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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230844/network-neuroscience
#1
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Olaf Sporns
Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229913/increased-risk-of-developing-schizophrenia-in-animals-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke-during-the-gestational-period
#2
Alexandra I Zugno, Mariana B Oliveira, Gustavo A Mastella, Alexandra S A Heylmann, Lara Canever, Felipe D Pacheco, Louyse S Damazio, Sullivan A Citadin, Luiz Antonio de Lucca, Lutiana Roque Simões, Fernanda Malgarin, Josiane Budni, Tatiana Barichello, Patricia F Schuck, João Quevedo
Cigarette smoking during the prenatal period has been investigated as a causative factor of obstetric abnormalities, which lead to cognitive and behavioural changes associated with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate behaviour and AChE activity in brain structures in adult rats exposed to cigarette smoke during the prenatal period. Pregnant rats were divided into non-PCSE (non-prenatal cigarette smoke exposure) and PCSE (prenatal cigarette smoke exposure) groups. On post-natal day 60, the rats received saline or ketamine for 7days and were subjected to behavioural tasks...
February 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229112/chronic-psychosocial-stressors-in-adulthood-studies-in-mice-rats-and-tree-shrews
#3
REVIEW
Christopher R Pryce, Eberhard Fuchs
Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS). Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228630/social-activities-of-older-men-who-require-daily-support-and-the-purpose-of-such-activities
#4
Michiyo Hirano, Kazuko Saeki, Izumi Ueda, Hikaru Honda, Yoshiko Mizuno
Objectives The purpose of this study was to analyze the social activities of older men who require daily support, and to clarify the purpose of such activities, in order to develop effective living support and preventive long-term care service, suitable for this population.Methods Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 older men. Data were analyzed using inductive and qualitative methods.Results Four categories of social activities were identified, and four categories of purposes of these social activities were extracted...
2017: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225843/-poverty-and-mental-disability-in-the-criminal-law-the-invisibles
#5
Ezequiel N Mercurio
In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222237/extreme-genetic-structure-in-a-social-bird-species-despite-high-dispersal-capacity
#6
Francisco Morinha, José A Dávila, Estela Bastos, João A Cabral, Óscar Frías, José L González, Paulo Travassos, Diogo Carvalho, Borja Milá, Guillermo Blanco
Social barriers have been shown to reduce gene flow and contribute to genetic structure among populations in species with high cognitive capacity and complex societies, such as cetaceans, apes and humans. In birds, high dispersal capacity is thought to prevent population divergence unless major geographic or habitat barriers induce isolation patterns by dispersal, colonization or adaptation limitation. We report that Iberian populations of the red-billed chough, a social, gregarious corvid with high dispersal capacity, show a striking degree of genetic structure composed of at least 15 distinct genetic units...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220087/mental-state-understanding-in-children-with-agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum
#7
Beatrix Lábadi, Anna M Beke
Impaired social functioning is a well-known outcome of individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum. Social deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, social reasoning, and recognition of facial expression have all been documented in adults with agenesis of the corpus callosum. In the present study, we examined the emotional and mentalizing deficits that contributing to the social-cognitive development in children with isolated corpus callosum agenesia, including emotion recognition, theory of mind, executive function, working memory, and behavioral impairments as assessed by the parents...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219620/brain-structural-correlates-of-executive-and-social-cognition-profiles-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-elderly-bipolar-disorder
#8
Sandra Baez, Clara Pinasco, María Roca, Jesica Ferrari, Blas Couto, Indira García-Cordero, Agustín Ibañez, Francy Cruz, Pablo Reyes, Diana Matallana, Facundo Manes, Marcelo Cetcovich, Teresa Torralva
An early stage of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) often displays a mix of behavioral disturbances and personality changes hindering a differential diagnosis from elderly bipolar disorder (BD), making this process a big challenge. However, no studies have compared these pathologies from neuropsychological and neuroanatomical perspectives. The aim of the present study was to compare the executive functions (EF) and social cognition profiles as well as the structural neuroimaging of bvFTD and elderly patients with BD...
