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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501605/the-role-of-multilayers-in-preventing-the-premature-buckling-of-the-pulmonary-surfactant
#1
Mustafa Al-Saiedy, Ali Tarokh, Sultan Nelson, Kiavash Hossini, Francis Green, Chang-Chun Ling, Elmar J Prenner, Matthias Amrein
The pulmonary surfactant is a protein-lipid mixture that spreads into a film at the air-lung interface. The highly-compacted molecules of the film keep the interface from shrinking under the influence of otherwise high surface tension and thus prevent atelectasis. We have previously shown that for the film to withstand a high film pressure without collapsing it needs to assume a specific architecture of a molecular monolayer with islands of stacks of molecular multilayers scattered over the area. Surface activity was assessed in a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS) and the role of cholesterol and oxidation on surfactant function examined...
May 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465315/a-first-in-human-clinical-study-of-a-new-sp-b-and-sp-c-enriched-synthetic-surfactant-chf5633-in-preterm-babies-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#2
David G Sweet, Mark A Turner, Zbyněk Straňák, Richard Plavka, Paul Clarke, Ben J Stenson, Dominique Singer, Rangmar Goelz, Laura Fabbri, Guido Varoli, Annalisa Piccinno, Debora Santoro, Christian P Speer
OBJECTIVE: CHF5633 (Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., Parma, Italy) is the first fully synthetic surfactant enriched by peptide analogues of two human surfactant proteins. We planned to assess safety and tolerability of CHF5633 and explore preliminary efficacy. DESIGN: Multicentre cohort study. PATIENTS: Forty infants from 27(+0) to 33(+6) weeks gestation with respiratory distress syndrome requiring fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≥0.35 were treated with a single dose of CHF5633 within 48 hours after birth...
May 2, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435650/postnatal-transitional-weight-loss-and-adverse-outcomes-in-extremely-premature-neonates
#3
Rita P Verma, Syed Shibli, Eugene Komaroff
The early postnatal weight loss (EPWL) is highly variable in the extremely low birth weight infants (birth weight <1000 g, ELBW). It is reported to be unassociated with adverse outcomes within a range of 3-21% of birth weight. Its wide range might have contributed to this lack of association. The aim of our paper is to study the effects of maximum EPWL, graded as low, medium and large on clinical outcomes in ELBW infants. In a retrospective cohort observational study EPWL was measured as maximum weight loss from birth weight (MWL) in ELBW infants and grouped as low (5-12%) moderate (18...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410573/risk-factors-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-neonates-a-systematic-review-of-prognostic-studies
#4
Noor Samuels, Rob A van de Graaf, Rogier C J de Jonge, Irwin K M Reiss, Marijn J Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe multifactorial disease in preterm neonates associated with high morbidity and mortality. Better insight into prognostic values of the many reported factors associated with NEC is needed to enable identification of neonates at risk for NEC. The aim was to systematically review the literature to identify independent risk factors for NEC from the literature. METHODS: Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched systematically for cohort studies reporting prognostic factors for NEC in neonates using multivariable analysis...
April 14, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409751/early-extubation-failure-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-clinical-outcomes-and-predictive-factors
#5
K Al-Hathlol, N Bin Saleem, M Khawaji, S Al Saif, I Abdelhakim, B Al-Hathlol, E Bazbouz, Q Al Anzi, A Al-Essa
OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical outcomes and the potential predictive factors of early extubation failure (EEF) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: A retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over fifteen years. Neonates were intubated and mechanically ventilated on the first day of life, and early extubated within the first 3 days. EEF was defined as the need for re-intubation within 3 days of the first extubation...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407825/-effect-of-pregnancy-induced-hypertension-syndrome-on-complications-in-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants
#6
Song-Zhou Xu, Xiao-Yan Hu, Fang Zhao, Yu-Xin Zhou, Shuang-Chuan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome (PIH) on complications in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. METHODS: The VLBW preterm infants were enrolled as research subjects, and according to the presence or absence of PIH in their mothers, they were divided into PIH group and non- PIH group. The incidence of major complications and length of hospital stay were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in gestational age, birth weight, sex, incidence rate of maternal diabetes, and use of antepartum hormone...
