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cognitive social structure

Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe, Bérénice Lecluyse, Claire Triquet, Emmanuel Brunelle, Jean-Paul Duparcq, Jean-Louis Nandrino
OBJECTIVES: Impairments in social cognition have been described as playing a major role in the maintenance of addictive behavior in substance abusers. This study aimed to investigate the Theory of Mind (ToM) ability of opiate-dependent (OD) patients and to explore whether TOM ability was correlated with length of substance abuse, age at onset of substance abuse and length of abstinence. METHODS: OD patients (N = 29) and non-dependent individuals (NDI) (N = 29) were submitted to the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th...
March 12, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Beyza Aksu Dunya, Clark McKown, Everett V Smith
Social perspective-taking (SPT), which involves the ability infer others' intentions, is a consequential social cognitive process. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of a web-based social perspective-taking (SELweb SPT) assessment designed for children in kindergarten through third grade. Data were collected from two separate samples of children. The first sample included 3224 children and the second sample included 4419 children. Data were calibrated using Rasch dichotomous model (Rasch, 1960)...
2018: Journal of Applied Measurement
Pia Noel, Cliodhna Cork, Ross G White
Social capital (SC) is highlighted as an important factor for post-crisis mental health outcomes. However, the heterogeneous nature of the construct makes it difficult to get a clear picture of the evidence concerning the association between SC indices and mental health. This review examines how SC is conceptualized and measured, and the relationships with other variables in quantitative empirical studies investigating the associations between SC and mental health in post-disaster and post-conflict contexts...
March 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Jun Yin, Man Chen, Xiaoting Wang, Xiaowei Ding
The chasing action, in which an actor chases a target, is a fundamental activity for the evolutionary shaping of social abilities. Where previous research has emphasized the chaser's role, the current study explored whether the fleeing responsivity of a chased target influences the cognitive representation of the chasing action. We investigated this with a change-detection task, in which a set of chasing actions, either exhibiting or not exhibiting fleeing behavior, were memorized in sequence, and it was tested whether a memorized action reappeared after altering an object's appearance...
March 19, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Ju-Hyun Song, Brenda Volling
This study investigated relations among children's Theory-of-Mind (ToM) development, early sibling interactions, and parental discipline strategies during the transition to siblinghood. Using a sample of firstborn children and their parents (N = 208), we assessed children's ToM before the birth of a sibling and 12 months after the birth, and sibling interactions (i.e., positive engagement and antagonism) and parental discipline strategies (i.e., child-centred and parent-centred discipline) at 4 and 8 months in the first year of siblinghood...
January 2018: Infant and Child Development
Jiyoung Hwang, Lisa Wang, Jodi Siever, Talia Del Medico, Charlotte A Jones
OBJECTIVES: Loneliness and social isolation (L&SI) are associated with physical and cognitive decline in older adults. Walk 'n' Talk for your Life (WTL) is a community-based program of socialization, health education, falls prevention exercise and walking for community-dwelling older adults. This qualitative study was done to gain further insight into the experience and impacts of the WTL on seniors' L&SI. METHODS: One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen participants who had completed the WTL ...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Paulomi M Sudhir
Cognitive behaviour therapy is a structured, time limited, psychological intervention that has is empirically supported across a wide variety of psychological disorders. CBT for addictive behaviours can be traced back to the application of learning theories in understanding addiction and subsequently to social cognitive theories. The focus of CBT is manifold and the focus is on targeting maintaining factors of addictive behaviours and preventing relapse. Relapse prevention programmes are based on social cognitive and cognitive behavioural principles...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Rocco Gogliotti, Nicole Fisher, Branden Stansley, Carrie Jones, Craig Lindsley, Jeffrey Conn, Colleen Niswender
Mutations in the Methyl CpG Binding Protein 2 (MECP2) gene are responsible for the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). MeCP2 is a DNA-binding protein whose abundance and ability to complex with HDAC3 is linked to the regulation of chromatin structure. Consequently, loss-of-function mutations in MeCP2 are predicted to have broad effects on gene expression. However, to date, studies in mouse models of RTT have identified a limited number of gene or pathway-level disruptions, and even fewer genes have been identified that could be considered amenable to classical drug discovery approaches...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Heeju Hwang, Eunjin Chun
Although structural priming has been considered to be an independent cognitive process, recent evidence suggests that structural priming is modulated by sociocognitive factors such as social perception; speakers are more likely to mimic the sentence structure of a socially desirable interlocutor than the structure of a less desirable interlocutor. This study aims to further address the role of sociocognitive factors in language use by investigating how individual differences in social perception and tendency to align with others (i...
