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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772912/relations-between-empathy-and-anxiety-dimensions-in-inpatient-adolescents
#1
Malgorzata Gambin, Carla Sharp
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A better understanding of the relationships between empathy and internalizing disorders is needed to plan therapeutic interventions for children and adolescents. Several studies have revealed positive relations of internalizing symptoms to personal distress and affective empathy. However, there is a lack of studies that take into account the multidimensional nature of anxiety in its relation to empathy. DESIGN: Structural equation modeling was used to test the moderated mediation model of the relations between empathy, depression and anxiety dimensions and the moderating role of gender on these associations in inpatient adolescents...
May 17, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772110/morphology-and-memory-toward-an-integrated-theory
#2
Ray Jackendoff, Jenny Audring
Framed in psychological terms, the basic question of linguistic theory is what is stored in memory, and in what form. Traditionally, what is stored is divided into grammar and lexicon, where grammar contains the rules and the lexicon is an unstructured list of exceptions. We develop an alternative view in which rules of grammar are simply lexical items that contain variables, and in which rules have two functions. In their generative function, they are used to build novel structures, just as in traditional generative linguistics...
May 17, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769646/long-term-impacts-of-prenatal-synthetic-glucocorticoids-exposure-on-functional-brain-correlates-of-cognitive-monitoring-in-adolescence
#3
Liesa Ilg, Manousos Klados, Nina Alexander, Clemens Kirschbaum, Shu-Chen Li
The fetus is highly responsive to the level of glucocorticoids in the gestational environment. Perturbing glucocorticoids during fetal development could yield long-term consequences. Extending prior research about effects of prenatally exposed synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC) on brain structural development during childhood, we investigated functional brain correlates of cognitive conflict monitoring in term-born adolescents, who were prenatally exposed to sGC. Relative to the comparison group, behavioral response consistency (indexed by lower reaction time variability) and a brain correlate of conflict monitoring (the N2 event-related potential) were reduced in the sGC exposed group...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765209/using-the-frailty-assessment-for-care-planning-tool-fact-to-screen-elderly-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-for-frailty-the-nurse-experience
#4
Heather Moffatt, Paige Moorhouse, Laurie Mallery, David Landry, Karthik Tennankore
Purpose: Recent evidence supports the prognostic significance of frailty for functional decline and poor health outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet, despite the development of clinical tools to screen for frailty, little is known about the experiential impact of screening for frailty in this setting. The Frailty Assessment for Care Planning Tool (FACT) evaluates frailty across 4 domains: mobility, function, social circumstances, and cognition. The purpose of this qualitative study was as follows: 1) explore the nurse experience of screening for frailty using the FACT tool in a specialized outpatient renal clinic; 2) determine how, if at all, provider perceptions of frailty changed after implementation of the frailty screening tool; and 3) determine the perceived factors that influence uptake and administration of the FACT screening tool in a specialized clinical setting...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764872/development-and-testing-of-the-youth-alcohol-norms-survey-yans-instrument-to-measure-youth-alcohol-norms-and-psychosocial-influences
#5
Sharyn K Burns, Bruce Maycock, Janina Hildebrand, Yun Zhao, Steve Allsop, Roanna Lobo, Peter Howat
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop and validate an online instrument to: (1) identify common alcohol-related social influences, norms and beliefs among adolescents; (2) clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents; (3) describe the characteristics of social connections that contribute to the transmission of alcohol norms; and (4) identify the influence of alcohol marketing on adolescent norm development. SETTING: The online Youth Alcohol Norms Survey (YANS) was administered in secondary schools in Western Australia PARTICIPANTS: Using a 2-week test-retest format, the YANS was administered to secondary school students (n=481, age=13-17 years, female 309, 64...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764300/integrating-implicit-leadership-theories-leader-member-exchange-self-efficacy-and-attachment-theory-to-predict-job-performance
#6
Alireza Khorakian, Mohammad Sadegh Sharifirad
The impact of implicit leadership theories on performance and the mechanism linking them have received insufficient theoretical and research attention. Drawing on Bandura's social cognitive theory, the present study contributes theory through examining the assertion that higher congruence between followers' implicit leadership theory and the characteristics of supervisors enhance job performance through higher quality of leader-member exchange and self-efficacy. Moreover, in the proposed model, attachment insecurity was considered as the antecedent of the congruence and leader-member exchange in addition to the moderator of the relationship between them...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763271/adults-with-developmental-disabilities-a-comprehensive-approach-to-medical-care
#7
Clarissa Kripke
Developmental disabilities are attributable to a cognitive impairment, physical impairment, or both. They manifest during the developmental period from birth to early adulthood, and are likely to continue indefinitely. The life expectancy of most persons with developmental disabilities now approaches that of the general population. According to the neurodiversity model of care, developmental disability is accepted as a valued part of human neurologic diversity. The social model focuses on improving participation in society with accommodations such as adaptive equipment or improvements to the social and physical environment...