April 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337265/pulmonary-surfactant-synthesis-in-mirna-26a-1-mirna-26a-2-double-knockout-mice-generated-using-the-crispr-cas9-system
#7
Ying-Hui Zhang, Li-Zhi Wu, Hong-Lu Liang, Yang Yang, Jie Qiu, Qing Kan, Wen Zhu, Cheng-Ling Ma, Xiao-Yu Zhou
Pulmonary surfactant (PS), which is synthesized by type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs), maintains alveolar integrity by reducing surface tension. Many premature neonates who lack adequate PS are predisposed to developing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. PS synthesis is influenced and regulated by various factors, including microRNAs. Previous in vitro studies have shown that PS synthesis is regulated by miR-26a in fetal rat AECIIs. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-26a in PS synthesis in vivo...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288148/natriuretic-peptide-c-receptor-in-the-developing-sheep-lung-role-in-perinatal-transition
#8
Bobby Mathew, Christopher A D'Angelis, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Peter A Nickerson, June J Sokolowski, Vasantha H S Kumar, Huamei Wang, Karen A Wynn, Bruce A Holm, Rita M Ryan
BACKGROUND: At birth, the release of surfactant from Alveolar Type II (ATII) cells is stimulated by increased activity of the beta-adrenergic/adenylyl cyclase/cAMP- signaling cascade. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) stimulates surfactant secretion through Natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A). ANP inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity through its binding to NPR-C. We wished to further understand the role of the NPR-C in perinatal transition. METHODS: We studied fetal and newborn sheep ATII expression of NPR-C and surfactant secretion in isolated ATIIs by measuring (3)[H] choline release into the media...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270430/the-roles-of-drug-therapy-given-via-the-endotracheal-tube-to-neonates
#9
Anne Greenough, Niovi Papalexopoulou
Many drugs are given to intubated neonates by the inhalation route. The optimum aerosol delivery system, however, has not been identified and there are many challenges in delivering drugs effectively to the lower airways of intubated neonates. The effectiveness of surfactant in prematurely born infants and nitric oxide has been robustly investigated. Other drugs are being used on very limited evidence.
May 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258032/morbidity-and-mortality-trends-in-very-very-low-birth-weight-premature-infants-in-light-of-recent-changes-in-obstetric-care
#10
Péter Varga, Botond Berecz, Ákos Gasparics, Zsófia Dombi, Zsuzsa Varga, Judit Jeager, Zsófia Magyar, János Rigó, József Gábor Joó, László Kornya
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we describe trends in morbidity and mortality of preterm infants with less than 500mg birth weight in the changing landscape of obstetric and neonatal care. STUDY DESIGN: During a ten year study period between 2006 and 2016 we assessed outcome data for all neonates with less than 500mg birth weight born at our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. We divided study subjects into two groups based on whether their birth date fell in the first half (2006-2010; n=39) versus the second half (2011-2015; n=27) of the study period comparing clinical outcomes in the two groups...
April 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245505/change-of-cerebral-oxygenation-during-surfactant-treatment-in-preterm-infants-lisa-versus-insure-procedures
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Giovanna Bertini, Caterina Coviello, Elena Gozzini, Tommaso Bianconi, Cecilia Bresci, Valentina Leonardi, Carlo Dani
Objectives The aim of the study was to compare the effects on cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants of two different procedures for surfactant administration: the LISA (low-invasive method of surfactant administration) and the InSurE (Intubation, SURfactant administration, Extubation). Study Design Twenty premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome were assigned to receive surfactant either by "LISA" (n = 10) or "InSurE" (n = 10) procedure. Patients were continuously studied by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the measurement of cerebral regional oxygenation (rSO2C) and calculation of cerebral fractional oxygen extraction rate (cFTOE), and NIRS data were recorded 30 minutes before (T0) surfactant administration, during the procedure (Tproc), and 30 (T1), 60 (T2T2), and 120 minutes (T3) afterward...
April 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221717/cerebral-and-lung-effects-of-a-new-generation-synthetic-surfactant-with-sp-b-and-sp-c-analogs-in-preterm-lambs
#12
Carmen Rey-Santano, Victoria E Mielgo, Xabier Murgia, Miguel Angel Gomez-Solaetxe, Fabrizio Salomone, Federico Bianco, Nicola Pelizzi, Begoña Loureiro, Jon López de Heredia Y Goya
BACKGROUND: Though natural surfactants (SF) are clinically superior to protein-free synthetic preparations, CHF-5633, a synthetic SF containing SP-B and SP-C analog peptides is a potential alternative to natural SF for treating neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Nevertheless, information is lacking regarding the safety of this new treatment for the neonatal brain. We sought to compare the cerebral and pulmonary effects of this new synthetic surfactant (CHF5633) with those of natural porcine surfactant (Cursosurf) in premature lambs with RDS...
