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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793096/segmentation-of-histological-images-and-fibrosis-identification-with-a-convolutional-neural-network
#1
Xiaohang Fu, Tong Liu, Zhaohan Xiong, Bruce H Smaill, Martin K Stiles, Jichao Zhao
Segmentation of histological images is one of the most crucial tasks for many biomedical analyses involving quantification of certain tissue types, such as fibrosis via Masson's trichrome staining. However, challenges are posed by the high variability and complexity of structural features in such images, in addition to imaging artifacts. Further, the conventional approach of manual thresholding is labor-intensive, and highly sensitive to inter- and intra-image intensity variations. An accurate and robust automated segmentation method is of high interest...
May 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792462/extreme-teams-toward-a-greater-understanding-of-multiagency-teamwork-during-major-emergencies-and-disasters
#2
Nicola Power
Major emergencies are extreme team decision making environments. They are complex, dynamic, high-stakes and fast paced events, wherein successful resolution is contingent upon effective teamwork. Not only do emergency teams coordinate at the intrateam level (e.g., police team), but they are increasingly required to operate at the interteam level (e.g., police, fire and ambulance teams). This is in response to the desire for networked and cost-effective practice and due to the evolving nature of modern threats, such as extreme weather events and terrorist attacks, which require a multi- rather than single-agency response...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792308/logical-modelling-uncovers-developmental-constraints-for-primary-sex-determination-of-chicken-gonads
#3
Lucas Sánchez, Claudine Chaouiya
In the chicken, sex determination relies on a ZZ (male)/ZW (female) chromosomal system, but underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. The Z-dosage and the dominant W-chromosome hypotheses have been proposed to underlie primary sex determination. We present a modelling approach, which assembles the current knowledge and permits exploration of the regulation of this process in chickens. Relying on published experimental data, we assembled a gene network, which led to a logical model that integrates both the Z-dosage and dominant W hypotheses...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792036/meeting-the-challenge-for-effective-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs-in-regional-rural-and-remote-hospitals-what-can-we-learn-from-the-published-literature
#4
Jaclyn Bishop, David Cm Kong, Thomas R Schulz, Karin A Thursky, Kirsty L Buising
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been recognised as an urgent health priority, both nationally and internationally. Australian hospitals are required to have an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) program, yet the necessary resources may not be available in regional, rural or remote hospitals. This review will describe models for AMS programs that have been introduced in regional, rural or remote hospitals internationally and showcase achievements and key considerations that may guide Australian hospitals in establishing or sustaining AMS programs in the regional, rural or remote hospital setting...
May 2018: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791871/network-based-disease-module-discovery-by-a-novel-seed-connector-algorithm-with-pathobiological-implications
#5
Rui-Sheng Wang, Joseph Loscalzo
Understanding the genetic basis of complex diseases is challenging. Prior work shows that disease-related proteins do not typically function in isolation. Rather, they often interact with each other to form a network module that underlies dysfunctional mechanistic pathways. Identifying such disease modules will provide insights into a systems-level understanding of molecular mechanisms of diseases. Owing to the incompleteness of our knowledge of disease proteins and limited information on the biological mediators of pathobiological processes, the key proteins (seed proteins) for many diseases appear scattered over the human protein-protein interactome and form a few small branches, rather than coherent network modules...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791743/a-network-for-early-childhood-development
#6
Shekufeh Zonji
Political action and investment are critical to meet the development needs of vulnerable young children today. Early childhood development (ECD) has become a global priority: an ECD target and other ECD-related targets are included in the sustainable development goals, over 75 countries have officially adopted multisectoral ECD policy instruments, and ECD is a programmatic focus in major global institutions (including UNICEF, UNESCO, the WHO, and the World Bank). However, lack of clear and strong ownership of and champions for ECD, operational and communication siloes of constituent sectors that constitute ECD, political pressures for investment in other arenas, and low international investment in ECD inhibit making a compelling and cohesive investment case for ECD...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791717/termination-of-pregnancy-following-a-prenatal-diagnosis-of-down-syndrome-a-qualitative-study-of-the-decision-making-process-of-pregnant-couples
#7
Stina Lou, Kathrine Carstensen, Olav Bjørn Petersen, Camilla Palmhøj Nielsen, Lone Hvidman, Maja Retpen Lanther, Ida Vogel
In Denmark, first trimester screening has a very high uptake (>90%). If Down syndrome is diagnosed, termination rates are high (>95%). The aim of this study was to investigate the timing of the decision of termination of pregnancy following a Down syndrome diagnosis and the factors influencing this decision MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semi-structured, qualitative interview study with 21 couples who had received a prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome and decided to terminate the pregnancy. Participants were recruited from obstetric departments between February 2016 and July 2017...
