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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036955/-comparision-of-risk-factors-and-pathogens-in-patients-with-early-and-late-onset-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-intensive-care-unit
#1
Y J Liang, Z L Li, L Wang, B Y Liu, R Y Ding, X C Ma
Objective: To compare risk factors and bacterial etiology in patients with early-onset versus late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: This prospective cohort study enrolled mechanically ventilated patients hospitalized for more than 48 hours in the first affiliated hospital, China Medical University from Jan 2012 to Jun 2016. Subjects were classified by ventilator status: early-onset VAP (< 5 d ventilation, E-VAP) or late-onset VAP (≥ 5 d ventilation, L-VAP)...
October 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036660/mcnpx-calculations-of-specific-absorbed-fractions-in-some-organs-of-the-human-body-due-to-application-of-133xe-99mtc-and-81mkr-radionuclides
#2
Z Jovanovic, D Krstic, D Nikezic, J M Gomez Ros, P Ferrari
Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate treatment doses with wide spread used radionuclides 133Xe, 99mTc and 81mKr. These different radionuclides are used in perfusion or ventilation examinations in nuclear medicine and as indicators for cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. The objective of this work was to estimate the specific absorbed fractions in surrounding organs and tissues, when these radionuclides are incorporated in the lungs. For this purpose a voxel thorax model has been developed and compared with the ORNL phantom...
September 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036618/unsuccessful-treatment-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-factors-and-a-consequent-predictive-model
#3
Ana Costa-Veiga, Teodoro Briz, Carla Nunes
Background: Cure is particularly valuable in pulmonary cases (PTB), as unsuccessful treatment fuels incidence and resistance to antibiotics. This study aims to identify individual factors of PTB unsuccessful treatment in Portugal and to develop a consequent predictive model. Methods: Using the Portuguese TB surveillance database (SVIG-TB), PTB cases older than 15 years notified from 2000 to 2012 in Continental Portugal were analyzed. Unsuccessful treatment included the WHO categories (failure, default, death and transferred out)...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036520/lung-specific-overexpression-of-constitutively-active-ikk2-induces-pulmonary-and-systemic-inflammations-but-not-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-glucose-intolerance
#4
Minjie Chen, Huifen Zhou, Yanyi Xu, Lianglin Qiu, Ziying Hu, Xiaobo Qin, Sufang Chen, Yuhao Zhang, Qi Cao, Yousef Abu-Amer, Zhekang Ying
The lung is constantly exposed to ambient pollutants such as ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), making it one of the most frequent locations of inflammation in the body. Given the establishment of crucial role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases, pulmonary inflammation is thus widely believed to be an important risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. However, the causality between them has not yet been well established. To determine if pulmonary inflammation is sufficient to cause adverse cardiometabolic effects, SFTPC-rtTA+/-tetO-cre+/-pROSA-inhibitor κB kinase 2(IKK2)ca+/- (LungIKK2ca) and littermate SFTPC-rtTA+/-tetO-cre-/-pROSA-IKK2ca+/- wildtype (WT) mice were fed with doxycycline diet to induce constitutively active Ikk2 (Ikk2ca) overexpression in the lung and their pulmonary, systemic, adipose, and hypothalamic inflammations, vascular function, and glucose homeostasis were assessed...
July 28, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035946/role-of-the-lung-microbiome-in-hiv-pathogenesis
#5
Meera K Shenoy, Susan V Lynch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on the lung microbiome in HIV-infected patients and associated pulmonary diseases, and the relationship of airway microbial communities to metabolic and immune signatures within this patient population. RECENT FINDINGS: The lung microbiome in HIV infection is a relatively new and rapidly developing field; early studies in the field produced inconclusive evidence as to whether HIV-infection changes the lower airway microbiome...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035862/first-report-of-pneumonia-caused-by-angiostrongylus-vasorum-in-a-golden-jackal
#6
Pavle Gavrilović, Darko Marinković, Igor Todorović, Aleksandra Gavrilović
Angiostrongylosis caused by metastrongyloid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum is an emerging parasitic disease in Europe and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered as a main reservoir species for this parasite. Little is known about the role of other wild canids in the epidemiology of angiostrongylosis. The present paper provides the first description of pathomorphological lesions caused by A. vasorum in a golden jackal (Canis aureus). The paper describes a case of co-infection with A. vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in a one-year-old female golden jackal, legally hunted near the City of Kovin, South Banat, Serbia...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035757/pulmonary-hypertension-associated-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants
#7
REVIEW
Christine B Bui, Merrin A Pang, Arvind Sehgal, Christiane Theda, Jason C Lao, Philip J Berger, Marcel F Nold, Claudia A Nold-Petry
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and BPD-associated pulmonary hypertension (BPD-PH) are chronic inflammatory cardiopulmonary diseases with devastating short- and long-term consequences for infants born prematurely. The immature lungs of preterm infants are ill-prepared to achieve sufficient gas exchange, thus usually necessitating immediate commencement of respiratory support and oxygen supplementation. These therapies are life-saving, but they exacerbate the tissue damage that is inevitably inflicted on a preterm lung forced to perform gas exchange...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035604/biomarkers-for-differentiation-of-patients-with-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
Shigeki Katoh, Masaki Ikeda, Ryo Shirai, Masaaki Abe, Yoshihiro Ohue, Yoshihiro Kobashi, Mikio Oka
