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electronic proximity

Sabina Besic, Shelley D Minteer
Although enzymes are highly efficient and selective catalysts, there have been problems incorporating them into fuel cells. Early enzyme-based fuel cells contained enzymes in solution rather than immobilized on the electrode surface. One problem utilizing an enzyme in solution is an issue of transport associated with long diffusion lengths between the site of bioelectrocatalysis and the electrode. This issue drastically decreases the theoretical overall power output due to the poor electron conductivity. On the other hand, enzymes immobilized at the electrode surface have eliminated the issue of poor electron conduction due to close proximity of electron transfer between electrode and the biocatalyst...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Francesc R Garcia-Gonzalo, Jeremy F Reiter
Cilia are plasma membrane protrusions that act as cellular propellers or antennae. To perform these functions, cilia must maintain a composition distinct from those of the contiguous cytosol and plasma membrane. The specialized composition of the cilium depends on the ciliary gate, the region at the ciliary base separating the cilium from the rest of the cell. The ciliary gate's main structural features are electron dense struts connecting microtubules to the adjacent membrane. These structures include the transition fibers, which connect the distal basal body to the base of the ciliary membrane, and the Y-links, which connect the proximal axoneme and ciliary membrane within the transition zone...
October 21, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Jinchun Qiu, Daniel K Unruh, Anthony Frank Cozzolino
Density Functional Theory calculations were used to design an anion receptor that utilizes antimony(III) secondary bonding interactions. Calculations were performed on promising motifs found in the chemical literature where two antimony sites were found in close proximity to a halide anion. The study was extended to a structurally related class of 1,3,2-benzodioxastibole derivatives to elucidate their potential for binding halide ions. Multiple geometric conformations were evaluated and various ratios of halide anions were considered...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Koichiro Saito, Ichiro Tanabe, Tetsu Tatsuma
Plasmon-induced charge separation (PICS) at the interface between a plasmonic nanoparticle and semiconductor is now widely used for photovoltaics and photocatalysis. Here we take advantage of PICS for site-selective nanoetching of silver nanocubes on TiO2 beyond the diffraction limit. A silver nanocube exhibits two resonance modes localized at the top and bottom of the nanocube (distal and proximal modes, respectively) when it is placed on TiO2. We achieved selective etching at the top and the bottom of the nanocubes by PICS based on the distal and proximal modes, respectively...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Wenmei Ming, Mina Yoon, Mao-Hua Du, Kimoon Lee, Sung Wng Kim
Two-dimensional (2D) electrides, emerging as a new type of layered material whose electrons are confined in interlayer spaces instead of at atomic proximities, are receiving interest for their high performance in various (opto)electronics and catalytic applications. Experimentally, however, 2D electrides have been only found in a couple of layered nitrides and carbides. Here, we report new thermodynamically stable alkaline-earth based 2D electrides by using a first-principles global structure optimization method, phonon spectrum analysis, and molecular dynamics simulation...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
H H G Handoll, S D Brealey, L Jefferson, A Keding, A J Brooksbank, A J Johnstone, J J Candal-Couto, A Rangan
OBJECTIVES: Accurate characterisation of fractures is essential in fracture management trials. However, this is often hampered by poor inter-observer agreement. This article describes the practicalities of defining the fracture population, based on the Neer classification, within a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial in which surgical treatment was compared with non-surgical treatment in adults with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus involving the surgical neck...