May 23, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791667/good-practices-in-normal-childbirth-reliability-analysis-of-an-instrument-by-cronbach-s-alpha
#8
Leila Bernarda Donato Gottems, Elisabete Mesquita Peres De Carvalho, Dirce Guilhem, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia Pires
OBJECTIVES: to analyze the internal consistency of the evaluation instrument of the adherence to the good practices of childbirth and birth care in the professionals, through Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient for each of the dimensions and for the total instrument. METHOD: this is a descriptive and cross-sectional study performed in obstetric centers of eleven public hospitals in the Federal District, with a questionnaire applied to 261 professionals who worked in the delivery care...
2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791153/a-probabilistic-framework-for-constructing-temporal-relations-in-replica-exchange-molecular-trajectories
#9
Aditya Chattopadhyay, Min Zheng, Mark Paul Waller, U Deva Priyakumar
Knowledge of the structure and dynamics of biomolecules is essential for elucidating the underlying mechanisms of biological processes. Given the stochastic nature of many biological processes, like protein unfolding, it's almost impossible that two independent simulations will generate the exact same sequence of events, which makes direct analysis of simulations difficult. Statistical models like Markov Chains, transition networks etc. help in shedding some light on the mechanistic nature of such processes by predicting long-time dynamics of these systems from short simulations...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790396/biosensor-for-the-detection-of-listeria-monocytogenes-emerging-trends
#10
Dharmendra Kumar Soni, Rafiq Ahmad, Suresh Kumar Dubey
The early detection of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and understanding the disease burden is of paramount interest. The failure to detect pathogenic bacteria in the food industry may have terrible consequences, and poses deleterious effects on human health. Therefore, integration of methods to detect and trace the route of pathogens along the entire food supply network might facilitate elucidation of the main contamination sources. Recent research interest has been oriented towards the development of rapid and affordable pathogen detection tools/techniques...
May 23, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789893/-integration-of-sex-gender-into-environmental-health-research-results-of-the-interdisciplinary-research-network-sex-gender-environment-health-geumge-net
#11
REVIEW
Gabriele Bolte, Madlen David, Małgorzata Dębiak, Lotta Fiedel, Claudia Hornberg, Marike Kolossa-Gehring, Ute Kraus, Rebecca Lätzsch, Tatjana Paeck, Kerstin Palm, Alexandra Schneider
The comprehensive consideration of sex/gender in health research is essential to increase relevance and validity of research results. Contrary to other areas of health research, there is no systematic summary of the current state of research on the significance of sex/gender in environmental health. Within the interdisciplinary research network Sex/Gender-Environment-Health (GeUmGe-NET) the current state of integration of sex/gender aspects or, respectively, gender theoretical concepts into research was systematically assessed within selected topics of the research areas environmental toxicology, environmental medicine, environmental epidemiology and public health research on environment and health...
May 22, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789525/fertilization-shapes-a-well-organized-community-of-bacterial-decomposers-for-accelerated-paddy-straw-degradation
#12
Yushan Zhan, Wenjing Liu, Yuanyuan Bao, Jianwei Zhang, Evangelos Petropoulos, Zhongpei Li, Xiangui Lin, Youzhi Feng
Straw, mainly dry stalks of crops, is an agricultural byproduct. Its incorporation to soils via microbial redistribution is an environment-friendly way to increase fertility. Fertilization influences soil microorganisms and straw degradation. However, our up to date knowledge on the responses of the straw decomposers to fertilization remains elusive. To this end, inoculated with paddy soils with 26-year applications of chemical fertilizers, organic amendments or controls without fertilization, microcosms were anoxically incubated with 13 C-labelled rice straw amendment...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788229/subtiwiki-in-2018-from-genes-and-proteins-to-functional-network-annotation-of-the-model-organism-bacillus-subtilis
#13
Bingyao Zhu, Jörg Stülke
Living cells are made up of individual parts, i.e. the genome, the proteins, the RNA and lipid molecules as well as the metabolites and ions. However, life depends on the functional interaction among these components which is often organized in networks. Here, we present the recent development of SubtiWiki, the integrated database for the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis (http://subtiwiki.uni-goettingen.de/). SubtiWiki is based on a relational database and provides access to published information about the genes and proteins of B...
