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Henrik J Johansson, Helen Vallhov, Tina Holm, Ulf Gehrmann, Anna Andersson, Catharina Johansson, Hans Blom, Marta Carroni, Janne Lehtiö, Annika Scheynius
Malassezia sympodialis is a dominant commensal fungi in the human skin mycobiome but is also associated with common skin disorders including atopic eczema (AE). M. sympodialis releases extracellular vesicles, designated MalaEx, which are carriers of small RNAs and allergens, and they can induce inflammatory cytokine responses. Here we explored how MalaEx are involved in host-microbe interactions by comparing protein content of MalaEx with that of the parental yeast cells, and by investigating interactions of MalaEx with cells in the skin...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jing Li, Chuxiong Zeng, Beishi Zheng, Chun Liu, Min Tang, Yan Jiang, Yizhong Chang, Weiping Song, Yingxin Wang, Changqing Yang
High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) plays a context-dependent role in autophagy, which is required for hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. However, the significance of HMGB1-induced HSCs autophagy in liver fibrosis has not been elucidated. Here, we first documented an enrichment of peripheral and intra-hepatic HMGB1 signal in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver fibrosis progression, and presented the direct evidence of anatomic proximity of HMGB1 with a-SMA (a marker for HSCs activation) in cirrhotic liver specimens...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Kerr Brogan, Charles J M Diaper, Alan P Rotchford
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To report refractive outcomes from an National Health Service (NHS) cataract surgery service and assess if results meet suggested benchmark standard. METHODS: Details of all patients undergoing cataract surgery in the Southern General and New Victoria hospitals in Glasgow, UK, between November 2006 and December 2016 were prospectively entered into an electronic database. Patients were reviewed 4 weeks postoperatively in the eye clinic and underwent refraction at their local optometrist prior to this appointment...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Yanna Sun, Rongming Zhang, Xu Mao, Mengshu Zhang
Objective: To investigate the early effects of acellular xenogeneic nerve combined with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) in repairing facial nerve injury in rabbits. Methods: The bilateral sciatic nerves of 15 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were harvested and decellularized as xenografts. The allogeneic ADSCs were extracted from the neck and back fat pad of healthy adult New Zealand rabbits with a method of digestion by collagenase type Ⅰ and the autologous PRP was prepared by two step centrifugation...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Eric J Bruns, Alyssa N Hook, Elizabeth M Parker, Isabella Esposito, April Sather, Ryan M Parigoris, Aaron R Lyon, Kelly L Hyde
BACKGROUND: Electronic health records (EHRs) have been widely proposed as a mechanism for improving health care quality. However, rigorous research on the impact of EHR systems on behavioral health service delivery is scant, especially for children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The current study evaluated the usability of an EHR developed to support the implementation of the Wraparound care coordination model for children and youth with complex behavioral health needs, and impact of the EHR on service processes, fidelity, and proximal outcomes...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Roberto Fallica, Benjamin Watts, Benedikt Roesner, Gioia Della Giustina, Laura Brigo, Giovanna Brusatin, Yasin Ekinci
We report on the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy of hybrid organic-inorganic resists. These materials are nonchemically amplified systems based on Si, Zr, and Ti oxides, synthesized from organically modified precursors and transition metal alkoxides by a sol-gel route and designed for ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet and electron beam lithography. The experiments were conducted using a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) which combines high spatial-resolution microscopy and NEXAFS spectroscopy...
June 14, 2018: Nanotechnology
Hyun Ho Lee, Jae Bin Lee, Yuwon Park, Kern Ho Park, Mahmut Sait Okyay, Dong-Seon Shin, Sunghwan Kim, Jongnam Park, Noejung Park, Byeong-Kwan An, Yoon Seok Jung, Hyun-Wook Lee, Kyu Tae Lee, Sung You Hong
Electrode materials exploiting multi-electron transfer processes are essential components for large scale energy storage systems. Organic-based electrode materials undergoing distinct molecular redox transformations can intrinsically circumvent the structural instability issue of conventional inorganic-based host materials associated with lattice volume expansion and pulverization. Yet, the fundamental mechanistic understanding of metal-organic coordination polymers toward the reversible electrochemical processes is still lacking...
