, Duygu Gezen-Ak
Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone that shares a synthetic pathway with cholesterol. ApoE, which is involved in the transport of cholesterol, is the most significant genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Surprisingly, recent studies have indicated the presence of an evolutionary juncture between these two molecules. To demonstrate this possible relationship, we investigated serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25OHD) in patients with early onset-AD (EOAD; n:22), late onset-AD (LOAD; n:72), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n:32) and in healthy subjects (n:70)...
October 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340854/a-bacterial-component-to-alzheimer-s-type-dementia-seen-via-a-systems-biology-approach-that-links-iron-dysregulation-and-inflammagen-shedding-to-disease
#19
Etheresia Pretorius, Janette Bester, Douglas B Kell
The progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accompanied by a great many observable changes, both molecular and physiological. These include oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and (more proximal to cognitive decline) the death of neuronal and other cells. A systems biology approach seeks to organize these observed variables into pathways that discriminate those that are highly involved (i.e., causative) from those that are more usefully recognized as bystander effects. We review the evidence that iron dysregulation is one of the central causative pathway elements here, as this can cause each of the above effects...
June 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217151/mood-stress-and-longevity-convergence-on-ank3
#20
S Rangaraju, D F Levey, K Nho, N Jain, K D Andrews, H Le-Niculescu, D R Salomon, A J Saykin, M Petrascheck, A B Niculescu
Antidepressants have been shown to improve longevity in C. elegans. It is plausible that orthologs of genes involved in mood regulation and stress response are involved in such an effect. We sought to understand the underlying biology. First, we analyzed the transcriptome from worms treated with the antidepressant mianserin, previously identified in a large-scale unbiased drug screen as promoting increased lifespan in worms. We identified the most robust treatment-related changes in gene expression, and identified the corresponding human orthologs...
August 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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