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Jane Landon, Tim Lobstein, Fiona Godfrey, Paula Johns, Chris Brookes, David Jernigan
Background and aims The 2011 UN Summit on Non-Communicable Disease failed to call for global action on alcohol marketing despite calls in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases 2013-20 to restrict or ban alcohol advertising. In this paper we ask what it might take to match the global approach to tobacco enshrined in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), and suggest that public health advocates can learn from the development of the FCTC and the Code of Marketing on infant formula milks and the recent recommendations on restricting food marketing to children...
October 18, 2016: Addiction
Christine H Stortini, Denis Chabot, Nancy L Shackell
We have learned much about the impacts of warming on the productivity and distribution of marine organisms, but less about the impact of warming combined with other environmental stressors, including oxygen depletion. Also, the combined impact of multiple environmental stressors requires evaluation at the scales most relevant to resource managers. We use the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, characterized by a large permanently hypoxic zone, as a case study. Species Distribution Models were used to predict the impact of multiple scenarios of warming and oxygen depletion on the local density of three commercially and ecologically important species...
October 18, 2016: Global Change Biology
Brid O' Brien, Margaret M Graham, Sile Mary Kelly
AIM: To explore nurses' use of the World Health Organization safety checklist in the perioperative setting. BACKGROUND: Promoting quality and safety in health care has received worldwide attention. The World Health Organization surgical safety checklist (2009) is promoted for reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality. The checklist has been introduced in Irish perioperative settings. METHOD(S): A descriptive, qualitative approach was utilised...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Nursing Management
Saurabh Khemka, Athina Tzovara, Samuel Gerster, Boris B Quednow, Dominik R Bach
Pavlovian fear conditioning is widely used as a laboratory model of associative learning in human and nonhuman species. In this model, an organism is trained to predict an aversive unconditioned stimulus from initially neutral events (conditioned stimuli, CS). In humans, fear memory is typically measured via conditioned autonomic responses or fear-potentiated startle. For the latter, various analysis approaches have been developed, but a systematic comparison of competing methodologies is lacking. Here, we investigate the suitability of a model-based approach to startle eyeblink analysis for assessment of fear memory, and compare this to extant analysis strategies...
October 18, 2016: Psychophysiology
Joshua N Hook, David Boan, Don E Davis, Jamie D Aten, John M Ruiz, Thomas Maryon
Hospital safety culture is an integral part of providing high quality care for patients, as well as promoting a safe and healthy environment for healthcare workers. In this article, we explore the extent to which cultural humility, which involves openness to cultural diverse individuals and groups, is related to hospital safety culture. A sample of 2011 hospital employees from four hospitals completed measures of organizational cultural humility and hospital safety culture. Higher perceptions of organizational cultural humility were associated with higher levels of general perceptions of hospital safety, as well as more positive ratings on non-punitive response to error (i...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Sarah A Bacso, Harvey H C Marmurek
Testing of to-be-learned material facilitates subsequent learning of new material. We investigated this forward effect of testing in two experiments using the whole/part and part/whole transfer paradigms with categorized word lists. Learning was assessed for recall of individual words, higher order categories, and category clustering. In each experiment participants learned two lists in which the number of tests on the first list was varied. The first list contained either twice as many items as the second list (whole/part paradigm) or half as many items as the second list (part/whole paradigm)...
October 14, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Nadia Justel, Mariana Psyrdellis, Ricardo M Pautassi
During extinction, the organism learns that a conditioned stimulus or a conditioned response is no longer associated with an unconditioned stimulus, and as a consequence, a decrement in the response is presented. The exposure to novel situations (e.g. exploration of a novel open field) has been used widely to modulate (i.e. either enhance or deteriorate) learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to test whether open-field exposure could modulate consummatory extinction. The results indicated that open-field exposure accelerated the extinction response (i...
