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transactive memory

Jocelyn Elmes, Morten Skovdal, Kundai Nhongo, Helen Ward, Catherine Campbell, Timothy B Hallett, Constance Nyamukapa, Peter J White, Simon Gregson
Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade...
2017: PloS One
Bryan D James, Robert S Wilson, Patricia A Boyle, John Q Trojanowski, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
Hyperphosphorylated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) proteinopathy has recently been described in ageing and in association with cognitive impairment, especially in the context of Alzheimer's disease pathology. To explore the role of mixed Alzheimer's disease and TDP-43 pathologies in clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia, we performed a comprehensive investigation of TDP-43, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older subjects...
September 30, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Elizabeth Henry, Abigail Silva, Elizabeth Tarlov, Cheryl Czerlanis, Margie Bernard, Cynthia Chauhan, Denise Schalk, Greg Stewart
Cancer care delivery is highly complex. Treatment involves coordination within oncology health-care teams and across other teams of referring primary and specialty providers (a team of teams). Each team interfaces with patients and caregivers to offer component parts of comprehensive care. Because patients frequently obtain specialty care from divergent health-care systems resulting in cross-system health-care use, oncology teams need mechanisms to coordinate and collaborate within and across health-care systems to optimize clinical outcomes for all cancer patients...
November 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
Glenn E Littlepage, Michael B Hein, Richard G Moffett, Paul A Craig, Andrea M Georgiou
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effectiveness of a training program designed to improve cross-functional coordination in airline operations. BACKGROUND: Teamwork across professional specializations is essential for safe and efficient airline operations, but aviation education primarily emphasizes positional knowledge and skill. Although crew resource management training is commonly used to provide some degree of teamwork training, it is generally focused on specific specializations, and little training is provided in coordination across specializations...
August 22, 2016: Human Factors
Qi Wang, Dasom Lee, Yubo Hou
Internet technology provides a new means of recalling and sharing personal memories in the digital age. What is the mnemonic consequence of posting personal memories online? Theories of transactive memory and autobiographical memory would make contrasting predictions. In the present study, college students completed a daily diary for a week, listing at the end of each day all the events that happened to them on that day. They also reported whether they posted any of the events online. Participants received a surprise memory test after the completion of the diary recording and then another test a week later...
August 17, 2016: Memory
Matthew E Klein, Hannah Monday, Bryen A Jordan
Decades of research have demonstrated that rapid alterations in protein abundance are required for synaptic plasticity, a cellular correlate for learning and memory. Control of protein abundance, known as proteostasis, is achieved across a complex neuronal morphology that includes a tortuous axon as well as an extensive dendritic arbor supporting thousands of individual synaptic compartments. To regulate the spatiotemporal synthesis of proteins, neurons must efficiently coordinate the transport and metabolism of mRNAs...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Yazi D Ke, Annika van Hummel, Claire H Stevens, Amadeus Gladbach, Stefania Ippati, Mian Bi, Wei S Lee, Sarah Krüger, Julia van der Hoven, Alexander Volkerling, Andre Bongers, Glenda Halliday, Nikolas K Haass, Matthew Kiernan, Fabien Delerue, Lars M Ittner
The nuclear transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) undergoes relocalization to the cytoplasm with formation of cytoplasmic deposits in neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Pathogenic mutations in the TDP-43-encoding TARDBP gene in familial ALS as well as non-mutant human TDP-43 have been utilized to model FTD/ALS in cell culture and animals, including mice. Here, we report novel A315T mutant TDP-43 transgenic mice, iTDP-43(A315T), with controlled neuronal over-expression...
November 2015: Acta Neuropathologica
Kang Wang, Huaxi Gu, Yintang Yang, Kun Wang
With the number of cores increasing, there is an emerging need for a high-bandwidth low-latency interconnection network, serving core-to-memory communication. In this paper, aiming at the goal of simultaneous access to multi-rank memory, we propose an optical interconnection network for core-to-memory communication. In the proposed network, the wavelength usage is delicately arranged so that cores can communicate with different ranks at the same time and broadcast for flow control can be achieved. A distributed memory controller architecture that works in a pipeline mode is also designed for efficient optical communication and transaction address processes...
August 10, 2015: Optics Express
Amanda M Ferguson, David McLean, Evan F Risko
Recent technological advances have given rise to an information-gathering tool unparalleled by any in human history-the Internet. Understanding how access to such a powerful informational tool influences how we think represents an important question for psychological science. In the present investigation we examined the impact of access to the Internet on the metacognitive processes that govern our decisions about what we "know" and "don't know." Results demonstrated that access to the Internet influenced individuals' willingness to volunteer answers, which led to fewer correct answers overall but greater accuracy when an answer was offered...
December 2015: Consciousness and Cognition
Robert S Wilson, Patricia A Boyle, Lei Yu, Lisa L Barnes, Joel Sytsma, Aron S Buchman, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the natural history and neuropathologic basis of unawareness of memory loss in late-life dementia. METHODS: Analyses are based on 2,092 older persons from 3 longitudinal clinical-pathologic cohort studies who had no memory or cognitive impairment at baseline. Annual evaluations included clinical classification of dementia plus self-rating and performance testing of memory. At death, there was a uniform neuropathologic examination to quantify 7 dementia-related pathologies...