June 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Farhad Ghadami, Saeed Saber-Samandari, Gholamreza Rouhi, Mohsen Amani Hamedani, Mohammad Mehdi Dehghan, Saeed Farzad Mohajeri, Fatemeh Mashhadi-Abbas, Hossein Gholami
The main goal of this work was to investigate the effects of implants coatings' mechanical properties and morphology on the osseointegration. In order to produce different mechanical properties of coatings, two thermal spray techniques, high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and air plasma spray (APS) were employed. Titanium pins were coated and implanted into the distal femurs and proximal tibias of fifteen New Zealand white rabbits, equally distributed in three study groups, and a total of twenty pins implanted in each group...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Neil C Chambers, Tyler W Herod, Samuel P Veres
Previous research has shown that both the mechanics and elongation mechanisms of tendon and ligament vary with strain rate during tensile loading. In this study we sought to determine if the ultrastructural damage created during tendon rupture also varies with strain rate. A bovine forelimb model was used, allowing two anatomically proximate but physiologically distinct tendons to be studies: the positional common digital extensor tendon, and the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon. Samples from the two tendon types were ruptured at rates of either 1%/s or 10%/s...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Q H Tan, Qianjin Wang, Yingkai Liu, Chunsheng Liu, Xiaobo Feng, Dapeng Yu
Graphene is one of the most promising spintronic materials due to its high carrier mobility. However, the absence of a band gap and ferromagnetic order in graphene seriously limit its applications in spintronics. How to utilize its high carrier mobility as well as mediate its electronic structure remains a challenge. Herein, we design a novel composite, which is composed of graphene and Mn-doped monolayer MoS2. The magnetic properties and electronic structures of graphene/Mn-doped monolayer MoS2 heterostructures were studied by using density functional theory (DFT) with the van der Waals (vdW) correlations (DFT-D)...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Abdesalem Houari, Peter Bloechl
Alloying effects by Mn and Ni substitution on FeS<sub>2</sub> have been studied using density-functional calculations. Standard
 generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local hybrid functional have been utilized to account for exchange-correlations.
 The alloys Fe<sub>1-x</sub>T<sub>x</sub>S<sub>2</sub> with T=Mn,Ni have been investigated for concentrations x=1/4,1/2,3/4 together withthe ground states of the pure compounds...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Theodora C Dworak, Scott C Wagner, Kyle E Nappo, George C Balazs, Patrick D Grimm, Donald F Colantonio, Scott M Tintle
PURPOSE: Distal ulnar Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans of the wrist can be used to accurately screen for low bone mineral density. It is unknown whether HU measurements can also predict the risk of future fragility fractures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if the HU values of the distal ulna correlate to fragility fracture risk. METHODS: An electronic database of radiographs at a single institution was searched for all wrist CT scans, obtained for any reason, between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2008, to allow a minimum of 5-year follow-up...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Jing Guo, Sifan You, Zhichang Wang, Jinbo Peng, Runze Ma, Ying Jiang
Water/solid interfaces are ubiquitous and play a key role in many environmental, biophysical, and technological processes. Resolving the internal structure and probing the hydrogen-bond (H-bond) dynamics of the water molecules adsorbed on solid surfaces are fundamental issues of water science, which remains a great challenge owing to the light mass and small size of hydrogen. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is a promising tool for attacking these problems, thanks to its capabilities of sub-Ångström spatial resolution, single-bond vibrational sensitivity, and atomic/molecular manipulation...
May 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Julia Costa, Maren Gatermann, Manfred Nimtz, Sebastian Kandzia, Markus Glatzel, Harald S Conradt
Cells release vesicles to the surroundings, the extracellular vesicles (EVs), which may transmit biomolecules to other cells, and are found in bodily fluids, thus constituting emerging biomarker targets. Many studies on EV nucleic acid, lipid and protein composition are available, however, detailed characterization of protein glycosylation has been less approached. Here, we describe a strategy for high resolution quantitative profiling and structure elucidation of N-glycans from EV glycoproteins of three cell lines: human HEK-293, human glioma H4 and mouse glioma Tu-2449...
