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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319476/anesthesia-in-patients-with-infectious-disease-caused-by-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#1
Sharon Einav, Yonit Wiener-Well
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Up to 50% of specific bacterial strains in healthcare admission facilities are multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Involvement of anesthesiologists in management of patients carrying/at risk of carrying MDROs may decrease transmission in the Operating Room (OR). RECENT FINDINGS: Anesthesiologists, their work area and tools have all been implicated in MDRO outbreaks. Causes include contamination of external ventilation circuits and noncontribution of filters to prevention, inappropriate decontamination procedures for nondisposable equipment (e...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319187/the-impact-of-high-grade-glial-neoplasms-on-human-cortical-electrophysiology
#2
S Kathleen Bandt, Jarod L Roland, Mrinal Pahwa, Carl D Hacker, David T Bundy, Jonathan D Breshears, Mohit Sharma, Joshua S Shimony, Eric C Leuthardt
OBJECTIVE: The brain's functional architecture of interconnected network-related oscillatory patterns in discrete cortical regions has been well established with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies or direct cortical electrophysiology from electrodes placed on the surface of the brain, or electrocorticography (ECoG). These resting state networks exhibit a robust functional architecture that persists through all stages of sleep and under anesthesia. While the stability of these networks provides a fundamental understanding of the organization of the brain, understanding how these regions can be perturbed is also critical in defining the brain's ability to adapt while learning and recovering from injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319149/walking-and-talking-the-tree-of-life-why-and-how-to-teach-about-biodiversity
#3
Cissy J Ballen, Harry W Greene
Taxonomic details of diversity are an essential scaffolding for biology education, yet outdated methods for teaching the tree of life (TOL), as implied by textbook content and usage, are still commonly employed. Here, we show that the traditional approach only vaguely represents evolutionary relationships, fails to denote major events in the history of life, and relies heavily on memorizing near-meaningless taxonomic ranks. Conversely, a clade-based strategy-focused on common ancestry, monophyletic groups, and derived functional traits-is explicitly based on Darwin's "descent with modification," provides students with a rational system for organizing the details of biodiversity, and readily lends itself to active learning techniques...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318629/machine-learning-algorithms-define-pathogen-specific-local-immune-fingerprints-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-with-bacterial-infections
#4
Jingjing Zhang, Ida M Friberg, Ann Kift-Morgan, Gita Parekh, Matt P Morgan, Anna Rita Liuzzi, Chan-Yu Lin, Kieron L Donovan, Chantal S Colmont, Peter H Morgan, Paul Davis, Ian Weeks, Donald J Fraser, Nicholas Topley, Matthias Eberl
The immune system has evolved to sense invading pathogens, control infection, and restore tissue integrity. Despite symptomatic variability in patients, unequivocal evidence that an individual's immune system distinguishes between different organisms and mounts an appropriate response is lacking. We here used a systematic approach to characterize responses to microbiologically well-defined infection in a total of 83 peritoneal dialysis patients on the day of presentation with acute peritonitis. A broad range of cellular and soluble parameters was determined in peritoneal effluents, covering the majority of local immune cells, inflammatory and regulatory cytokines and chemokines as well as tissue damage-related factors...
March 16, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317907/analysis-of-spatial-heterogeneity-in-normal-epithelium-and-preneoplastic-alterations-in-mouse-prostate-tumor-models
#5
Mira Valkonen, Pekka Ruusuvuori, Kimmo Kartasalo, Matti Nykter, Tapio Visakorpi, Leena Latonen
Cancer involves histological changes in tissue, which is of primary importance in pathological diagnosis and research. Automated histological analysis requires ability to computationally separate pathological alterations from normal tissue with all its variables. On the other hand, understanding connections between genetic alterations and histological attributes requires development of enhanced analysis methods suitable also for small sample sizes. Here, we set out to develop computational methods for early detection and distinction of prostate cancer-related pathological alterations...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315885/advancement-in-texture-in-early-complementary-feeding-and-the-relevance-to-developmental-outcomes
#6
Jordan R Green, Meg Simione, Benjamin Le Révérend, Erin M Wilson, Brian Richburg, Marc Alder, Mirna Del Valle, Chrystel Loret
A child's transition to independent eating is a protracted process that progresses over the course of many years. Although major health agencies, such as the World Health Organization, now offer clear guidance when to begin introducing solids, advice about how to safely transition to progressively challenging foods is varied and comes from a staggering number of sources. The resulting conflicting views have promoted parental confusion and anxiety about what foods are appropriate and when to advance to new textures...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315694/incorporation-of-autopsy-case-based-learning-into-phd-graduate-education-a-novel-approach-to-bridging-the-bench-to-bedside-gap
#7
Erin G Brooks, Joanne M Thornton, Erik A Ranheim, Zsuzsanna Fabry
Given the current rapid expansion of biological knowledge and the challenges of translating that knowledge into clinical practice, finding effective methods of teaching graduate students clinical medicine concepts has become even more critical. The utility of autopsy in medical student and resident education has been well-established. Multiple studies have reported it to be a helpful means of teaching anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical problem-solving skills, and medical diagnostic techniques. While various models of training Ph...