May 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762177/neuropsychological-phenotypes-among-men-with-and-without-hiv-disease-in-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#8
Samantha A Molsberry, Yu Cheng, Lawrence Kingsley, Lisa Jacobson, Andrew J Levine, Eileen Martin, Eric N Miller, Cynthia A Munro, Ann Ragin, Ned Sacktor, James T Becker
OBJECTIVE: Mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remain prevalent in the combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) era. This study's objective was to identify neuropsychological subgroups within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) based on the participant-based latent structure of cognitive function and to identify factors associated with subgroups. DESIGN: The MACS is a four-site longitudinal study of the natural and treated history of HIV disease among gay and bisexual men...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761738/emsqol-29-prospective-validation-of-the-abbreviated-electronic-version-of-msqol-54
#9
Rosalba Rosato, Silvia Testa, Antonio Bertolotto, Francesco Scavelli, Ambra M Giovannetti, Paolo Confalonieri, Francesco Patti, Clara Grazia Chisari, Alessandra Lugaresi, Erika Pietrolongo, Maria Grazia Grasso, Ilaria Rossi, Anna Toscano, Barbara Loera, Andrea Giordano, Alessandra Solari
BACKGROUND: We recently devised a shortened version of the 54-item Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life (MSQOL-54) in paper (MSQOL-29, consisting of 25 items forming 7 subscales and 4 single items, and one filter question for 3 'sexual function' items) and electronic format (eMSQOL-29). OBJECTIVES: To prospectively assess eMSQOL-29 psychometric properties, acceptability/equivalence versus MSQOL-29. METHODS: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients ( n = 623; Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) range 0...
May 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761636/physical-activity-and-parents-of-very-young-children-the-role-of-beliefs-and-social-cognitive-factors
#10
Eloise Cowie, Katherine White, Kyra Hamilton
OBJECTIVES: Despite the unequivocal benefits of regular physical activity, many parents engage in lower levels of physical activity (PA) following the birth of a child. Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and health action process approach (HAPA), an integrative model was developed to examine variables predicting PA in parents of very young children. In addition, key beliefs related to PA intentions and behaviour among parents of very young children were investigated. DESIGN: A prospective-correlational design with two waves of data collection, spaced one week apart, was adopted...
May 14, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760066/socioeconomic-status-moderates-age-related-differences-in-the-brain-s-functional-network-organization-and-anatomy-across-the-adult-lifespan
#11
Micaela Y Chan, Jinkyung Na, Phillip F Agres, Neil K Savalia, Denise C Park, Gagan S Wig
An individual's environmental surroundings interact with the development and maturation of their brain. An important aspect of an individual's environment is his or her socioeconomic status (SES), which estimates access to material resources and social prestige. Previous characterizations of the relation between SES and the brain have primarily focused on earlier or later epochs of the lifespan (i.e., childhood, older age). We broaden this work to examine the relationship between SES and the brain across a wide range of human adulthood (20-89 years), including individuals from the less studied middle-age range...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755213/stereotype-content-warmth-and-competence-endure
#12
Susan T Fiske
Two dimensions persist in social cognition, whether people are making sense of individuals or groups. The Stereotype Content Model terms the basic dimensions perceived warmth (trustworthiness, friendliness) and competence (capability, assertiveness). Measured reliably and validly, these Big Two dimensions converge across methods: survey, cultural, laboratory, and biobehavioral approaches. Generality across place, levels, and time further support the framework. Parallel pairs have emerged repeatedly over the history of psychology and in current theories...
April 2018: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754584/analysing-the-role-of-complexity-in-explaining-the-fortunes-of-technology-programmes-empirical-application-of-the-nasss-framework
#13
Trisha Greenhalgh, Joe Wherton, Chrysanthi Papoutsi, Jenni Lynch, Gemma Hughes, Christine A'Court, Sue Hinder, Rob Procter, Sara Shaw
BACKGROUND: Failures and partial successes are common in technology-supported innovation programmes in health and social care. Complexity theory can help explain why. Phenomena may be simple (straightforward, predictable, few components), complicated (multiple interacting components or issues) or complex (dynamic, unpredictable, not easily disaggregated into constituent components). The recently published NASSS framework applies this taxonomy to explain Non-adoption or Abandonment of technology by individuals and difficulties achieving Scale-up, Spread and Sustainability...