June 11, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
A Volbeda, J M Mouesca, C Darnault, M M Roessler, A Parkin, F A Armstrong, J C Fontecilla-Camps
The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli O2-sensitive C19G [NiFe]-hydrogenase-1 variant shows that the mutation results in a novel FeS cluster, proximal to the Ni-Fe active site. While the proximal cluster of the native O2-tolerant enzyme can transfer two electrons to that site, EPR spectroscopy shows that the modified cluster can transfer only one electron, this shortfall coinciding with O2 sensitivity. Computational studies on electron transfer help to explain how the structural and redox properties of the novel FeS cluster modulate the observed phenotype...
June 11, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Hye Yun Jeong, Jun Mo Kang, Hak Hoon Jun, Dong-Jin Kim, Seon Hwa Park, Min Ji Sung, Jin Hyung Heo, Dong Ho Yang, Sang Ho Lee, So-Young Lee
We investigated the effects of chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) on AMPK phosphorylation in renal tubular cells in a diabetic environment in vivo and in vitro. We also examined whether CQ- or AQ-mediated AMPK activity restoration attenuated diabetic tubulopathy by normalizing mitochondrial fragmentation. Human renal proximal epithelial cells (HKC8) were incubated in high-glucose conditions. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin in male C57/BL6J mice. Treatment with CQ or AQ abolished high-glucose-induced phospho-AMPK and phosph-PGC1α down-regulation in HKC8 cells...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kaitlin E Johnson, Sukriti Gakhar, Subhash H Risbud, Marjorie L Longo
We study bacteriorhodopsin (BR) in its native purple membrane encapsulated within amorphous titanium dioxide, or titania, gels and in the presence of titania sol-particles to explore this system for hydrogen production. Förster resonance energy transfer between BR and titanium dioxide sol particles was used to conclude that there is nanometer-scale proximity of bacteriorhodopsin to the titanium dioxide. The detection of BR-titania sol aggregates by fluorescence anisotropy and particle sizing indicated the affinity amorphous titania has for BR without the use of additional cross-linkers...
June 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
J P Chiverton, A Kao, M Roldo, G Tozzi
Fibrous nanomaterials such as electrospun materials have many uses ranging from tissue engineering to biosensors. High-resolution imaging is an important component in the characterization of these materials. Important parameters required to predict and study the properties of fibre rich materials include diameter and orientation distribution as well as fibre spacing. The orientations and the relative dimensions of the fibres can be measured via specially designed imaging software. Difficulties in this measurement process can arise if fibres are distributed in close proximity to each other in relation to the resolution of the imaging modality...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Alberto V Carli, Samrath Bhimani, Xu Yang, Karen L de Mesy Bentley, F Patrick Ross, Mathias P G Bostrom
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a devastating complication following total joint arthroplasty. Current animal models of PJI do not effectively recreate the clinical condition and thus provide limited help in understanding why treatments fail. We developed a mouse model of the first-stage surgery of a 2-stage revision for PJI involving a 3-dimensionally printed Ti-6Al-4V implant and a mouse-sized cement spacer that elutes vancomycin. METHODS: Vancomycin was mixed with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement and inserted into custom-made mouse-sized spacer molds...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Vesna Živanović, Geo Semini, Michael Laue, Daniela Drescher, Toni Aebischer, Janina Kneipp
We report the direct probing of the molecular composition of Leishmania infected macrophage cells in vitro by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The microscopic mapping data indicate local abundance and distribution of molecular species that are very characteristic of the infection, and that are observed here simultaneously. As revealed by electron microscopy, the gold nanoprobes used for SERS microspectrosopy have access to the parasitophorous vacuoles (PV) through the endosomal system. SERS nanoprobes located in the direct proximity to the parasite, in the greater volume of the PV, and in endolysosomal compartments in other cellular regions, respectively, report a characteristic chemical composition for each respective location...
June 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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