October 4, 2016: Neuroreport
James McDonagh, David S Palmer, Tanja Van Mourik, John B O Mitchell
We compare a range of computational methods for the prediction of sublimation thermodynamics (enthalpy, entropy and free energy of sublimation). These include a model from theoretical chemistry that utilizes crystal lattice energy minimization (with the DMACRYS program) and QSPR models generated by both machine learning (Random Forest and Support Vector Machines) and regression (Partial Least Squares) methods. Using these methods we investigate the predictability of the enthalpy, entropy and free energy of sublimation, with consideration of whether such a method may be able to improve solubility prediction schemes...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Peter Sadowski, David R Fooshee, Niranjan Subrahmanya, Pierre Baldi
We demonstrate how machine learning (ML) and quantum mechanical (QM) methods can be used in two-way synergy to build chemical reaction expert systems. The proposed ML approach to reaction prediction identifies electron sources and sinks among the reactants, and then ranks all source-sink pairs. This is used to address a major bottleneck of QM calculations by providing a prioritized list of mechanistic reaction steps. QM modeling can then be used to compute the transition states and activation energies of the top-ranked reactions, providing additional or improved examples of ranked source-sink pairs...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Sara Andertun, Åsa Hörnsten, Senada Hajdarevic
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe Norwegian healthcare staffs' experiences of participating in care of patients with Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone. BACKGROUND: Ebola is one of the most feared viruses known. Ebola virus disease is highly contagious with high mortality. The few qualitative studies made on experiences among healthcare professionals have highlighted problems as lack of protective resources, insufficient personnel and risk of societal stigmatization...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Marco Reisert, Elias Kellner, Bibek Dhital, Jürgen Hennig, Valerij G Kiselev
Diffusion-sensitized magnetic resonance imaging probes the cellular structure of the human brain, but the primary microstructural information gets lost in averaging over higher-level, mesoscopic tissue organization such as different orientations of neuronal fibers. While such averaging is inevitable due to the limited imaging resolution, we propose a method for disentangling the microscopic cell properties from the effects of mesoscopic structure. We further avoid the classical fitting paradigm and use supervised machine learning in terms of a Bayesian estimator to estimate the microstructural properties...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
Ritva Heljasvaara, Mari Aikio, Heli Ruotsalainen, Taina Pihlajaniemi
Collagen XVIII is a ubiquitous basement membrane (BM) proteoglycan produced in three tissue-specific isoforms that differ in their N-terminal non-collagenous sequences, but share collagenous and C-terminal non-collagenous domains. The collagenous domain provides flexibility to the large collagen XVIII molecules on account of multiple interruptions in collagenous sequences. Each isoform has a complex multi-domain structure that endows it with an ability to perform various biological functions. The long isoform contains a frizzled-like (Fz) domain with Wnt-inhibiting activity and a unique domain of unknown function (DUF959), which is also present in the medium isoform...
October 13, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
G Iakimova, S Dimitrova, T Burté
OBJECTIVES: Computer-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapies (C-CBT) are emerging as therapeutic techniques which contribute to overcome the barriers of health care access in adult populations with depression. The C-CBTs provide CBT techniques in a highly structured format comprising a number of educational lessons, homework, multimedia illustrations and supplementary materials via interactive computer interfaces. Programs are often administrated with a minimal or regular support provided by a clinician or a technician via email, telephone, online forums, or during face-to-face consultations...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Mary Thuss, Yolanda Babenko-Mould, Mary-Anne Andrusyszyn, Heather K S Laschinger
The purpose of this study was to explore Rwandan nursing clinical instructors' (CIs) experiences of structural and psychological empowerment. CIs play a vital role in students' development by facilitating learning in health care practice environments. Quality nursing education hinges on the CI's ability to enact a professional role. A descriptive qualitative method was used to obtain an understanding of CIs empowerment experiences in practice settings. Kanter's Theory of Structural Power in Organizations and Spreitzer's Psychological Empowerment Theory were used as theoretical frameworks to interpret experiences...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
Christopher Patterson, Moira Stephens, Vico Chiang, Ann M Price, Fiona Work, Erna Snelgrove-Clarke
BACKGROUND: Personal learning environments (PLEs) have been shown to be a critical part of how students negotiate and manage their own learning. Understandings of PLEs appear to be constrained by narrow definitions that focus primarily on technological engagement with a range of web tools and associated applications. This paper addresses a gap in the literature around PLEs for students currently enrolled in undergraduate nursing degrees. PURPOSE: To provide in-depth insights into how undergraduate students of nursing manage and experience their learning...
