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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898705/the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-facial-trustworthiness-processing-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#1
Sara Santos, Inês Almeida, Bárbara Oliveiros, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Faces play a key role in signaling social cues such as signals of trustworthiness. Although several studies identify the amygdala as a core brain region in social cognition, quantitative approaches evaluating its role are scarce. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to assess the role of the amygdala in the processing of facial trustworthiness, by analyzing its amplitude BOLD response polarity to untrustworthy versus trustworthy facial signals under fMRI tasks through a Meta-analysis of effect sizes (MA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895604/virtue-existential-career-model-a-dialectic-and-integrative-approach-echoing-eastern-philosophy
#2
Shu-Hui Liu, Jui-Ping Hung, Hsin-I Peng, Chia-Hui Chang, Yi-Jen Lu
Our Virtue Existential Career (VEC) model aims at complementing western modernism and postmodernism career theories with eastern philosophy. With dialectical philosophy and virtue-practice derived from the Classic of Changes, the VEC theoretical foundation incorporates merits from Holland typology, Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment, Social Cognitive Career Theory, Meaning Therapy, Narrative Approach Career Counseling, and Happenstance Learning Theory. While modernism considers a matched job as an ideal career vision and prefers rational strategies (controlling and realizing) to achieve job security; postmodernism prefers appreciating and adapting strategies toward openness and appreciates multiple possible selves and occupations, our model pursues a blending of security and openness via controlling-and-realizing and appreciating-and-adapting interwoven with each other in a dialectical and harmonious way...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894219/exposure-to-culturally-sensitive-sexual-health-information-and-impact-on-health-literacy-a-qualitative-study-among-newly-arrived-refugee-women-in-sweden
#3
Pia Svensson, Katarina Carlzén, Anette Agardh
In Sweden, migrants have poorer sexual and reproductive health compared to the general population. Health literacy, in the form of the cognitive and social skills enabling access to health promoting activities, is often poorer among migrants, partly due to language and cultural barriers. Culturally sensitive health education provides a strategy for enhancing health literacy. Since 2012, specially trained civic and health communicators have provided sexual and reproductive health and rights information to newly arrived refugees in Skåne, Sweden...
November 29, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891188/associations-between-social-cognition-skills-and-function-and-subclinical-negative-and-positive-symptoms-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#4
A Vangkilde, J R M Jepsen, H Schmock, C Olesen, S Arnarsdóttir, W F C Baaré, K J Plessen, M Didriksen, H R Siebner, T Werge, L Olsen
BACKGROUND: Identification of the early signs of schizophrenia would be a major achievement for the early intervention and prevention strategies in psychiatry. Social impairments are defining features of schizophrenia. Impairments of individual layers of social competencies are frequently described in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), who have high risk of schizophrenia. It is unclear whether and to what extent social impairments associate with subclinical negative and positive symptoms in 22q11...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891107/internet-communication-disorder-it-s-a-matter-of-social-aspects-coping-and-internet-use-expectancies
#5
Elisa Wegmann, Matthias Brand
Online communication applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter are some of the most frequently used Internet applications. There is a growing amount of individuals suffering diminished control over their use of online communication applications which leads to diverse negative consequences in offline life. This could be referred to as Internet-communication disorder (ICD). The current study investigates the role of individual characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms, feelings of loneliness) and specific cognitions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886636/the-impact-of-social-support-unit-cohesion-and-trait-resilience-on-ptsd-in-treatment-seeking-military-personnel-with-ptsd-the-role-of-posttraumatic-cognitions
#6
Yinyin Zang, Thea Gallagher, Carmen P McLean, Hallie S Tannahill, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Edna B Foa
BACKGROUND: The personal resources of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience have been found to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity among military personnel. However, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are unclear. We hypothesized that negative posttraumatic cognitions, which are associated with PTSD, mediate the relationships between these personal resources and PTSD. METHODS: The relationship between PTSD symptom severity and a latent factor comprised of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 366 treatment-seeking active duty military personnel with PTSD following deployments to or near Iraq or Afghanistan...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886204/characterization-of-structural-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-in-dogs-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#7
Jennifer L Robinson, Madhura Baxi, Jeffrey S Katz, Paul Waggoner, Ronald Beyers, Edward Morrison, Nouha Salibi, Thomas S Denney, Vitaly Vodyanoy, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides us an insight into the micro-architecture of white-matter tracts in the brain. This method has proved promising in understanding and investigating the neuronal tracts and structural connectivity between the brain regions in primates as well as rodents. The close evolutionary relationship between canines and humans may have spawned a unique bond in regard to social cognition rendering them useful as an animal model in translational research. In this study, we acquired diffusion data from anaesthetized dogs and created a DTI-based atlas for a canine model which could be used to investigate various white matter diseases...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885963/coping-with-discrimination-among-hiv-positive-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#8
Laura M Bogart, Sannisha K Dale, Jana Christian, Kinjal Patel, Gary K Daffin, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone
In the USA, HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men show large disparities in disease outcomes compared to other racial/ethnic and risk groups. This study examined the strategies that HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men use to cope with different types of discrimination. A total of 27 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men participated in semi-structured interviews, which were transcribed verbatim and coded using thematic analysis by multiple raters. Major coping themes included reactive avoidance (using behaviours, cognitions and emotions to escape from discrimination), a common reaction to racism; proactive avoidance (avoiding situations in which discrimination is anticipated), manifested as selective disclosure of HIV-serostatus; external attribution for discrimination (versus self-blame), used more for sexual orientation and HIV discrimination; and social support-seeking, which most often emerged in response to racism...