February 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217944/longitudinal-relations-between-children-s-cognitive-and-affective-theory-of-mind-with-reactive-and-proactive-aggression
#9
Gina Austin, Rebecca Bondü, Birgit Elsner
Aggression may be performed for different reasons, such as defending oneself (reactive aggression) or to reach egoistic aims (proactive aggression). It is a widely accepted notion that a lack of theory of mind (ToM) as a basic social competence should be linked to higher aggression, but findings on the developmental links between ToM and different functions of aggression have been inconsistent. One reason for this may be the failure of taking the bi-dimensionality of both ToM (cognitive vs. affective) and aggression (reactive vs...
February 20, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198944/the-social-network-and-support-of-kidney-transplantees
#10
Daianne Cibele de Souza Borges, Fernanda de Oliveira Furino, Mayara Caroline Barbieri, Renata Olzon Dionysio de Souza, Willyane de Andrade Alvarenga, Giselle Dupas
Objective: to know the social network and support of those who experience the process of kidney disease and transplantation. Methods: a descriptive qualitative study, based on the concept of social network and social support from Sherbourne and Stewart. Semi-structured interviews were conducted from November 2013 to September 2014, with 12 kidney transplantees, which passed through content analysis. This study had the following selection criteria: the interviewee must have had a transplant five years ago, at most, be at lease 16 years of age and have preserved cognitive and language skills...
February 9, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198094/mainstream-health-professionals-stigmatising-attitudes-towards-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-a-systematic-review
#11
H A Pelleboer-Gunnink, W M W J Van Oorsouw, J Van Weeghel, P J C M Embregts
BACKGROUND: Equal access to mainstream healthcare services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) still requires attention. Although recent studies suggest that health professionals hold positive attitudes towards people with ID, stigmatising attitudes may influence their efforts to serve people with ID in community healthcare practice. To stimulate inclusion in mainstream healthcare services, this systematic review focussed on barriers in attitudes of mainstream health professionals towards people with ID...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194998/-i-have-faith-in-science-and-in-god-common-sense-cognitive-polyphasia-and-attitudes-to-science-in-nigeria
#12
Bankole A Falade, Martin W Bauer
This study, of modern common sense in Nigeria, combines questionnaires and interviews to examine the compatibility and incompatibility of religion and science. Nigeria is a large country with a complex diversity of religious, ethnic and cultural practices that condition the reception and elaboration of science in everyday life. We find evaluative attitudes to science structured as 'progress', 'fear' and 'mythical image'. Scientific knowledge and religiosity have a direct bearing on expectations of progress and feeling of fear and worry about science; mythical image is independent of this...
February 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194130/cognitive-structuring-and-its-cognitive-motivational-determinants-as-an-explanatory-framework-of-the-fear-then-relief-social-influence-strategy
#13
Dariusz Dolinski, Barbara Dolinska, Yoram Bar-Tal
According to the fear-then-relief technique of social influence, people who experience anxiety whose source is abruptly withdrawn usually respond positively to various requests and commands addressed to them. This effect is usually explained by the fact that fear invokes a specific program of action, and that when the source of this emotion is suddenly and unexpectedly removed, the program is no longer operative, but the person has not yet invoked a new program. This specific state of disorientation makes compliance more likely...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194041/initial-development-and-validation-of-the-bullyharm-the-bullying-harassment-and-aggression-receipt-measure
#14
William J Hall
This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability testing, and confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 275 middle school students was used to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the BullyHARM, which consists of 22 items and 6 subscales: physical bullying, verbal bullying, social/relational bullying, cyber-bullying, property bullying, and sexual bullying...