OBJECTIVE: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are airflow limitation diseases with similar clinical manifestations but different pathophysiologic mechanisms. To implement the appropriate treatment, it is important to distinguish between asthma and COPD which sometimes might result difficult in clinical practice. We evaluated biomarkers to distinguish between asthma and COPD. METHODS: Blood eosinophil counts and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels were analyzed...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035378/molecular-similarities-and-differences-from-human-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-corresponding-mouse-model-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry-in-comparative-medicine
#9
Michaela Aichler, Thomas Kunzke, Achim Buck, Na Sun, Maximilian Ackermann, Danny Jonigk, Andreas Gaumann, Axel Walch
Animal models can reproduce some model-specific aspects of human diseases, but some animal models translate poorly or fail to translate to the corresponding human disease. Here, we develop a strategy to systematically compare human and mouse tissues, and conduct a proof-of-concept experiment to identify molecular similarities and differences using patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and a bleomycin-induced fibrosis mouse model. Our novel approach employs high-throughput tissue microarrays (TMAs) of humans and mice, high-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-FT-ICR-MSI) to spatially resolve mass spectra at the level of specific metabolites, and hierarchical clustering and pathway enrichment analysis to identify functionally similar/different molecular patterns and pathways in pathological lesions of humans and mice...
October 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035287/cardio-pulmonary-involvement-in-systemic-sclerosis-a-study-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#10
Geetakiran Arakkal, Sudha Rani Chintagunta, Vasavilatha Chandika, Sudha Vani Damarla, Srinivas Manchala, B Udaya Kumar
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem disorder characterized by microangiopathy, dysregulation of the immune system and massive deposition of collagen in the connective tissue of the skin, blood vessels and various internal organs. Although the mortality from renal crises has dropped significantly due to the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, cardiac and pulmonary involvement accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. We studied 28 patients with systemic sclerosis at Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Hyderabad, over a period of two years for cardiopulmonary involvement...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035148/treatment-of-pulmonary-fibrosis-with-sirna-against-a-collagen-specific-chaperone-hsp47-in-vitamin-a-coupled-liposomes
#11
Mitsuo Otsuka, Masanori Shiratori, Hirofumi Chiba, Koji Kuronuma, Yasushi Sato, Yoshiro Niitsu, Hiroki Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is a life-threatening pathological state of progressive interstitial lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Myofibroblasts are known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) on a collagen-specific chaperone heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). The siRNA was preferentially delivered to myofibroblasts in a bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis rat model using siRNA against HSP47, encapsulated in a vitamin A-coupled liposome (VA-lip-siRNA HSP47)...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035132/hybrid-lipid-polymer-nanoparticles-for-pulmonary-delivery-of-sirna-development-and-fate-upon-in-vitro-deposition-on-the-human-epithelial-airway-barrier
#12
Ivana d'Angelo, Gabriella Costabile, Estelle Durantie, Paola Brocca, Valeria Rondelli, Annapina Russo, Giulia Russo, Agnese Miro, Fabiana Quaglia, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Francesca Ungaro
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the downregulation of genes involved in the pathogenesis of severe lung diseases through local siRNA delivery appears an interesting therapeutic approach. In this study, we propose novel hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticles (hNPs) consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as siRNA inhalation system. METHODS: A panel of DPPC/PLGA hNPs was prepared by emulsion/solvent diffusion and fully characterized...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035120/use-of-a-remote-inhaler-monitoring-device-to-measure-change-in-inhaler-use-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbations
#13
Kaharu Sumino, Emily R Locke, Sheryl Magzamen, Ina Gylys-Colwell, Olivier Humblet, Huong Q Nguyen, Rachel M Thomas, Vincent S Fan
BACKGROUND: Remote inhaler monitoring is an emerging technology that enables the healthcare team to monitor the time and location of a patient's inhaler use. We assessed the feasibility of remote inhaler monitoring for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and the pattern of albuterol inhaler use associated with COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Thirty-five participants with COPD used an electronic inhaler sensor for 12 weeks which recorded the date and time of each albuterol actuation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034814/entomophthoromycosis-and-mucormycosis-as-causes-of-pneumonia-in-vietnamese-potbellied-pigs
#14
Dawn E Evans, Atsushi Kawabata, Leslie D Wilson, Kenneth Kim, Shannon D Dehghanpir, Steve D Gaunt, Matt Welborn, Britton Grasperge, Marjorie S Gill
Two Vietnamese potbellied pigs ( Sus scrofa) had respiratory disease and, on autopsy, both pigs had large masses in the lungs and thoracic cavity. Microscopically, pulmonary and pleural masses contained large areas with hyphae surrounded by hypereosinophilic cellular debris rimmed by abundant eosinophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and histiocytes with occasional multinucleate giant cells. The hypereosinophilic debris usually formed tight cuffs, or "sleeves" around the hyphae, compatible with Splendore-Hoeppli-like material...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034812/symptom-reducing-actions-a-concept-analysis-in-the-context-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#15
Ann-Britt Zakrisson
Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have multiple symptoms. Nursing care is based on six core competencies and one of them is person-centred care that includes the aspect of professional symptom relief. The aim was to clarify a meaning of the concept of Symptom-reducing actions in the context of COPD. Databases MEDLINE and CINAHL were searched between 1982 and February 2016 and 26 publications were found. Two dictionaries and three books were investigated. The method of Walker & Avant was followed...