November 25, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885946/epilepsy-surgery-in-patients-with-autism
#9
Malgosia A Kokoszka, Patricia E McGoldrick, Maite La Vega-Talbott, Hillary Raynes, Christina A Palmese, Steven M Wolf, Cynthia L Harden, Saadi Ghatan
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to report outcomes of epilepsy surgery in 56 consecutive patients with autism spectrum disorder. METHODS Medical records of 56 consecutive patients with autism who underwent epilepsy surgery were reviewed with regard to clinical characteristics, surgical management, postoperative seizure control, and behavioral changes. RESULTS Of the 56 patients with autism, 39 were male, 45 were severely autistic, 27 had a history of clinically significant levels of aggression and other disruptive behaviors, and 30 were considered nonverbal at baseline...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882595/children-s-representation-and-imitation-of-events-how-goal-organization-influences-3-year-old-children-s-memory-for-action-sequences
#10
Jeff Loucks, Christina Mutschler, Andrew N Meltzoff
Children's imitation of adults plays a prominent role in human cognitive development. However, few studies have investigated how children represent the complex structure of observed actions which underlies their imitation. We integrate theories of action segmentation, memory, and imitation to investigate whether children's event representation is organized according to veridical serial order or a higher level goal structure. Children were randomly assigned to learn novel event sequences either through interactive hands-on experience (Study 1) or via storybook (Study 2)...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880825/can-simple-transmission-chains-foster-collective-intelligence-in-binary-choice-tasks
#11
Mehdi Moussaïd, Kyanoush Seyed Yahosseini
In many social systems, groups of individuals can find remarkably efficient solutions to complex cognitive problems, sometimes even outperforming a single expert. The success of the group, however, crucially depends on how the judgments of the group members are aggregated to produce the collective answer. A large variety of such aggregation methods have been described in the literature, such as averaging the independent judgments, relying on the majority or setting up a group discussion. In the present work, we introduce a novel approach for aggregating judgments-the transmission chain-which has not yet been consistently evaluated in the context of collective intelligence...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879176/focus-of-attention-behavioral-experiment-an-examination-of-a-therapeutic-procedure-to-reduce-social-anxiety
#12
Kerry A Renner, David P Valentiner, Jacob B Holzman
A clinical protocol based on contemporary cognitive behavioral treatment for social anxiety was developed and examined. Previously published instructions for conducting a focus-of-attention behavioral experiment targeting self-focused attention and safety behaviors during exposure were used to create a structured protocol. Individuals (n = 45) with high levels of social anxiety and public-speaking anxiety were randomly assigned to either a focus-of-attention behavioral experiment (FABE) or an Exposure-Only Control (EOC) condition...
January 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877024/understanding-the-physical-social-and-emotional-experiences-of-people-with-uncontrolled-type-2-diabetes-a-qualitative-study
#13
Anna Berenguera, Àngels Molló-Inesta, Manel Mata-Cases, Josep Franch-Nadal, Bonaventura Bolíbar, Esther Rubinat, Dídac Mauricio
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions, barriers, and facilitators of self-management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to determine the factors to consider when developing and implementing a person-centered intervention in patients with poor glycemic control attending primary care. METHODS: This was a qualitative study conducted in 6 primary care health centers in Catalonia. Patients who had been diagnosed with T2DM and had glycated hemoglobin of 9% or more were included...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875605/sustaining-family-physicians-in-urban-underserved-settings
#14
Anne Getzin, Bonnie L Bobot, Deborah Simpson
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify factors that sustain family physicians practicing in Milwaukee's underserved urban areas. METHODS: Family physicians with clinical careers in Milwaukee's urban, underserved communities were identified and invited to participate in a 45-60 minute interview using a literature-based semi-structured protocol. Each interview was transcribed and de-identified prior to independent analysis using a grounded theory qualitative approach by two authors to yield sustaining themes...
