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lung eosinophilia

Xiu-Jing Han, Dan-Hong Su, Jian-Yun Yi, Ya-Wei Zou, Yu-Ling Shi
BACKGROUND: The typical manifestations of Penicillium marneffei (nowadays Talaromyces marneffei) infection in children without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain unclear. The current work presents the case of a child without an underlying disease who was infected with P. marneffei comorbid with eosinophilia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 2-year-old male was infected with P. marneffei. A physical examination revealed a high-grade fever, ulcerated lesions in the oral mucosa, anemia, pruritic erythematous papules on the sac and thigh and watery diarrhea...
March 9, 2018: Mycopathologia
Sung Gil Ha, Mythili Dileepan, Xiao Na Ge, Bit Na Kang, Yana G Greenberg, Amrita Rao, Girija Muralidhar, Lali Medina-Kauwe, Michael A Thompson, Christina M Pabelick, Scott M O'Grady, Savita P Rao, P Sriramarao
BACKGROUND: Altered epithelial physical and functional barrier properties along with Th1/Th2 immune dysregulation are features of allergic asthma. Regulation of junction proteins to improve barrier function of airway epithelial cells has the potential for alleviation of allergic airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the immunomodulatory effect of knob protein of the adenoviral capsid on allergic asthma and investigate its mechanism of action on airway epithelial junction proteins and barrier function...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Sapan Kumar Behera, Saibal Das, Alphienes Stanley Xavier, Sandhiya Selvarajan
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a serious and potentially fatal adverse effect to therapeutic medications. The incidence of this condition varies among different ethnicities because of the difference in the genetic makeup. Though fever, rash and eosinophilia are essential features for the diagnosis of this syndrome, these vary from patient to patient along with the involvement of various organs such as liver, kidney, lungs, pancreas, etc. Some of the atypical features are dysphagia, agranulocytosis, and chylous ascites...
March 8, 2018: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
G Yu, W J Wang, D R Liu, Z F Tao, X Y Hui, J Hou, J Q Sun, X C Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of 8 immunodeficiency cases caused by human recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1) mutations, and to explore the relationship among genotypes, clinical manifestations and immunophenotypes. Methods: Clinical data were collected and analyzed from patients with RAG1 mutations who visited the Department of Clinical Immunology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University between October 2013 and June 2017. The data included clinical manifestations, immunophenotypes and genotypes...
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Stephane Debelleix, Valérie Siao-Him Fa, Hugues Begueret, Patrick Berger, Roger Marthan, Michael Fayon
Asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation leading to airway remodeling (AR). In children, AR may occur very early prior to the age of 6 years. Treatments to prevent or reverse AR are unknown. AIM: We sought to determine (i) whether short allergenic sensitization at a young age in a mouse model may induce enhanced AR and inflammation compared to adults; (ii) the effect of Montelukast on such AR. METHODS: Immature and adult Balb/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Jose A Castro-Rodriguez, Sejal Saglani, Carlos E Rodriguez-Martinez, Maria A Oyarzun, Louis Fleming, Andrew Bush
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to perform a systematic review of all studies with direct measurements of both airway inflammation and remodeling in the subgroup of children with repeated wheezing and/or persistent asthma severe enough to warrant bronchoscopy, to address whether airway inflammation precedes remodeling or is a parallel process, and also to assess the impact of remodeling on lung function. METHODS: Four databases were searched up to June 2017. Two independent reviewers screened the literature and extracted relevant data...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
David Fishwick, Steve Forman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The outcome for workers with occupational asthma is improved for those with an earlier diagnosis. Health surveillance at work is in principle designed to identify such cases, so that the risks to the individual worker, and coworkers, can be reduced. There is recent evidence to suggest that the uptake and quality of such surveillance could be improved. This review has assessed current approaches to health surveillance for occupational asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: The article covers a review of the utility of questionnaires, lung function testing, immunological investigations, and other tests, including exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophilia, and exhaled breath condensate specifically in the context of workplace-based health surveillance...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Eline Haspeslagh, Mary J van Helden, Kim Deswarte, Sofie De Prijck, Justine van Moorleghem, Louis Boon, Hamida Hammad, Eric Vivier, Bart N Lambrecht
House dust mite (HDM)-allergic asthma is driven by T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocytes, but also innate immune cells control key aspects of the disease. The precise function of innate natural killer (NK) cells during the initiation and propagation of asthma has been very confusing, in part because different, not entirely specific, strategies were used to target these cells. We show that HDM inhalation rapidly led to the accumulation of NK cells in the lung-draining lymph nodes and of activated CD69 + NK cells in the bronchoalveolar lumen...