September 26, 2016: Nurse Education Today
Shahram Rafieifar, Hamed Pouraram, Abolghassem Djazayery, Fereydoun Siassi, Zahra Abdollahi, Ahmad Reza Dorosty, Mitra Abtahi, Hossein Kazemeini, Farshad Farzadfar
In Iran, as in most countries, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death (highest mortality rate), but rank third in terms of disease burden. On the other hand, the relationship between high salt intake, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease has been proven. Food consumption pattern in Iran shows that consumption of salt, pickled foods and salty snacks is common. Regarding the World Health Organization (WHO) target for salt intake (about 5 g per day), the evidence indicates that Iranian people consume 2-3 times more than the recommended amount of salt...
October 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Jean-François Nankoo, Christopher R Madan, Marcia L Spetch, Douglas R Wylie
Global motion perception is important for mobile organisms. In laterally eyed birds, global motion appears to be processed in the entopallium, a neural structure that is part of the tectofugal pathway. Electrophysiological research has shown that motion selective cells in the entopallium are most responsive to small dark moving targets. Here, we investigated whether this bias toward dark targets of entopallial cells is mirrored by perceptual performance in a motion detection task in pigeons. We measured the detection thresholds of pigeons using random dot stimuli that consisted of either black or white dots on a gray background...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Simon Kocbek, Lawrence Cavedon, David Martinez, Christopher Bain, Chris Mac Manus, Gholamreza Haffari, Ingrid Zukerman, Karin Verspoor
OBJECTIVE: Text and data mining play an important role in obtaining insights from Health and Hospital Information Systems. This paper presents a text mining system for detecting admissions marked as positive for several diseases: Lung Cancer, Breast Cancer, Colon Cancer, Secondary Malignant Neoplasm of Respiratory and Digestive Organs, Multiple Myeloma and Malignant Plasma Cell Neoplasms, Pneumonia, and Pulmonary Embolism. We specifically examine the effect of linking multiple data sources on text classification performance...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Yafit Maza, Efrat Shechter, Neta Pur Eizenberg, Efrat Gortler Segev, Moshe Y Flugelman
BACKGROUND: The physician manager role in the health care system is invaluable as they serve as role models and quality setters. The requirements from physician managers have become more demanding and the role less prestigious; yet burnout and its prevention in this group have received little attention. Physician leadership development programmes have generally dealt directly with skill and knowledge acquisition. The aim of this research was to evaluate an intensive workshop designed to modify attitudes and improve skills of physician-managers of community clinics, through focus on personal well-being and empowerment...
October 14, 2016: BMC Medical Education
John Y-K Lee, Jayesh P Thawani, John Pierce, Ryan Zeh, Maria Martinez-Lage, Michelle Chanin, Ollin Venegas, Sarah Nims, Kim Learned, Jane Keating, Sunil Singhal
BACKGROUND: Although real-time localization of gliomas has improved with intraoperative image guidance systems, these tools are limited by brain shift, surgical cavity deformation, and expense. OBJECTIVE: To propose a novel method to perform near-infrared (NIR) imaging during glioma resections based on preclinical and clinical investigations, in order to localize tumors and to potentially identify residual disease. METHODS: Fifteen patients were identified and administered a Food and Drug Administration-approved, NIR contrast agent (Second Window indocyanine green [ICG], 5 mg/kg) before surgical resection...
October 11, 2016: Neurosurgery
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