November 2016: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875541/new-perspective-on-impact-of-folic-acid-supplementation-during-pregnancy-on-neurodevelopment-autism-in-the-offspring-children-a-systematic-review
#15
Yunfei Gao, Chao Sheng, Ri-Hua Xie, Wen Sun, Elizabeth Asztalos, Diane Moddemann, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Mark Walker, Shi Wu Wen
It has been conclusively established that folic acid supplementation prior to and during early pregnancy (up to 12 weeks of gestation) can prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). We hypothesized that folate effects may extend from neuro-structural defects to alterations in neuro-behavioural and emotional skills including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and other developmental disorders. The objective of this review was to comprehensively evaluate evidence on the impact of folic acid on neurodevelopment other than NTDs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870413/complementarity-of-sex-differences-in-brain-and-behavior-from-laterality-to-multimodal-neuroimaging
#16
REVIEW
Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
Although, overwhelmingly, behavior is similar in males and females, and, correspondingly, the brains are similar, sex differences permeate both brain and behavioral measures, and these differences have been the focus of increasing scrutiny by neuroscientists. This Review describes milestones from more than 3 decades of research in brain and behavior. This research was necessarily bound by available methodology, and we began with indirect behavioral indicators of brain function such as handedness. We proceeded to the use of neuropsychological batteries and then to structural and functional neuroimaging that provided the foundations of a cognitive neuroscience-based computerized neurocognitive battery...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869047/children-s-exposure-to-violent-political-conflict-stimulates-aggression-at-peers-by-increasing-emotional-distress-aggressive-script-rehearsal-and-normative-beliefs-favoring-aggression
#17
L Rowell Huesmann, Eric F Dubow, Paul Boxer, Simha F Landau, Shira Dvir Gvirsman, Khalil Shikaki
We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867830/niche-construction-social-cognition-and-language-hypothesizing-the-human-as-the-production-of-place
#18
Oliver Davies
New data is emerging from evolutionary anthropology and the neuroscience of social cognition on our species-specific hyper-cooperation (HC). This paper attempts an integration of third-person archaeological and second-person, neuroscientific perspectives on the structure of HC, through a post-Ricoeurian development in hermeneutical phenomenology. We argue for the relatively late evolution of advanced linguistic consciousness (ALC) (Hiscock in Biological Theory 9:27-41, 2014), as a reflexive system based on the 'in-between' or 'cognitive system' as reported by Vogeley et al...
2016: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867259/personality-and-other-lifelong-influences-on-older-age-health-and-wellbeing-preliminary-findings-in-two-scottish-samples
#19
Mathew A Harris, Caroline E Brett, John M Starr, Ian J Deary, Wendy Johnson
Recent observations that personality traits are related to later-life health and wellbeing have inspired considerable interest in exploring the mechanisms involved. Other factors, such as cognitive ability and education, also show longitudinal influences on health and wellbeing, but it is not yet clear how all these early-life factors together contribute to later-life health and wellbeing. In this preliminary study, we assessed hypothesised relations among these variables across the life course, using structural equation modelling in a sample assessed on dependability (a personality trait related to conscientiousness) in childhood, cognitive ability and social class in childhood and older age, education, and health and subjective wellbeing in older age...
September 2016: European Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865340/stigma-and-minority-stress-as-social-determinants-of-health-among-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-youth-research-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#20
REVIEW
Mark L Hatzenbuehler, John E Pachankis
In this article, we review theory and evidence on stigma and minority stress as social/structural determinants of health among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. We discuss different forms of stigma at individual (eg, identity concealment), interpersonal (eg, victimization), and structural (eg, laws and social norms) levels, as well as the mechanisms linking stigma to adverse health outcomes among LGBT youth. Finally, we discuss clinical (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) and public health (eg, antibullying policies) interventions that effectively target stigma-inducing mechanisms to improve the health of LGBT youth...
December 2016: Pediatric Clinics of North America
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