March 15, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315459/dynamic-reorganization-of-intrinsic-functional-networks-in-the-mouse-brain
#8
Joanes Grandjean, Maria Giulia Preti, Thomas Aw Bolton, Michaela Buerge, Erich Seifritz, Christopher R Pryce, Dimitri Van De Ville, Markus Rudin
Functional connectivity (FC) derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) allows for the integrative study of neuronal processes at a macroscopic level. The majority of studies to date have assumed stationary interactions between brain regions, without considering the dynamic aspects of network organization. Only recently has the latter received increased attention, predominantly in human studies. Applying dynamic FC (dFC) analysis to mice is attractive given the relative simplicity of the mouse brain and the possibility to explore mechanisms underlying network dynamics using pharmacological, environmental or genetic interventions...
March 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315083/achieving-the-promise-of-therapeutic-extracellular-vesicles-the-devil-is-in-details-of-therapeutic-loading
#9
REVIEW
Dhruvitkumar S Sutaria, Mohamed Badawi, Mitch A Phelps, Thomas D Schmittgen
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a class of cell secreted organelles which naturally contain biomolecular cargo such as miRNA, mRNA and proteins. EVs mediate intercellular communication, enabling the transfer of functional nucleic acids from the cell of origin to the recipient cells. In addition, EVs make an attractive delivery vehicle for therapeutics owing to their increased stability in circulation, biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and toxicity profiles. EVs can also be engineered to display targeting moieties on their surfaces which enables targeting to desired tissues, organs or cells...
March 17, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315069/toolkits-and-libraries-for-deep-learning
#10
REVIEW
Bradley J Erickson, Panagiotis Korfiatis, Zeynettin Akkus, Timothy Kline, Kenneth Philbrick
Deep learning is an important new area of machine learning which encompasses a wide range of neural network architectures designed to complete various tasks. In the medical imaging domain, example tasks include organ segmentation, lesion detection, and tumor classification. The most popular network architecture for deep learning for images is the convolutional neural network (CNN). Whereas traditional machine learning requires determination and calculation of features from which the algorithm learns, deep learning approaches learn the important features as well as the proper weighting of those features to make predictions for new data...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314961/ecotoxicity-of-boric-acid-in-standard-laboratory-tests-with-plants-and-soil-organisms
#11
REVIEW
Juliska Princz, Leonie Becker, Adam Scheffczyk, Gladys Stephenson, Rick Scroggins, Thomas Moser, Jörg Römbke
To verify the continuous sensitivity of ecotoxicological tests (mainly the test organisms), reference substances with known toxicity are regularly tested. Ideally, this substance(s) would lack specificity in its mode action, be bioavailable and readily attainable with cost-effective means of chemical characterization. Boric acid has satisfied these criteria, but has most recently been characterized as a substance of very high concern, due to reproductive effects in humans, thus limiting its recommendation as an ideal reference toxicant...
March 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314499/bringing-global-health-home-the-case-of-global-to-local-in-king-county-washington
#12
EDITORIAL
Adam Taylor, Fareeha Siddiqui
The article describes the experience of testing successful global health interventions in the cities of SeaTac and Tukwila, Washington-2 very diverse, underserved communities outside of Seattle that experience significant health disparities compared with surrounding areas in King County. Topics covered include an overview of the partnership that established Global to Local, the process of engaging Seattle-based global health institutions in identifying global health strategies to test, identifying communities experiencing health disparities that might benefit from global health-inspired interventions, engaging those local communities to understand the perceived drivers of poor health outcomes, tailoring global interventions to the local context, launching programs, and the successes and challenges that have emerged throughout this process...
November 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314493/beyond-visas-and-vaccines-preparing-students-for-domestic-and-global-health-engagement
#13
EDITORIAL
Lisa V Adams, Anne N Sosin
At campuses across the United States, scores of students are embarking on global health experiences in low- and middle-income countries. The desire to improve the health of poor communities while preparing for future health careers is often the main driver. The spotlight on domestic health issues also has fueled a resurgence of interest in underserved communities in the United States. Regardless of the destination, rigorous preparation is needed to ensure that the students' presence benefits the communities they aim to serve...