2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034693/role-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-vs-ct-scan-in-patients-with-pulmonary-metastases-previously-operated-on-for-colorectal-liver-metastases
#16
Lopez Lopez Victor, Ricardo Robles, Roberto Brusadin, López-Conesa Asunción, Juan Torres, Domingo Perez Flores, Jose Luis Navarro, Pedro Jose Gil
BACKGROUND: There is currently no conclusive scientific evidence available regarding the role of the [18F]FDG PET/CT for detecting pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (PMCRC) in patients operated on for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). In the follow up of patients who underwent surgery for CRLM, we compare CT-scan and [18F]FDG PET/CT in patients with PMCRC. METHODS: We designed the study prospectively performing an [18F]FDG PET/CT on all patients operated on for CRLM where the CT-scan detected PMCRC during the follow up...
October 15, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034509/3d-diffusion-weighted-129-xe-mri-for-whole-lung-morphometry
#17
Ho-Fung Chan, Neil J Stewart, Graham Norquay, Guilhem J Collier, Jim M Wild
PURPOSE: To obtain whole lung morphometry measurements from (129) Xe in a single breath-hold with 3D multiple b-value (129) Xe diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) with an empirically optimized diffusion time and compressed sensing for scan acceleration. METHODS: Prospective three-fold undersampled 3D multiple b-value hyperpolarized (129) Xe DW-MRI datasets were acquired, and the diffusion time (Δ) was iterated so as to provide diffusive length scale (LmD ) estimates from the stretched exponential model (SEM) that are comparable to those from (3) He...
October 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034473/development-and-maturation-of-the-fibrous-components-of-the-arterial-roots-in-the-mouse-heart
#18
Rachel Richardson, Lorraine Eley, Charlotte Donald-Wilson, Jonathon Davis, Natasha Curley, Ahlam Alqahtani, Lindsay Murphy, Robert H Anderson, Deborah J Henderson, Bill Chaudhry
The arterial roots are important transitional regions of the heart, connecting the intrapericardial components of the aortic and pulmonary trunks with their ventricular outlets. They house the arterial (semilunar) valves and, in the case of the aorta, are the points of coronary arterial attachment. Moreover, because of the semilunar attachments of the valve leaflets, the arterial roots span the anatomic ventriculo-arterial junction. By virtue of this arrangement, the interleaflet triangles, despite being fibrous, are found on the ventricular aspect of the root and located within the left ventricular cavity...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034356/renal-denervation-reduces-pulmonary%C3%A2-vascular-remodeling-and-right-ventricular-diastolic-stiffness-in-experimental-pulmonary-hypertension
#19
Denielli da Silva Gonçalves Bos, Chris Happé, Ingrid Schalij, Wioletta Pijacka, Julian F R Paton, Christophe Guignabert, Ly Tu, Raphaël Thuillet, Harm-Jan Bogaard, Albert C van Rossum, Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf, Frances S de Man, M Louis Handoko
Neurohormonal overactivation plays an important role in pulmonary hypertension (PH). In this context, renal denervation, which aims to inhibit the neurohormonal systems, may be a promising adjunct therapy in PH. In this proof-of-concept study, we have demonstrated in 2 experimental models of PH that renal denervation delayed disease progression, reduced pulmonary vascular remodeling, lowered right ventricular afterload, and decreased right ventricular diastolic stiffness, most likely by suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...
February 2017: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034331/extensive-core-microbiome-in-drone-captured-whale-blow-supports-a-framework-for-health-monitoring
#20
Amy Apprill, Carolyn A Miller, Michael J Moore, John W Durban, Holly Fearnbach, Lance G Barrett-Lennard
The pulmonary system is a common site for bacterial infections in cetaceans, but very little is known about their respiratory microbiome. We used a small, unmanned hexacopter to collect exhaled breath condensate (blow) from two geographically distinct populations of apparently healthy humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), sampled in the Massachusetts coastal waters off Cape Cod (n = 17) and coastal waters around Vancouver Island (n = 9). Bacterial and archaeal small-subunit rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced from blow samples, including many of sparse volume, as well as seawater and other controls, to characterize the associated microbial community...
September 2017: MSystems
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