October 2016: Bone & Joint Research
Jaume Miranda-Rius, Eduard Lahor-Soler, Lluís Brunet-Llobet, Xavier Sabaté de la Cruz
Patients with cardiac implantable electrical devices should take special precautions when exposed to electromagnetic fields. Proximity to equipment used in clinical dentistry may cause interference. This study evaluated in vitro the risks associated with different types/makes of cardiac devices and types of dental equipment. Six electronic dental tools were tested on three implantable cardioverter defibrillators and three pacemakers made by different manufacturers. Overall, the risk of interference with the pacemakers was 37% lower than with the implantable cardioverter defibrillators...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Oral Sciences
Veerasamy Yengopal, Soraya Yasin Harnekar, Naren Patel, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Childhood caries (tooth decay) consists of a form of tooth decay that affects the milk teeth (also known as baby or primary teeth) of children. This may range from tooth decay in a single tooth to rampant caries affecting all the teeth in the mouth. Primary teeth in young children are vital to their development and every effort should be made to retain these teeth for as long as is possible. Dental fillings or restorations have been used as an intervention to repair these damaged teeth...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Marianne Uteng, Andreas Mahl, Nicolau Beckmann, Alessandro Piaia, David Ledieu, Valerie Dubost, Elaine Tritto, Armin Wolf, Pierre Moulin, Li Li, Salah-Dine Chibout, Francois Pognan
The aim of this study was to determine the relative safety of four antiviral drugs (telbivudine, tenofovir, adefovir, entecavir) against hepatitis B virus with respect to kidney function and toxicity in male Spraque-Dawley rats. The antiviral drugs were administered once daily for four weeks by oral gavage at about 10 and 25-40 times the human equivalent dose. Main assessments included markers of renal toxicity in urine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of kidney function, histopathology and electron microscopic examination...
October 13, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Gábor Csire, József Cserti, Balázs Újfalussy
In this paper we study the proximity effect in superconductor-normal metal heterostructures based on first principles calculations with treating the pairing potential as an adjustable parameter. The superconducting order parameter (anomalous density) is obtained from the Green-function by solving the Kohn-Sham-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations with the Screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. The results are interpreted for an Au/Nb(0 0 1) system. The layer resolved anomalous spectral function is also obtained which is closely related to the superconducting order parameter...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Constanze Pinske, R Gary Sawers
Numerous recent developments in the biochemistry, molecular biology, and physiology of formate and H2 metabolism and of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase (Hyd) cofactor biosynthetic machinery are highlighted. Formate export and import by the aquaporin-like pentameric formate channel FocA is governed by interaction with pyruvate formate-lyase, the enzyme that generates formate. Formate is disproportionated by the reversible formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which has been isolated, allowing biochemical dissection of evolutionary parallels with complex I of the respiratory chain...
October 2016: EcoSal Plus
Yves Bergevin, Bettina Habib, Keesa Elicksen-Jensen, Stephen Samis, Jean Rochon, Jean-Louis Denis, Denis Roy
A study on the impact of regionalization on the Triple Aim of Better Health, Better Care and Better Value across Canada in 2015 identified major findings including: (a) with regard to the Triple Aim, the Canadian situation is better than before but variable and partial, and Canada continues to underperform compared with other industrialized countries, especially in primary healthcare where it matters most; (b) provinces are converging toward a two-level health system (provincial/regional); (c) optimal size of regions is probably around 350,000-500,000 population; d) citizen and physician engagement remains weak...
2016: HealthcarePapers
Gowri Sivaramakrishnan, Kannan Sridharan
BACKGROUND: Local anaesthetics play a key role in reducing pain and anxiety during dental treatment. However the disadvantage of using syringe and needle technique in the maxilla, proximal to the apices of the teeth is that it is painful and also leads to collateral anaesthesia. Hence this systematic review aims to identify whether computer assisted local anaesthetic delivery system could produce predictable results similar to conventional syringe needle technique and also eliminate the disadvantages...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
Andrew F Mutter, Alexandra B Cooke, Olivier Saleh, Yessica-Haydee Gomez, Stella S Daskalopoulou
The objective of this systematic review was to provide insight into the controversy that still abounds as to the impact of acute aerobic exercise on immediate changes in arterial stiffness. Electronic databases were searched to identify articles assessing the effects of acute aerobic exercise on parameters of arterial stiffness. Eligible studies included arterial stiffness measurements before and after acute aerobic exercise in healthy human subjects. Forty-three studies were included. The effect of acute aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness was found to be dependent on the anatomical segment assessed, and on the timing of the measurement post-exercise...