February 14, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
William C Anderson, Stanley J Szefler
Strategies to control the risk domain of NHLBI EPR-3 (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Expert Panel Report-3) asthma guidelines, which includes exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids, reduction in lung growth, and progressive loss of lung function, and treatment-related adverse effects, are evolving in children and adolescents. Increasing evidence demonstrates that children and adolescents with asthma are at risk of a reduction in lung growth, leading to lower lung function and potentially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as adults...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Liliana Ribeiro, Márcia Souto, Ana Loureiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Eleanor M Dunican, Brett M Elicker, David S Gierada, Scott K Nagle, Mark L Schiebler, John D Newell, Wilfred W Raymond, Marrah E Lachowicz-Scroggins, Selena Di Maio, Eric A Hoffman, Mario Castro, Sean B Fain, Nizar N Jarjour, Elliot Israel, Bruce D Levy, Serpil C Erzurum, Sally E Wenzel, Deborah A Meyers, Eugene R Bleecker, Brenda R Phillips, David T Mauger, Erin D Gordon, Prescott G Woodruff, Michael C Peters, John V Fahy
BACKGROUND: The link between mucus plugs and airflow obstruction has not been established in chronic severe asthma, and the role of eosinophils and their products in mucus plug formation is unknown. METHODS: In clinical studies, we developed and applied a bronchopulmonary segment-based scoring system to quantify mucus plugs on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) lung scans from 146 subjects with asthma and 22 controls, and analyzed relationships among mucus plug scores, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and airway eosinophils...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yoko Ito, Niccolette Schaefer, Amelia Sanchez, David Francisco, Rafeul Alam, Richard J Martin, Julie G Ledford, Connor Stevenson, Di Jiang, Liwu Li, Monica Kraft, Hong Wei Chu
Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) is a key negative regulator of innate immunity by preventing excessive proinflammatory responses. Tollip genetic variation has been associated with airflow limitation in asthma subjects and Tollip expression. Whether Tollip regulates lung inflammation in a type 2 cytokine milieu (e.g., IL-13) is unclear. Our goal was to determine the in vivo role of Tollip in IL-13-mediated lung eosinophilic inflammation and the underlying mechanisms. Tollip-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were inoculated intranasally with recombinant mouse IL-13 protein to examine lung inflammation...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Maili Lehto, Henrik Wolff, Reko Leino, Harri Alenius, Johannes Savolainen
BACKGROUND: Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) effectively alleviates type I allergic diseases characterized by T helper (Th) 2-type immunity. Our recent studies have shown that a synthetic trivalent glycocluster, triacedimannose (TADM), suppresses the Th2-type allergic inflammation. The aim of this study was to compare TADM with two well-known adjuvants, unmethylated cytocine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) in a grass allergen induced chronic allergic inflammation model in mice...
January 26, 2018: Allergy
Angela M Fonceca, Graeme R Zosky, Elizabeth M Bozanich, Erika N Sutanto, Anthony Kicic, Paul S McNamara, Darryl A Knight, Peter D Sly, Debra J Turner, Stephen M Stick
BACKGROUND: Accumulation mode particles (AMP) are formed from engine combustion and make up the inhalable vapour cloud of ambient particulate matter pollution. Their small size facilitates dispersal and subsequent exposure far from their original source, as well as the ability to penetrate alveolar spaces and capillary walls of the lung when inhaled. A significant immuno-stimulatory component of AMP is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a product of Gram negative bacteria breakdown. As LPS is implicated in the onset and exacerbation of asthma, the presence or absence of LPS in ambient particulate matter (PM) may explain the onset of asthmatic exacerbations to PM exposure...
