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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818500/cryptic-sexual-dimorphism-in-spatial-memory-and-hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-in-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#1
Marissa A Rice, Lauren E Hobbs, Kelly J Wallace, Alexander G Ophir
Sex differences are well documented and are conventionally associated with intense sex-specific selection. For example, spatial memory is frequently better in males, presumably due to males' tendency to navigate large spaces to find mates. Alternatively, monogamy (in which sex-specific selection is relatively relaxed) should diminish or eliminate differences in spatial ability and the mechanisms associated with this behavior. Nevertheless, phenotypic differences between monogamous males and females persist, sometimes cryptically...
August 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817959/a-health-behavior-prediction-model-for-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#2
Jiyoung Kim, Oksoo Kim
The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among functional status, hostility, social support, illness perceptions, and health behaviors in patients with coronary artery disease using structural equation modeling. Participants comprised 215 patients with coronary artery disease who had received percutaneous coronary artery intervention or a coronary artery bypass graft in two general hospitals in Seoul, Korea. Using structured interviews with questionnaires, data accrued from July to August, 2015...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813970/modelling-engagement-in-dementia-through-behaviour-contribution-for-socially-interactive-robotics
#3
Giulia Perugia, Marta Diaz Doladeras, Andreu Catala Mallofre, Matthias Rauterberg, Emilia Barakova
In this paper, we present a novel tool to measure engagement in people with dementia playing board games and interacting with a social robot, Pleo. We carried out two studies to reach a comprehensive inventory of behaviours accounting for engagement in dementia. The first one is an exploratory study aimed at modelling engagement in cognitive board games. The second one is a longitudinal study to investigate how people with dementia express engagement in cognitive games and in interactions with social robots...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813301/stress-and-child-development-a-review-of-the-family-stress-model
#4
REVIEW
April S Masarik, Rand D Conger
In the present report, we provide an illustrative review of the Family Stress Model (FSM) framework [1] to understand how family stress influences children across development in physical, social-emotional, and cognitive domains. We note that the FSM as a theory has evolved through inspection of: (a) new explanatory pathways (mediators); (b) factors that moderate FSM pathways; and (c) joint tests of competing models. Also important, most researchers cited in this review used longitudinal designs to test the proposed causal ordering of FSM pathways, which replicated among a diverse set of families varied in structure, ethnic background, and geographic location...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812953/workplace-bullying-and-turnover-intention-exploring-work-engagement-as-a-potential-mediator
#5
Melinde Coetzee, Jeannette van Dyk
Employees' turnover intentions may entail expensive consequences for companies. The study examined the mediating effect of work engagement in the relationship between workplace bullying and turnover intention. Using a cross-sectional sample of 373 employees, structural equation modeling and mediation analysis showed that perceptions of work- and person-related bullying were linked to low levels of vigor and dedication which in turn were associated with high turnover intention. Work engagement partially mediated the effect of high workplace bullying on high turnover intention...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810370/-chronic-cough-cause-unknown-a-qualitative-study-of-patient-perspectives-of-chronic-refractory-cough
#6
Katrin Hulme, Sian Dogan, Sean M Parker, Vincent Deary
Chronic refractory cough patients have persistent, unexplained, treatment-resistant symptoms. Very little is known about non-physiological processes underlying chronic refractory cough or patients' experience of the condition. In all, 14 patients participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were based on the comprehensive cognitive behavioural model and analysed thematically. Eight key themes emerged illustrating that the experience of the onset and persistence of chronic refractory cough is complex, often involving multiple interlinking factors...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807519/lower-order-anxiety-sensitivity-and-intolerance-of-uncertainty-dimensions-operate-as-specific-vulnerabilities-for-social-anxiety-and-depression-within-a-hierarchical-model
#7
Nicholas P Allan, Danielle Cooper, Mary E Oglesby, Nicole A Short, Kevin G Saulnier, Norman B Schmidt
Within a hierarchical framework for depressive and anxiety disorders, negative affect (NA) is posited to be indirectly related to social anxiety and depression through cognitive vulnerabilities, including intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and anxiety sensitivity (AS). However, few prior studies have considered whether the lower-order dimensions of IU (i.e., prospective and inhibitory IU) and AS (i.e., physical, cognitive, and social concerns) better explain the indirect relation between NA and social anxiety and depression...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807062/neuropsychiatric-characteristics-of-antiterrorist-operation-combatants-in-the-donbass-ukraine
#8
Konstantin N Loganovsky, Natalia A Zdanevich, Marina V Gresko, Donatella Marazziti, Tatiana K Loganovskaja
OBJECTIVE: The present paper aimed to explore the neuropsychiatric characteristics of the antiterrorism (ATO) combatants in the Donets Basin (Donbass) and to propose therapeutic strategies for managing their mental healthcare. METHODS: A total of 54 ATO combatants were included in our study and compared with four groups of subjects exposed to other emergencies, including the Chernobyl disaster and the war in Afghanistan. The neuropsychiatric features were assessed through psychopathological assessments, neurological examinations, and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG)...