November 2016: Psychology in the Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193174/using-theory-to-explore-facilitators-and-barriers-to-delayed-prescribing-in-australia-a-qualitative-study-using-the-theoretical-domains-framework-and-the-behaviour-change-wheel
#15
Lucy Sargent, Amanda McCullough, Chris Del Mar, John Lowe
BACKGROUND: Delayed antibiotic prescribing reduces antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in trials in general practice, but the uptake in clinical practice is low. The aim of the study was to identify facilitators and barriers to general practitioners' (GPs') use of delayed prescribing and to gain pharmacists' and the public's views about delayed prescribing in Australia. METHODS: This study used the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to explore facilitators and barriers to delayed prescribing in Australia...
February 13, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192769/disorganization-at-the-stage-of-schizophrenia-clinical-outcome-clinical-biological-study
#16
A Nestsiarovich, V Obyedkov, H Kandratsenka, M Siniauskaya, I Goloenko, N Waszkiewicz
BACKGROUND: According to the multidimensional model of schizophrenia, three basic psychopathological dimensions constitute its clinical structure: positive symptoms, negative symptoms and disorganization. The latter one is the newest and the least studied. Our aim was to discriminate disorganization in schizophrenia clinical picture and to identify its distinctive biological and socio-psychological particularities and associated genetic and environmental factors. METHODS: We used SAPS/SANS psychometrical scales, scales for the assessment of patient's compliance, insight, social functioning, life quality...
December 30, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186825/balancing-safety-and-harm-for-older-adults-with-dementia-in-rural-emergency-departments-healthcare-professionals-perspectives
#17
Kathleen F Hunter, Belinda Parke, Maureen Babb, Dorothy Forbes, Laurel Strain
INTRODUCTION: The emergency department (ED) is a potentially harmful environment for older adults with dementia, and rural EDs face unique challenges in providing care to this population. The purpose of this study was to understand safety and harm in rural ED transitional care for community dwelling older adults with dementia from the perspective of healthcare professionals (HCPs). METHODS: An interpretive, descriptive exploratory design from a social ecological perspective was used...
January 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171681/modeling-posttraumatic-growth-among-cancer-patients-the-roles-of-social-support-appraisals-and-adaptive-coping
#18
Weidan Cao, Xiaona Qi, Xuanye Han
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to build a model to explain the relationships between social support, uncontrollability appraisal, adaptive coping, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among cancer patients in China. METHODS: The participants who were cancer patients in a cancer hospital in China filled out a survey. The final sample size was 201. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to to build a model explaining PTG. RESULTS: SEM results indicated higher levels of social support predicted higher levels of adaptive coping, higher levels of uncontrollability appraisal predicted lower levels of adaptive coping, and higher levels of adaptive coping predicted higher levels of PTG...
February 7, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166674/medical-managers-managerial-self-efficacy-and-role-clarity-how-do-they-bridge-the-budgetary-participation-performance-link
#19
Manuela S Macinati, Gabriele Cantaluppi, Marco Giovanni Rizzo
This study explains the process ''how'' organizational accounting practices, such as budgetary participation, influence medical doctors' perceptions and beliefs associated with their hybrid role and what the consequences are on their performance. Building on social cognitive theory, we hypothesize a structural model in which managerial self-efficacy and role clarity mediate the effects of budgetary participation on performance. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The research hypotheses were tested employing a path model...
February 2017: Health Services Management Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164372/tackling-wicked-problems-how-theories-of-agency-can-provide-new-insights
#20
Lara Varpio, Carol Aschenbrener, Joanna Bates
OBJECTIVES: This paper reviews why and how theories of agency can be used as analytical lenses to help health professions education (HPE) scholars address our community's wicked problems. Wicked problems are those that resist clear problem statements, defy traditional analysis approaches, and refuse definitive resolution (e.g. student remediation, assessments of professionalism, etc.). We illustrate how theories of agency can provide new insights into such challenges by examining the application of these theories to one particular wicked problem in HPE: interprofessional education (IPE)...
February 6, 2017: Medical Education
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