November 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303563/general-practitioners-and-preconception-weight-management-in-new-zealand
#14
Diana Fieldwick, Alesha Smith, Helen Paterson
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a growing concern internationally and a top priority for the World Health Organization. Preconception overweight, obesity and excess gestational weight gain significantly increase childhood obesity risk. Optimising preconception weight is a key preventative measure toward reducing childhood obesity. In 2014, the New Zealand (NZ) Ministry of Health released guidance for health practitioners on healthy weight gain in pregnancy in an effort to reduce the burden of childhood obesity...
March 17, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303333/an-insect-inspired-model-for-visual-binding-i-learning-objects-and-their-characteristics
#15
Brandon D Northcutt, Jonathan P Dyhr, Charles M Higgins
Visual binding is the process of associating the responses of visual interneurons in different visual submodalities all of which are responding to the same object in the visual field. Recently identified neuropils in the insect brain termed optic glomeruli reside just downstream of the optic lobes and have an internal organization that could support visual binding. Working from anatomical similarities between optic and olfactory glomeruli, we have developed a model of visual binding based on common temporal fluctuations among signals of independent visual submodalities...
March 16, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302647/development-and-psychometric-properties-of-a-scale-to-measure-hospital-organizational-culture-for-cardiovascular-care
#16
Elizabeth H Bradley, Amanda L Brewster, Heather Fosburgh, Emily J Cherlin, Leslie A Curry
BACKGROUND: Because organizational culture is increasingly understood as fundamental to achieving high performance in hospital and other healthcare settings, the ability to measure this nuanced concept empirically has gained importance. Aside from measures of patient safety culture, no measure of organizational culture has been widely endorsed in the medical literature, limiting replication of previous findings and broader use in interventional studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We sought to develop and assess the validity and reliability of a scale for assessing organizational culture in the context of hospitals' efforts to reducing 30-day risk-standardized mortality after acute myocardial infarction...
March 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302153/students-as-effective-harm-reductionists-and-needle-exchange-organizers
#17
EDITORIAL
Kyle Barbour, Miriam McQuade, Brandon Brown
BACKGROUND: Needle exchange programs are safe, highly effective programs for promoting health among people who inject drugs. However, they remain poorly funded, and often illegal, in many places worldwide due to fear and stigma surrounding drug use. Continued advocacy, education, and implementation of new needle exchanges are thus essential to improve public health and reduce structural inequality. COMMENTARY: We argue that students, and especially professional and graduate students, have the potential to play an important role in advancing harm reduction...
March 17, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301447/mercury-spill-responses-five-states-2012-2015
#18
Ryan J Wozniak, Anne E Hirsch, Christina R Bush, Stuart Schmitz, Jeff Wenzel
Despite measures to educate the public about the dangers of elemental mercury, spills continue to occur in homes, schools, health care facilities, and other settings, endangering the public's health and requiring costly cleanup. Mercury is most efficiently absorbed by the lungs, and exposure to high levels of mercury vapor after a release can cause cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, and visual disturbances (1). Children and fetuses are most susceptible to the adverse effects of mercury vapor exposure...
March 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301001/-specialized-outpatient-care-in-the-unified-health-system-how-to-fill-a-void
#19
Charles Dalcanale Tesser, Paulo Poli
The structuring of specialized outpatient care is a bottleneck in the operation of the Unified Health System. Based on a brief discussion about this void in an organizational model, we propose the federal induction of a format of specialized services from the experiences of Centers of Support for Family Health (NASF). They adapted matrix operations and constitute an excellent prototype for the organization of specialized outpatient care. It allows for equal access and maximum proximity to the specialized care of the reality of primary care users, the personal relationship and the close relationship between the family health teams and medical and non-medical specialists, enabling mutual lifelong learning, negotiated regulation and increased efficacy of primary care...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300988/-mental-health-in-general-family-medicine-obstacles-and-expectations-perceived-by-family-physicians
#20
Liliana Fernandes, Nuno Basílio, Sofia Figueira, José Mendes Nunes
This study seeks to understand the difficulties experienced by family physicians (FP) in the management of mental disorders (MD) and their proposals to improve the quality of care. It is qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with ten family physicians. These were recorded, transcribed and their content analyzed. Eight thematic categories were identified: perceived working conditions and available resources; perceived level of training in mental health; therapies used for treatment of MD; mental health instruments used in consultation; MD addressed in Primary Health Care (PHC) and referral to hospitals; patient's reaction to referral; articulation of PHC with hospitals; proposals to improve mental health care in PHC...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
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