August 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805639/development-and-evolution-of-brain-allometry-in-wasps-vespidae-size-ecology-and-sociality
#9
REVIEW
Sean O'Donnell, Susan Bulova
We review research on brain development and brain evolution in the wasp family Vespidae. Basic vespid neuroanatomy and some aspects of functional neural circuitry are well-characterized, and genomic tools for exploring brain plasticity are being developed. Although relatively modest in terms of species richness, the Vespidae include species spanning much of the known range of animal social complexity, from solitary nesters to highly eusocial species with some of the largest known colonies and multiple reproductives...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800207/optically-derived-metabolic-and-hemodynamic-parameters-predict-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-btbr-mouse-model-of-autism
#10
David Abookasis, Danit Lerman, Hava Roth, Mati Tfilin, Gadi Turgeman
In the present study, we made use of dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (DW-LSI) to assess cerebral blood flow in the BTBR genetic mouse model of Autism Spectrum Disorder, as well as control (C57Bl/6J) mice. Since the deficits in social behavior demonstrated by BTBR mice are attributed to changes in neural tissue structure and function, we postulated that these changes can be detected optically using DW-LSI. BTBR mice demonstrated reductions in both cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2 ), as suggested by studies using conventional neuroimaging technologies to reflect impaired neuronal activation and cognitive function...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793379/illness-trajectories-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-how-illness-progression-is-related-to-life-narratives-and-interpersonal-relationships
#11
Sabrina Cipolletta, Giorgia Rosamaria Gammino, Arianna Palmieri
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to identify illness trajectories in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by analyzing personal, social and functional dimensions related to ALS progression. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have considered some psychological distinct variables that may moderate illness progression, but no research has combined an extensive qualitative understanding of ALS patients' psychological characteristics and illness progression. DESIGN: A mixed method approach was used to combine quantitative and qualitative measures...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793373/reflection-on-the-cause-and-avoidance-of-recurrent-venous-leg-ulcers-an-interpretive-descriptive-approach
#12
Ann Stewart, Helen Edwards, Kathleen Finlayson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into the experience of recurrent venous leg ulcers from the individual's perspective and provide knowledge on potential risks of recurrence not previously investigated. BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers are a consequence of chronic venous disease and frequently recur. They are costly and can impact on physical and psychological health. Despite research suggesting the risk can be reduced through compression and lifestyle changes, recurrence rates are often high...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780728/predictive-model-of-complexity-in-early-palliative-care-a-cohort-of-advanced-cancer-patients-palcom-study
#13
Albert Tuca, Mónica Gómez-Martínez, Aleix Prat
PROPOSAL: Model of early palliative care (PC) integrated in oncology is based on shared care from the diagnosis to the end of life and is mainly focused on patients with greater complexity. However, there is no definition or tools to evaluate PC complexity. The objectives of the study were to identify the factors influencing level determination of complexity, propose predictive models, and build a complexity scale of PC. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We performed a prospective, observational, multicenter study in a cohort of advanced cancer patients with an estimated prognosis ≤ 6 months...
August 6, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768564/exploring-beliefs-about-dietary-supplement-use-focus-group-discussions-with-dutch-adults
#14
Emília Margit Pajor, Anke Oenema, Sander Matthijs Eggers, Hein de Vries
OBJECTIVE: Although dietary supplement use is increasing in Europe and the USA, little research involving adults' beliefs regarding dietary supplements has been conducted. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore and compare users' and non-users' beliefs towards dietary supplements. DESIGN: Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted of which seven groups were dietary supplement users and six groups were non-users. Based on the socio-cognitive factors of the Integrated Change Model, a semi-structured topic guide was set up...
