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Vitamin D AND alzheimers

Ingun Ulstein, Thomas Bøhmer
Evidence supports an association between vitamin deficiencies and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). If vitamin deficiencies are causative for AD development, they should be detectable during very early stages of AD. Here we investigated nutritional factors among home-living patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia due to AD, compared to healthy controls. Our study included 73 patients with AD (25 with MCI, 48 with dementia) and 63 cognitively intact age-matched controls...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
G Díaz-Soto, A Rocher, C García-Rodríguez, L Núñez, C Villalobos
The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a unique G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by extracellular Ca(2+) and by other physiological cations including Mg(2+), amino acids, and polyamines. CaSR is the most important master controller of the extracellular Ca(2+) homeostatic system being expressed at high levels in the parathyroid gland, kidney, gut and bone, where it regulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, vitamin D synthesis, and Ca(2+) absorption and resorption, respectively. Gain and loss of function mutations in the CaSR are responsible for severe disturbances in extracellular Ca(2+) metabolism...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Cédric Annweiler, Erdinç Dursun, Francois Féron, Duygu Gezen-Ak, Allan V Kalueff, Thomas Littlejohns, David Llewellyn, Pascal Millet, Tammy Scott, Katherine L Tucker, Selma Yilmazer, Olivier Beauchet
Hypovitaminosis D, a common condition in older adults, is associated with brain changes and dementia. Given the fast growing contribution of literature in this research field, clear guidance is needed for clinicians and researchers. International experts met at the invitational summit on "Vitamin D and cognition in older adults" in Boston, MA, July 2013. Based upon literature and expert opinion, the task force focused on key questions on the role of vitamin D in Alzheimer disease and related disorders. Each question was discussed and voted using a Delphi-like approach...
September 1, 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Peter A Ljubenkov, Michael D Geschwind
Dementia often is defined as a progressive cognitive disturbance leading to a loss of independent function. Most clinicians are familiar with the typical pattern of amnestic Alzheimer's disease, the most common neurodegenerative presentation of dementia. Atypical dementia presentations, including atypical Alzheimer's variants, however, may pose a diagnostic challenge for even experienced clinicians. In this article the authors discuss clinical "pearls" for the diagnosis of various neurodegenerative dementia syndromes...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Qingying Zhang, Yan Cheng, Mulan He, Tingting Li, Ziwen Ma, Haidong Cheng
It has previously been reported that the influence of vitamin D on the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus is associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, cancer and other systemic diseases, and is considered an important indicator of general health. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of various doses of vitamin D supplementation on glucose metabolism, lipid concentrations, inflammation and the levels of oxidative stress of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Collin Y Ewald, Vanessa Marfil, Chris Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-associated disease. Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) may be causative or protective of AD. The presence of two functionally redundant APP-like genes (APLP1/2) has made it difficult to unravel the biological function of APP during aging. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains a single APP family member, apl-1. Here, we assessed the function of APL-1 on C. elegans' lifespan and found tissue-specific effects on lifespan by overexpression of APL-1. Overexpression of APL-1 in neurons causes lifespan reduction, whereas overexpression of APL-1 in the hypodermis causes lifespan extension by repressing the function of the heterochronic transcription factor LIN-14 to preserve youthfulness...
August 24, 2016: Aging Cell
Tom C Russ, Laura Murianni, Gloria Icaza, Andrea Slachevsky, John M Starr
BACKGROUND: Dementia risk is reported as being higher in the north compared to the south, which may be related to vitamin D deficiency. If this were the case, an opposite gradient of risk would be observed in the southern hemisphere, but this has not been investigated previously. METHODS: We calculated standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for deaths in 2012 where dementia (Alzheimer's disease, vascular or unspecified dementia) was recorded as the underlying cause for 20 regions in Italy, 20 District Health Board areas in New Zealand and 29 Health Service areas in Chile...
2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Suchismita Raha, Ho Jeong Lee, Silvia Yumnam, Gyeong Eun Hong, Venu Venkatarame Gowda Saralamma, Yeong Lae Ha, Jeong Ok Kim, Young Suk Kim, Jeong Doo Heo, Sang Joon Lee, Eun-Hee Kim, Gon Sup Kim
AIMS: Present emerging world is emphasizing the implication of vitamin D deficiency associated with development of inflammation and neurodegenerative disorder like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The chief neuropathological hallmark of AD is aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides surrounding microglial cells in human brain. Microglial activation plays a key role in inflammatory response and neuronal injury. Naturally abundant vitamin D2 (VD2) exhibiting anti-inflammatory activities are yet to explore more...
September 15, 2016: Life Sciences
William B Grant
UNLABELLED: Rates of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are rising worldwide. The most important risk factors seem to be linked to diet. For example, when Japan made the nutrition transition from the traditional Japanese diet to the Western diet, AD rates rose from 1% in 1985 to 7% in 2008. Foods protective against AD include fruits, vegetables, grains, low-fat dairy products, legumes, and fish, whereas risk factors include meat, sweets, and high-fat dairy products. The evidence comes from ecological and observational studies as well as investigations of the mechanisms whereby dietary factors affect risk...