September 15, 2015: Neurology
Ken A Paller, Joel L Voss, Carmen E Westerberg
There is a marked lack of consensus concerning the best way to learn how conscious experiences arise. In this article, we advocate for scientific approaches that attempt to bring together four types of phenomena and their corresponding theoretical accounts: behavioral acts, cognitive events, neural events, and subjective experience. We propose that the key challenge is to comprehensively specify the relationships among these four facets of the problem of understanding consciousness without excluding any facet...
March 2009: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Lauren Y Hewitt, Lynne D Roberts
People in romantic relationships can develop shared memory systems by pooling their cognitive resources, allowing each person access to more information but with less cognitive effort. Research examining such memory systems in romantic couples largely focuses on remembering word lists or performing lab-based tasks, but these types of activities do not capture the processes underlying couples' transactive memory systems, and may not be representative of the ways in which romantic couples use their shared memory systems in everyday life...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Elizabeth H Lazzara, Lauren E Benishek, Brady Patzer, Megan E Gregory, Ashley M Hughes, Kyle Heyne, Eduardo Salas, Fernanda Kuchkarian, Antonio Marttos, Carl Schulman
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a telemedical robot on trauma intensive care unit (TICU) clinician teamwork (i.e., team attitudes, behaviors, and cognitions) during patient rounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two healthcare providers who conduct rounds volunteered to take surveys assessing teamwork attitudes and cognitions at three time periods: (1) the onset of the study, (2) the end of the 30-day control period, and (3) the end of the 30-day experimental period, which immediately followed the control period...
August 2015: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Elmar Krieger, Gert Vriend
We describe a set of algorithms that allow to simulate dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, a common benchmark) with the AMBER all-atom force field at 160 nanoseconds/day on a single Intel Core i7 5960X CPU (no graphics processing unit (GPU), 23,786 atoms, particle mesh Ewald (PME), 8.0 Å cutoff, correct atom masses, reproducible trajectory, CPU with 3.6 GHz, no turbo boost, 8 AVX registers). The new features include a mixed multiple time-step algorithm (reaching 5 fs), a tuned version of LINCS to constrain bond angles, the fusion of pair list creation and force calculation, pressure coupling with a "densostat," and exploitation of new CPU instruction sets like AVX2...
May 15, 2015: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Jerry Chun-Wei Lin, Wensheng Gan, Tzung-Pei Hong, Binbin Zhang
Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures...
2015: TheScientificWorldJournal
D J Willshaw, P Dayan, R G M Morris
David Marr's theory of the archicortex, a brain structure now more commonly known as the hippocampus and hippocampal formation, is an epochal contribution to theoretical neuroscience. Addressing the problem of how information about 10 000 events could be stored in the archicortex during the day so that they can be retrieved using partial information and then transferred to the neocortex overnight, the paper presages a whole wealth of later empirical and theoretical work, proving impressively prescient. Despite this impending success, Marr later apparently grew dissatisfied with this style of modelling, but he went on to make seminal suggestions that continue to resonate loudly throughout the field of theoretical neuroscience...
April 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
William B Porterfield, Jennifer A Prescher
Cellular communication drives diverse aspects of organismal biology ranging from immune function to memory formation. The mechanisms by which cells transact information in vivo, though, are not completely understood. This is due, in part, to a lack of tools for observing collections of cells in their native habitats. New optical probes are being crafted to image networks of cell-cell interactions (i.e., 'interactomes') in tissues and live organisms. Examples of these probes-and their use in visualizing cell contacts and macroscopic cell networks-are highlighted...
February 2015: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Julio A Alfieri, Natalia S Pino, Lionel M Igaz
Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) mislocalization and aggregation are hallmark features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We have previously shown in mice that inducible overexpression of a cytoplasmically localized form of TDP-43 (TDP-43-ΔNLS) in forebrain neurons evokes neuropathological changes that recapitulate several features of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Detailed behavioral phenotyping could provide further validation for its usage as a model for FTD...
November 12, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Heung Ki Lee, Jaehee Jung, Gangman Yi
Resource management of the main memory and process handler is critical to enhancing the system performance of a web server. Owing to the transaction delay time that affects incoming requests from web clients, web server systems utilize several web processes to anticipate future requests. This procedure is able to decrease the web generation time because there are enough processes to handle the incoming requests from web browsers. However, inefficient process management results in low service quality for the web server system...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
Kirby Deater-Deckard
Individual differences in self-regulation include executive function (EF) components that serve self-regulation of attentive behavior by modulating reactive responses to the environment. These factors "run in families". The purpose of this review is to summarize a program of research that addresses familial inter-generational transmission and inter-personal processes in development. Self-regulation of attentive behavior involves inter-related aspects of executive function (EF) including attention, inhibitory control, and working memory...
June 1, 2014: Current Directions in Psychological Science
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