January 22, 2018: Respiratory Research
M Yamaguchi, S K Samuchiwal, O Quehenberger, J A Boyce, B Balestrieri
Group V phospholipase A2 (Pla2g5) is a lipid-generating enzyme necessary for macrophage effector functions in pulmonary inflammation. However, the lipid mediators involved and their cellular targets have not been identified. Mice lacking Pla2g5 showed markedly reduced lung ILC2 activation and eosinophilia following repetitive Alternaria Alternata inhalation. While Pla2g5-null mice had Wt levels of immediate IL-33 release after one Alternaria dose, they failed to upregulate IL-33 in macrophages following repeated Alternaria administration...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
Shinji Toki, Kasia Goleniewska, Sara Reiss, Jian Zhang, Melissa H Bloodworth, Matthew T Stier, Weisong Zhou, Dawn C Newcomb, Lorraine B Ware, Gregg D Stanwood, Aurelio Galli, Kelli L Boyd, Kevin D Niswender, R Stokes Peebles
BACKGROUND: IL-33 is one of the most consistently associated gene candidates for asthma identified by GWAS. Studies in mice and in human cells have confirmed the importance of IL-33 in inducing type-2 cytokine production from both group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and Th2 cells. However, there are no pharmacologic agents known to inhibit IL-33 release from airway cells. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of glucagon like peptide receptor-1 GLP-1R signaling on aeroallergen-induced airway IL-33 production and release and on innate type-2 airway inflammation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
T Arikoglu, S B Batmaz, D D Yildirim, Ö Tezol, G Bozlu, S Kuyucu
BACKGROUND: The identification of children who will have persistent asthma has become a focus of recent research. The aim of this study was to assess whether impulse oscillometry (IOS) has a diagnostic value to predict modified API (asthma predictive index) in pre-schoolers with recurrent wheezing. METHODS: Pre-school children aged 3-6 years with recurrent wheezing were enrolled. The study population was divided into two groups based on mAPI criteria. Lung function was assessed by IOS...
January 10, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Kenneth R Eyring, Brent S Pedersen, Kenneth N Maclean, Sally P Stabler, Ivana V Yang, David A Schwartz
RATIONALE: Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors) in modifying allergic airway disease. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that blocking folate metabolism through the loss of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr) activity would reduce the allergic airway disease phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms...
2018: PloS One
Jiaoyan Lv, Yingluo Xiong, Wenjing Li, Xinyi Cui, Xunjia Cheng, Qibin Leng, Rui He
BACKGROUND: IL-37 is emerging as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, particularly in innate inflammation. However, the role of IL-37 in Th2-mediated allergic lung inflammation remains uncertain. We sought to determine the role and the underlying mechanisms of IL-37 in the development of house dust mites (HDM)-induced murine asthma model. METHODS: We examined the effect of IL-37 administration during the sensitization or challenge phase on Th2-mediated allergic asthma induced by inhaled HDM...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
Tao Liu, Nora A Barrett, Yoshihide Kanaoka, Eri Yoshimoto, Denise Garofalo, Haley Cirka, Chunli Feng, Joshua A Boyce
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) facilitate mucosal type 2 immunopathology by incompletely understood mechanisms. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, a severe asthma subtype, is characterized by exaggerated eosinophilic respiratory inflammation and reactions to aspirin, each involving the marked overproduction of cysLTs. Here we demonstrate that the type 2 cysLT receptor (CysLT2R), which is not targeted by available drugs, is required in two different models to amplify eosinophilic airway inflammation via induced expression of IL-33 by lung epithelial cells...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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