May 14, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752748/epstein-barr-virus-antibody-titer-as-a-stress-biomarker-and-its-association-with-social-capital-in-rural-fujian-communities-china
#14
Aki Yazawa, Yosuke Inoue, Guoxi Cai, Raoping Tu, Meng Huang, Fei He, Jie Chen, Taro Yamamoto, Chiho Watanabe
OBJECTIVES: There has been little research on the association between social capital and psychological stress measured by a biomarker, particularly in developing countries. Our objective was to investigate the association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody titer, an indicator of cellular immune function previously shown to be associated with psychological stress, and social capital among rural community dwellers in Fujian Province, China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in seven rural communities in Fujian in 2015...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747073/the-cognitive-ontogeny-of-tool-making-in-children-the-role-of-inhibition-and-hierarchical-structuring
#15
Gökhan Gönül, Ece Kamer Takmaz, Annette Hohenberger, Michael Corballis
During the last decade, the ontogeny of tool making has received growing attention in the literature on tool-related behaviors. However, the cognitive demands underlying tool making are still not clearly understood. In this cross-sectional study of 52 Turkish preschool children from 3 to 6 years of age, the roles of executive function (response inhibition), ability to form hierarchical representations (hierarchical structuring), and social learning were investigated with the hook task previously used with children and animals...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747048/a-randomized-trial-examining-a-physical-activity-intervention-for-the-prevention-of-postpartum-depression-the-healthy-mom-trial
#16
Beth A Lewis, Katie Schuver, Shira Duniger, Lauren Samson, Amanda L Frayeh, Carrie A Terrell, Joe T Ciccolo, Melissa D Avery
Approximately 13-19% of women experience postpartum depression and approximately one-third of women who have a history of depression develop depression during the postpartum phase. Exercise is an efficacious intervention for depression among adults; however, few studies have examined the effect of exercise on postpartum depression. The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of exercise and wellness interventions on preventing postpartum depression among women at risk...
May 7, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745289/the-experience-of-return-to-work-in-individuals-with-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-a-qualitative-study
#17
Lauren Libeson, Marina Downing, Pamela Ross, Jennie Ponsford
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability in young people, with return to work (RTW) a major goal of recovery. This qualitative study aimed to understand the RTW experience of individuals with TBI who received comprehensive vocational rehabilitation, and to identify facilitating and limiting factors in the RTW process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 individuals (mean age = 47.33 years) approximately 4.5 years post-injury, of whom 14 had moderate to severe TBI. Twelve individuals had successfully returned to work...
May 10, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741750/longitudinal-effects-of-activities-social-environment-and-psychotropic-medication-use-on-behavioral-symptoms-of-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-in-nursing-homes
#18
Ben R Inventor, Carol J Farran, Olimpia Paun, Fawn Cothran, Kumar Rajan, Sandra S Swantek, Judith J McCann
A secondary data analysis of 25,560 minutes of structured clinical observations from a longitudinal study examined the impact of time-varying background factors, social environment, and psychotropic medication use on behavioral symptoms of nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data were collected at baseline (N = 177), 12 months (N = 138), and 24 months (N = 111). Mixed-effects regression modeling showed that at 24 months: (a) higher cognitive and physical function and having a private bedroom/bathroom had the most positive influence on resident positive behaviors; (b) use of antipsychotic medications and solitary activities had the most negative influence on resident positive behaviors; (c) higher cognitive function significantly decreased negative behaviors; and (d) care-related activities and total number of psychotropic medications significantly increased negative behaviors...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740350/psychometric-properties-of-the-bermond-vorst-alexithymia-questionnaire-bvaq-in-the-general-population-and-a-clinical-population
#19
Lars de Vroege, Wilco H M Emons, Klaas Sijtsma, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis
Introduction: The Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ) has been validated in student samples and small clinical samples, but not in the general population; thus, representative general-population norms are lacking. Aim: We examined the factor structure of the BVAQ in Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences panel data from the Dutch general population ( N  = 974). Results: Factor analyses revealed a first-order five-factor model and a second-order two-factor model...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733664/a-sampling-model-of-social-judgment
#20
Mirta Galesic, Henrik Olsson, Jörg Rieskamp
Studies of social judgments have demonstrated a number of diverse phenomena that were so far difficult to explain within a single theoretical framework. Prominent examples are false consensus and false uniqueness, as well as self-enhancement and self-depreciation. Here we show that these seemingly complex phenomena can be a product of an interplay between basic cognitive processes and the structure of social and task environments. We propose and test a new process model of social judgment, the social sampling model (SSM), which provides a parsimonious quantitative account of different types of social judgments...
April 2018: Psychological Review
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