February 21, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215668/potential-of-surfactant-coated-nanoparticles-to-improve-brain-delivery-of-arylsulfatase-a
#13
Tilman Schuster, Astrid Mühlstein, Claudia Yaghootfam, Olga Maksimenko, Elena Shipulo, Svetlana Gelperina, Jörg Kreuter, Volkmar Gieselmann, Ulrich Matzner
The lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is caused by a deficiency of the soluble, lysosomal hydrolase arylsulfatase A (ASA). The disease is characterized by accumulation of 3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide (sulfatide), progressive demyelination of the nervous system and premature death. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), based on regular intravenous injections of recombinant functional enzyme, is in clinical use for several LSDs. For MLD and other LSDs with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, however, ERT is limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricting transport of therapeutic enzymes from the blood to the brain...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203337/comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-three-natural-surfactants-curosurf-survanta-and-alveofact-in-the-treatment-of-respiratory-distress-syndrome-among-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Mirhadi Mussavi, Keyvan Mirnia, Khairollah Asadollahi
BACKGROUND: Although several different types of natural surfactants are available, including Alveofact, Curosurf, and Survanta, the preferred type and the magnitude of their effects are unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to compare the effects of these three surfactants on the gas exchange and clinical outcomes of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). METHODS: This triple-blind randomized clinical trial studied all preterm neonates ≤ 37 weeks with RDS who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Taleghani hospital (Tabriz, Iran) between 2012 and 2013...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202108/-clinical-efficacy-of-pulmonary-surfactant-combined-with-budesonide-for-preventing-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#15
Jing Pan, Ming-Wu Chen, Wen-Quan Ni, Tao Fang, Hui Zhang, Ye Chen, Jia-Hua Pan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical efficacy of intratracheal instillation of pulmonary surfactant (PS) combined with budesonide for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: Thirty VLBW infants with gestational age <32 weeks who developed neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) (grade III-IV) suffering from intrauterine infection were randomly assigned into a PS + budesonide group and a PS alone group...
February 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195741/behavior-of-ppi-g2-dendrimer-in-a-microemulsion
#16
Shifra Rokach, Maria Francesca Ottaviani, Alexander I Shames, Abraham Aserin, Nissim Garti
Dendrimer nanostructures are of eminent interest in biomedical applications because of their uniform and well-defined molecular size and shape, and their ability to cross cell membranes and reduce the risk of premature clearance from the human body. Dendrimers perform as gene and drug carriers and have also shown significant therapeutic properties for treating cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. A complex drug delivery system, based on a dendrimer solubilized in the aqueous core of a water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion (ME) along with the drug may combine the advantages of both dendrimers and MEs to provide better control of drug release...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170341/the-effects-of-antenatal-glucocorticoid-exposure-on-fetal-and-neonatal-skin-maturation
#17
Deanne August, Yogavijayan Kandasamy
AIMS: The use of antenatal glucocorticoids in women with preterm labor has dramatically improved outcomes for premature infants. The most commonly used antenatal glucocorticoids are betamethasone and dexamethasone. Glucocorticoids accelerate fetal lung growth by several mechanisms, including the maturation of type II pneumocytes enabling surfactant production. Furthermore, the lipids in the lung share similarity with those in the skin. Therefore, antenatal administration of glucocorticoids may have effects on the structure and function of the developing epidermal barrier in fetuses and neonates...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152280/surfactant-administration-via-a-thin-endotracheal-catheter-during-spontaneous-breathing-in-preterm-infants
#18
REVIEW
Wanliang Wu, Yan Shi, Fengxia Li, Zhuoyu Wen, Hongli Liu
To systematically review the clinical outcomes of surfactant administration via a thin endotracheal catheter during spontaneous breathing compared with conventional administration involving tracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation (MV), and tracheal extubation, in preterm infants. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant clinical trials. Data were analyzed using the Cochrane Collaboration methods. Primary outcome measures included the incidence of MV and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)...
February 2, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145652/amniotic-fluid-infection-cytokine-levels-and-mortality-and-adverse-pulmonary-intestinal-and-neurologic-outcomes-in-infants-at-32-weeks-gestation-or-less
#19
Eun Young Jung, Kyo Hoon Park, Bo Ryoung Han, Soo Hyun Cho, Ha Na Yoo, Juyoung Lee
To what extent the risks of neonatal morbidities are directly related to premature birth or to biological mechanisms of preterm birth remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the effect of exposure to amniotic fluid (AF) infection and elevated cytokine levels on the mortality and pulmonary, intestinal, and neurologic outcomes of preterm infants, and whether these associations persist after adjustment for gestational age at birth. This retrospective cohort study included 152 premature singleton infants who were born at ≤ 32 weeks...
March 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145528/lipidomics-reveals-dramatic-lipid-compositional-changes-in-the-maturing-postnatal-lung
#20
Sydney E Dautel, Jennifer E Kyle, Geremy Clair, Ryan L Sontag, Karl K Weitz, Anil K Shukla, Son N Nguyen, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Teresa Luders, Charles W Frevert, Sina A Gharib, Julia Laskin, James P Carson, Thomas O Metz, Richard A Corley, Charles Ansong
Lung immaturity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving normal lung development could provide insights on how to ameliorate disrupted development. While transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of normal lung development have been previously reported, characterization of changes in the lipidome is lacking. Lipids play significant roles in the lung, such as dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in pulmonary surfactant; however, many of the roles of specific lipid species in normal lung development, as well as in disease states, are not well defined...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
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