August 3, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766324/resting-state-fmri-and-social-cognition-an-opportunity-to-connect
#15
Alex Doruyter, Nynke A Groenewold, Patrick Dupont, Dan J Stein, James M Warwick
Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by altered social cognition. The importance of social cognition has previously been recognized by the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria project, in which it features as a core domain. Social task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) currently offers the most direct insight into how the brain processes social information; however, resting-state fMRI may be just as important in understanding the biology and network nature of social processing...
August 1, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760178/psychosocial-predictors-of-hbv-screening-behavior-among-vietnamese-americans
#16
Minsun Lee, Lin Zhu, Min Qi Wang, Zhengyu Wei, Yin Tan, Minhhuyen T Nguyen, Olorunseun O Ogunwobi, Grace X Ma
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the influence of psychosocial factors on HBV screening. METHODS: Sample consisted of 1716 Vietnamese participants in our previous HBV intervention trial, recruited from 36 community-based organizations in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York City between 2009 and 2014. Using the Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory, we measured self-efficacy, knowledge, perceived barriers, perceived benefits, perceived severity, and risk susceptibility...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760002/measuring-racial-microaggression-in-medical-practice
#17
Amanda Lee Almond
The purpose of this study was to validate the already existing Racial Microaggression in Counseling Scale (RMCS) when the term 'therapist' was replaced with 'physician', thus constituting the modification as the Racial Microaggression in Medical Practice Scale (RMMPS). Racial microaggressions work at reinforcing inferior social status on a cognitive level. Unlike overt racism, messages behind microaggression are subtler and more every day. A lack of acceptance, respect, and regard emerges from interactions in medical contexts as there are layers of in-group and out-group statuses at play (e...
August 1, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758705/coping-with-changes-and-uncertainty-a-qualitative-study-of-young-adult-cancer-patients-challenges-and-coping-strategies-during-treatment
#18
Nataskja-Elena Kersting Lie, Torill Marie Bogsnes Larsen, May Aasebø Hauken
Young adult cancer patients (YACPs), aged 18-35 years when diagnosed with cancer, are in a vulnerable transitioning period from adolescence to adulthood, where cancer adds a tremendous burden. However, YACPs' challenges and coping strategies are under-researched. The objective of this study was to explore what challenges YACP experience during their treatment, and what coping strategies they applied to them. We conducted a qualitative study with a phenomenological-hermeneutic design, including retrospective, semi-structured interviews of 16 YACPs who had undergone cancer treatment...
July 31, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757148/transdiagnostic-psychiatric-disorder-risk-associated-with-early-age-of-menarche-a-latent-modeling-approach
#19
Jonathan M Platt, Natalie L Colich, Katie A McLaughlin, Dahsan Gary, Katherine M Keyes
BACKGROUND: Earlier age of pubertal maturation in females is associated with increased risk for mental health problems in adolescence, compared with on-time or later maturation. However, most investigations of pubertal timing and mental health consider risk for individual disorders and fail to account for comorbidity. A latent-modeling approach using a large, nationally representative sample could better explain the transdiagnostic nature of the consequences of early-onset puberty. METHODS: Data on age of menarche and mental disorders were drawn from a population-representative sample of adolescents (n=4925), ages 13-17...
July 6, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755534/treadmill-interventions-in-children-under-six-years-of-age-at-risk-of-neuromotor-delay
#20
REVIEW
Marta Valentín-Gudiol, Katrin Mattern-Baxter, Montserrat Girabent-Farrés, Caritat Bagur-Calafat, Mijna Hadders-Algra, Rosa Maria Angulo-Barroso
BACKGROUND: Delayed motor development may occur in children with Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, general developmental delay or children born preterm. It limits the child's exploration of the environment and can hinder cognitive and social-emotional development. Literature suggests that task-specific training, such as locomotor treadmill training, facilitates motor development. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of treadmill interventions on locomotor development in children with delayed ambulation or in pre-ambulatory children (or both), who are under six years of age and who are at risk for neuromotor delay...
July 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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