March 8, 2018: Cognitive Science
Martin W Seltmann, Samuli Helle, Mark J Adams, Khyne U Mar, Mirkka Lahdenperä
Data on personality for long-lived, highly social wild mammals with high cognitive abilities are rare. We investigated the personality structure of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ) by using a large sample of semi-captive timber elephants in Myanmar. Data were collected during 2014-2017 using questionnaires, for which elephant riders (mahouts) rated 28 behavioural adjectives of elephants. Repeated questionnaires were obtained for each elephant from several raters whenever possible, resulting in 690 ratings of 150 female and 107 male elephants...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jack Cotter, Sandra Bucci, Richard J Drake, Alison R Yung, Rebekah Carney, Dawn Edge
AIM: Many young people at ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis exhibit marked and persistent impairments in social and occupational functioning. We aimed to explore UHR patients' subjective experiences of these difficulties and their causes. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 UHR individuals recruited from Early Detection and Intervention Teams in Northwest England. Topics covered included how participants spent their time, their interpersonal relationships, academic and occupational performance, premorbid functioning and clinical treatment...
March 7, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
J Matthew Harvey, Alice Sibelli, Trudie Chalder, Hazel Everitt, Rona Moss-Morris, Felicity L Bishop
OBJECTIVES: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common and adversely affects patients' quality of life. Multiple potential treatment options exist for patients (and clinicians) to choose from, with limited evidence to inform treatment selection. The aim was to explore how patients with IBS go about seeking and appraising different treatment modalities, with a view to elucidating the psychological processes involved and identifying opportunities to improve clinical practice. DESIGN: Qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial of therapist-delivered and web-based cognitive behavioural therapy versus treatment-as-usual for IBS...
March 5, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Sarah M Gilbert, Lynne Nemeth, Elaine Amella, Barbara Edlund, Virginia Burggraf
This study explores the experiences of adult children as they transition their functionally and/or cognitively declining aging parents from independent living to supervised housing. A qualitative grounded theory approach was used to chronicle the experiences of adult children as their caregiving responsibilities intensified and their parents' health declined. Purposive, snowball sampling was used to enlist adult children (n = 16) who were in the process of transitioning an aging parent from an independent living situation to one providing assistance with everyday care and tasks...
March 5, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Chiaki Ura, Tsuyoshi Okamura, Sachiko Yamazaki, Taichi Ishiguro, Masumi Ibe, Mayako Miyazaki, Keisuke Torishima, Yu Kawamuro
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of rice-farming care among elderly people with cognitive impairment as a tool for social inclusion. METHODS: Eight elderly individuals with cognitive impairment (7 men, 1 woman, mean age 68.3 years old) participated in the program over 25 weeks. The cognitive function, well-being, and depression were assessed before and after the program period. The degree of participants' independence during the program was also assessed...
2018: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
Iris Reychav, Inam Najami, Daphne Ruth Raban, Roger McHaney, Joseph Azuri
PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between the media, through which medical information was made available (e.g. digital versus printed), and the patients' desire to play an active part in a medical decision in an SDM or an ISDM-based process. The goal of this research was to expand knowledge concerning social and personal factors that affect and explain patients' willingness to participate in the process. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed in this empirical study of 103 third-age participants...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Alexander A Pasgaard, Maiken H Mæhlisen, Charlotte Overgaard, Linda Ejlskov, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Henrik Bøggild
BACKGROUND: Frequent attendance to primary care constitutes a large use of resources for the health care system. The association between frequent attendance and illness-related factors has been examined in several studies, but little is known about the association between frequent attendance and individual social capital. The aim of this study is to explore this association. METHODS: The analysis is conducted on responders to the North Denmark Region Health Profile 2010 (n = 23,384), individually linked with information from administrative registers...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Sheila Krogh-Jespersen, Amanda L Woodward
From early in development, infants view others' actions as structured by intentions, and this action knowledge may be supported by shared action production/perception systems. Because the motor system is inherently prospective, infants' understanding of goal-directed actions should support predictions of others' future actions, yet little is known about the nature and developmental origins of this ability, specifically whether young infants use the goal-directed nature of an action to rapidly predict future social behaviors and whether their action experience influences this ability...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Marija Pantelic, Mark Boyes, Lucie Cluver, Mildred Thabeng
Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 90 % of the world's adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV). HIV-stigma and the resultant fear of being identified as HIV-positive can compromise the survival of these youth by undermining anti-retroviral treatment initiation and adherence. To date, no HIV-stigma measures have been validated for use with ALHIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports on a two-stage study in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Firstly, we conducted a cross-cultural adaptation of an HIV stigma scale, previously used with US ALHIV...
2018: Child Indicators Research
Linda Baldensperger, Amelie U Wiedemann, Lauri Wessel, Ulrich Keilholz, Nina Knoll
OBJECTIVE: Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) proposes that with more limited future time perspective (FTP) the meaning of individual life goals shifts from instrumental and long-term goals, such as autonomy, to emotionally meaningful and short-term life goals, especially concerning meaningful social relationships. Adverse side effects of cancer therapy may conflict with the realization of emotionally meaningful goals leading to non-adherence. In line with the theoretical assumptions, this study aimed to investigate a) associations between disease symptoms, physical-, and cognitive limitations and FTP and b) between FTP, family network size, striving for autonomy, and treatment adherence...
February 28, 2018: Psycho-oncology
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