January 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787798/comprehensive-analysis-of-a-metabolic-model-for-lipid-production-in-rhodosporidium-toruloides
#14
María Teresita Castañeda, Sebastián Nuñez, Fabricio Garelli, Claudio Voget, Hernán De Battista
The yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides has been extensively studied for its application in biolipid production. The knowledge of its metabolism capabilities and the application of constraint-based flux analysis methodology provide useful information for process prediction and optimization. The accuracy of the resulting predictions is highly dependent on metabolic models. A metabolic reconstruction for R. toruloides metabolism has been recently published. On the basis of this model, we developed a curated version that unblocks the central nitrogen metabolism and, in addition, completes charge and mass balances in some reactions neglected in the former model...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787765/using-single-molecule-approaches-to-understand-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-heat-shock-protein-chaperone-function
#15
REVIEW
Caitlin L Johnston, Nicholas R Marzano, Antoine M van Oijen, Heath Ecroyd
The heat-shock proteins (Hsp) are a family of molecular chaperones, which collectively form a network that is critical for the maintenance of protein homeostasis. Traditional ensemble-based measurements have provided a wealth of knowledge on the function of individual Hsps and the Hsp network; however, such techniques are limited in their ability to resolve the heterogeneous, dynamic and transient interactions that molecular chaperones make with their client proteins. Single-molecule techniques have emerged as a powerful tool to study dynamic biological systems, as they enable rare and transient populations to be identified that would usually be masked in ensemble measurements...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786092/mapping-the-physical-network-of-cellular-interactions
#16
Jean-Charles Boisset, Judith Vivié, Dominic Grün, Mauro J Muraro, Anna Lyubimova, Alexander van Oudenaarden
A cell's function is influenced by the environment, or niche, in which it resides. Studies of niches usually require assumptions about the cell types present, which impedes the discovery of new cell types or interactions. Here we describe ProximID, an approach for building a cellular network based on physical cell interaction and single-cell mRNA sequencing, and show that it can be used to discover new preferential cellular interactions without prior knowledge of component cell types. ProximID found specific interactions between megakaryocytes and mature neutrophils and between plasma cells and myeloblasts and/or promyelocytes (precursors of neutrophils) in mouse bone marrow, and it identified a Tac1+ enteroendocrine cell-Lgr5+ stem cell interaction in small intestine crypts...
May 21, 2018: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785890/family-networks-and-healthy-behaviour-evidence-from-nepal
#17
Jolene Skordis, Noemi Pace, Marcos Vera-Hernandez, Imran Rasul, Emla Fitzsimons, David Osrin, Dharma Manandhar, Anthony Costello
Models of household decision-making commonly focus on nuclear family members as primary decision-makers. If extended families shape the objectives and constraints of households, then neglecting the role of this network may lead to an incomplete understanding of health-seeking behaviour. Understanding the decision-making processes behind care-seeking may improve behaviour change interventions, better intervention targeting and support health-related development goals. This paper uses data from a cluster randomised trial of a participatory learning and action cycle (PLA) through women's groups, to assess the role of extended family networks as a determinant of gains in health knowledge and health practice...
May 22, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785319/a-multi-faceted-pandemic-a-review-of-the-state-of-knowledge-on-the-zika-virus
#18
REVIEW
Anneliese Depoux, Aline Philibert, Serge Rabier, Henri-Jean Philippe, Arnaud Fontanet, Antoine Flahault
While until recently the small and isolated Zika outbreaks in Eastern Asia and Pacific islands had been overlooked, the large-scale outbreak that started in Brazil in 2015 and the increase of microcephaly cases in the same place and time made media headlines. Considered as harmless until recently, Zika has given rise to an important global crisis that poses not only health challenges but also environmental, economical, social, and ethical challenges for states and people around the world. The main objective of this paper is to review the recent Zika outbreak by covering a broad range of disciplines and their interactions...
2018: Public Health Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785244/more-than-just-an-immunosuppressant-the-emerging-role-of-fty720-as-a-novel-inducer-of-ros-and-apoptosis
#19
REVIEW
Teruaki Takasaki, Kanako Hagihara, Ryosuke Satoh, Reiko Sugiura
Fingolimod hydrochloride (FTY720) is a first-in-class of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator approved to treat multiple sclerosis by its phosphorylated form (FTY720-P). Recently, a novel role of FTY720 as a potential anticancer drug has emerged. One of the anticancer mechanisms of FTY720 involves the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent apoptosis, which is largely independent of its property as an S1P modulator. ROS have been considered as a double-edged sword in tumor initiation/progression...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784759/of-what-use-is-connectomics-a-personal-perspective-on-the-drosophila-connectome
#20
REVIEW
Ian A Meinertzhagen
The brain is a network of neurons and its biological output is behaviour. This is an exciting age, with a growing acknowledgement that the comprehensive compilation of synaptic circuits densely reconstructed in the brains of model species is now both technologically feasible and a scientifically enabling possibility in neurobiology, much as 30 years ago genomics was in molecular biology and genetics. Implemented by huge advances in electron microscope technology, especially focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) milling (see Glossary), image capture and alignment, and computer-aided reconstruction of neuron morphologies, enormous progress has been made in the last decade in the detailed knowledge of the actual synaptic circuits formed by real neurons, in various brain regions of the fly Drosophila It is useful to distinguish synaptic pathways that are major, with 100 or more presynaptic contacts, from those that are minor, with fewer than about 10; most neurites are both presynaptic and postsynaptic, and all synaptic sites have multiple postsynaptic dendrites...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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