July 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Michael J Berridge
Vitamin D is a hormone that maintains healthy cells. It functions by regulating the low resting levels of cell signalling components such as Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its role in maintaining phenotypic stability of these signalling pathways depends on the ability of vitamin D to control the expression of those components that act to reduce the levels of both Ca(2+) and ROS. This regulatory role of vitamin D is supported by both Klotho and Nrf2. A decline in the vitamin D/Klotho/Nrf2 regulatory network may enhance the ageing process, and this is well illustrated by the age-related decline in cognition in rats that can be reversed by administering vitamin D...
August 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Erdinç Dursun, Merve Alaylıoğlu, Başar Bilgiç, Haşmet Hanağası, Ebba Lohmann, Irem L Atasoy, Esin Candaş, Ömür Selin Araz, Burak Önal, Hakan Gürvit, Selma Yılmazer, Duygu Gezen-Ak
Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone that shares a synthetic pathway with cholesterol. ApoE, which is involved in the transport of cholesterol, is the most significant genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Surprisingly, recent studies have indicated the presence of an evolutionary juncture between these two molecules. To demonstrate this possible relationship, we investigated serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25OHD) in patients with early onset-AD (EOAD; n:22), late onset-AD (LOAD; n:72), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n:32) and in healthy subjects (n:70)...
October 2016: Neurological Sciences
Etheresia Pretorius, Janette Bester, Douglas B Kell
The progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accompanied by a great many observable changes, both molecular and physiological. These include oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and (more proximal to cognitive decline) the death of neuronal and other cells. A systems biology approach seeks to organize these observed variables into pathways that discriminate those that are highly involved (i.e., causative) from those that are more usefully recognized as bystander effects. We review the evidence that iron dysregulation is one of the central causative pathway elements here, as this can cause each of the above effects...
June 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
S Rangaraju, D F Levey, K Nho, N Jain, K D Andrews, H Le-Niculescu, D R Salomon, A J Saykin, M Petrascheck, A B Niculescu
Antidepressants have been shown to improve longevity in C. elegans. It is plausible that orthologs of genes involved in mood regulation and stress response are involved in such an effect. We sought to understand the underlying biology. First, we analyzed the transcriptome from worms treated with the antidepressant mianserin, previously identified in a large-scale unbiased drug screen as promoting increased lifespan in worms. We identified the most robust treatment-related changes in gene expression, and identified the corresponding human orthologs...
August 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Véréna Landel, Cédric Annweiler, Pascal Millet, Maria Morello, François Féron
Since its discovery during the epidemic of rickets in the early 1920s, the physiological effects of vitamin D on calcium/phosphorus homeostasis have been thoroughly studied. Along with the understanding of its actions on skeletal diseases and advances in cellular and molecular biology, this misnamed vitamin has gained attention as a potential player in a growing number of physiological processes and a variety of diseases. During the last 25 years, vitamin D has emerged as a serious candidate in nervous system development and function and a therapeutic tool in a number of neurological pathologies...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Thomas J Littlejohns, Katarina Kos, William E Henley, Iain A Lang, Cedric Annweiler, Olivier Beauchet, Paulo H M Chaves, Bryan R Kestenbaum, Lewis H Kuller, Kenneth M Langa, Oscar L Lopez, David J Llewellyn
Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying these associations by determining whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with the development of incident cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative neuroimaging abnormalities. The population consisted of 1,658 participants aged ≥65 years from the US-based Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from prevalent cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia at baseline in 1992-93...
2016: PloS One
Yoshinori Okada, Mizue Okada
INTRODUCTION: Glycation process might contribute to both extensive protein cross-linking and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The amyloid-like aggregation of glycated bovine serum albumin induces apoptosis in the neuronal cell. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants, vitamins, and polyphenols are beneficial to AD, and consumption of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of AD. We conducted a screening of 14 aqueous extracts from plant seeds (PSAE) for inhibitory activity on amyloid beta (Aβ)...
April 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Jinbo Cheng, Xianghou Xia, Yehua Rui, Zengli Zhang, Liqiang Qin, Shufen Han, Zhongxiao Wan
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a critical factor involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Vitamin D and resveratrol are two nutritional factors that have reported neuroprotective effects, and findings from cellular models suggest that resveratrol could potentiate vitamin D's effects. We aimed to determine the effects of vitamin D & resveratrol on ER stress mediated neurodegeneration and whether synergistic effects existed. Tunicamycin and Aβ25-35 was utilized to induce ER stress in SH-SY5Y cells, cells were then incubated with vitamin D and resveratrol...
July 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jae Hoon Moon
Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management...
June 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Cédric Annweiler
Beyond effects on bone health, vitamin D exerts effects on a variety of target organs, including the brain. The discussion herein presents the state of the art in research on the neurological role of vitamin D and clinical implications among older adults, including implications for dementia onset and progression. Some of the neurosteroid actions of vitamin D include regulation of calcium homeostasis, clearance of amyloid-β peptide, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and possible protection against the neurodegenerative mechanisms associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
March 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Brendan J Miller, Corrie M Whisner, Carol S Johnston
Low plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) is linked to Alzheimer's disease. Since vitamin D cleared brain Aβ in vitro, this 8-week trial examined whether vitamin D increased plasma Aβ40. Vitamin D insufficient adults (6/18 M/F; 64.3 ± 10.9 y) were randomized to placebo or vitamin (50,000 IU/week) treatments. The vitamin group experienced greater plasma Aβ40 change than controls, +14.9 ± 12.0 and +12.8 ± 12.8 pg/mL (p = 0.045; effect size, 0.228). Change in Aβ40 for older participants (≥60 y) was +18.3 ± 33...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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