October 13, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Junhao Lin, Leyre Gomez, Chris de Weerd, Yasufumi Fujiwara, Tom Gregorkiewicz, Kazutomo Suenaga
We investigate the variation of the bandgap energy of single quantum dots of CsPbBr3 inorganic halide perovskite as a function of size and shape, and upon embedding within an ensemble. For that purpose, we make use of valence-loss electron spectroscopy with Z-contrast annular dark-field (ADF) imaging in a state-of-the-art low-voltage monochromatic scanning transmission electron microscope. In the experiment, energy absorption is directly mapped onto individual quantum dots, whose dimensions and location are simultaneously measured to the highest precision...
October 13, 2016: Nano Letters
Sabyasachi Mukhopadhyay, Wolfgang Gärtner, David Cahen, Israel Pecht, Mordechai Sheves
Electron transport properties via a photochromic biological photoreceptor have been studied in junctions of monolayer assemblies in solid-state configurations. The photoreceptor studied was a member of the LOV domain protein family with a bound flavin chromophore, and its photochemically inactive mutant due to change of a crucial cysteine residue by a serine. The photochemical properties of the protein were maintained in dry, solid state conditions, indicating that the proteins in the junctions were assembled in native state-like conditions...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jeison A Fischer, Leonid M Sandratskii, Soo-Hyon Phark, Safia Ouazi, André A Pasa, Dirk Sander, Stuart S P Parkin
Non-collinear magnetization textures provide a route to novel device concepts in spintronics. These applications require laterally confined non-collinear magnets (NCM). A crucial aspect for potential applications is how the spatial proximity between the NCM and vacuum or another material impacts the magnetization texture on the nanoscale. We focus on a prototypical exchange-driven NCM given by the helical spin order of bilayer Fe on Cu(111). Spin-polarized scanning tunnelling spectroscopy and density functional theory reveal a nanosize- and proximity-driven modification of the electronic and magnetic structure of the NCM in interfacial contact with a ferromagnet or with vacuum...
October 10, 2016: Nature Communications
Wonmo Sung, Seongmoon Jung, Sung-Joon Ye
The aim of this study is to investigate the dosimetric characteristics of nanoparticle-enhanced Auger therapy. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to assess electron energy spectra and dose enhancement distributions around a nanoparticle. In the simulations, two types of nanoparticle structures were considered: nanoshell and nanosphere, both of which were assumed to be made of one of five elements (Fe, Ag, Gd, Au, and Pt) in various sizes (2-100 nm). Auger-electron emitting radionuclides (I-125, In-111, and Tc-99m) were simulated within a nanoshell or on the surface of a nanosphere...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Paola Mora-Uribe, Camila Miranda-Cárdenas, Pablo Castro-Córdova, Fernando Gil, Iván Calderón, Juan A Fuentes, Paula I Rodas, Saeed Banawas, Mahfuzur R Sarker, Daniel Paredes-Sabja
Clostridium difficile is the causative agent of the most frequently reported nosocomial diarrhea worldwide. The high incidence of recurrent infection is the main clinical challenge of C. difficile infections (CDI). Formation of C. difficile spores of the epidemic strain R20291 has been shown to be essential for recurrent infection and transmission of the disease in a mouse model. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these spores persist in the colonic environment remains unclear. In this work, we characterized the adherence properties of epidemic R20291 spores to components of the intestinal mucosa, and we assessed the role of the exosporium integrity in the adherence properties by using cdeC mutant spores with a defective exosporium layer...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Hitomi Matsuno, Moeko Kudoh, Akiya Watakabe, Tetsuo Yamamori, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Soichi Nagao
Adaptations of vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic response eye movements have been studied as an experimental model of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Several previous physiological and pharmacological studies have consistently suggested that the cerebellar flocculus (FL) Purkinje cells (P-cells) and the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons targeted by FL (FL-targeted MVN neurons) may respectively maintain the memory traces of short- and long-term adaptation. To study the basic structures of the FL-MVN synapses by light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM), we injected green florescence protein (GFP)-expressing lentivirus into FL to anterogradely label the FL P-cell axons in C57BL/6J mice...
2016: PloS One
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