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Vandiver Chaplin, Marshal A Phipps, Charles F Caskey
Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is a non-invasive technique for therapy and study of brain neural activation. Here we report on the design and characterization of a new MR-guided FUS transducer for neuromodulation in non-human primates at 650 kHz. The array is randomized with 128 elements 6.6 mm in diameter, radius of curvature 7.2 cm, opening diameter 10.3 cm (focal ratio 0.7), and 46% coverage. Simulations were used to optimize transducer geometry with respect to focus size, grating lobes, and directivity...
April 18, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
C E Melia, H M van der Schaar, A W M de Jong, H R Lyoo, E J Snijder, A J Koster, F J M van Kuppeveld, M Bárcena
Picornaviruses induce dramatic rearrangements of endomembranes in the cells that they infect to produce dedicated platforms for viral replication. These structures, termed replication organelles (ROs), have been well characterized for the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae However, it is unknown whether the diverse RO morphologies associated with enterovirus infection are conserved among other picornaviruses. Here, we use serial electron tomography at different stages of infection to assess the three-dimensional architecture of ROs induced by encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a member of the Cardiovirus genus of the family of picornaviruses that is distantly related...
April 17, 2018: MBio
Raymond Ziessel, Patrycja Stachelek, Anthony Harriman, Gordon J Hedley, Thomas J Roland, Arvydas Ruseckas, Ifor David William Samuel
A pair of complimentary molecular dyads have been synthesized around a 1,2-diaminocyclohexyl spacer that itself undergoes ring inversion. Despite these conformational exchange processes, the donor and acceptor occupy quite restricted spatial regions and they are not interchangeable. The donor and acceptor pair comprise disparate boron dipyrromethene dyes selected to display favorable electronic energy transfer (EET). Steady-state emission spectroscopy con-firms that through-space EET from donor to acceptor is almost quantitative, aided by the relatively short separations...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Selami Candan, Nurcan Özyurt Koçakoğlu, Zekiye Suludere
This work presents the male reproductive system morphology and histology of the water strider Gerris lacustris (Linnaeus 1758) (Gerridae, Heteroptera) using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The male reproductive system of G. lacustris comprise of a pair of testes, two vasa deferentia, two seminal vesicles, an ejaculatory duct. There is no bulbus ejaculatorius and the long vas deferantia uniting to form a simple ductus ejaculatorius which is connected to the aedeagus. The testes are white colored and this cylindiric-shaped structure lies along genital abdominal segment...
April 16, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Ranveig Flatabø, Akshay Agarwal, Richard Hobbs, Martin Møeller Greve, Bodil Holst, Karl K Berggren
Helium ion beam lithography (HIL) is an emerging nanofabrication technique. It benefits from a reduced interaction volume compared to that of an electron beam of similar energy, and hence reduced long-range scattering (proximity effect), higher resist sensitivity and potentially higher resolution. Furthermore, the small angular spread of the helium ion beam gives rise to a large depth of field. This should enable patterning on tilted and curved surfaces without the need of any additional adjustments, such as laser-auto focus...
April 13, 2018: Nanotechnology
Fabrizio Accardi, Valentina Papa, Anna Rita Capozzi, Gian Luca Capello, Laura Verga, Cristina Mancini, Eugenia Martella, Roberta Costa, Laura Notarfranchi, Benedetta Dalla Palma, Franco Aversa, Vladimiro Pietrini, Giovanna Cenacchi, Nicola Giuliani
Muscle involvement in AL amyloidosis is a rare condition, and the diagnosis of amyloid myopathy is often delayed and underdiagnosed. Amyloid myopathy may be the initial manifestation and may precede the diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis. Here, we report the case of a 73-year-old man who was referred to our center for a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) diagnosed since 1999. He reported a progressive weakness of proximal muscles of the legs with onset six months previously. Muscle biopsy showed mild histopathology featuring alterations of nonspecific type with a mixed myopathic and neurogenic involvement, and the diagnostic turning point was the demonstration of characteristic green birefringence under cross-polarized light following Congo red staining of perimysial vessels...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
Trina Dang, Mojmir Suchy, Yen Truong, Wendy Oakden, Wilfred Lam, Caitlin Lazurko, Glenn Facey, Greg Stanisz, Adam Shuhendler
The rapid formation of hydrazones under physiological conditions was exploited for the detection of aldehydes through chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging (CEST-MRI). A metal-free, diamagnetic contrast agent derived from N-amino anthranilic acid was introduced, which selectively 'turned-on' upon hydrazone formation through an effect termed Hydrazo-CEST. While the hydrazine form of the probe produced no CEST-MRI signal enhancement, the formation of the aryl hydrazone resulted in >20% intensity decrease in the bulk water signal through the CEST effect, as measured by 300 MHz 1H NMR, 3T and 7T MRI...
April 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Johannes J Wittmann, Michael Eckardt, Wolfgang Harneit, Björn Corzilius
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be applied to enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments by several orders of magnitude due to microwave-driven transfer of spin polarization from unpaired electrons to nuclei. While the underlying quantum mechanical aspects are sufficiently well understood on a microscopic level, the exact description of the large-scale spin dynamics, usually involving hundreds to thousands of nuclear spins per electron, is still lacking consensus. Generally, it is assumed that nuclear hyperpolarization can only be observed on nuclei which do not experience strong influence of the unpaired electrons and thus being significantly removed from the paramagnetic polarizing agents...
April 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Leah H Schinasi, Amy H Auchincloss, Christopher B Forrest, Ana V Diez Roux
PURPOSE: We conducted a systematic review of literature published on January 2000-May 2017 that spatially linked electronic health record (EHR) data with environmental information for population health research. METHODS: We abstracted information on the environmental and health outcome variables and the methods and data sources used. RESULTS: The automated search yielded 669 articles; 128 articles are included in the full review. The number of articles increased by publication year; the majority (80%) were from the United States, and the mean sample size was approximately 160,000...
March 21, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Chelsea A Harris, Melissa J Shauver, Frank Yuan, Jacob Nasser, Kevin C Chung
PURPOSE: We sought to compare preferences for arthroplasty versus arthrodesis among patients with proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint osteoarthritis (OA) by quantifying the patient-assigned utility of each operation's attributes. METHODS: We undertook a multistep process to identify relevant surgical attributes, including a literature review, surgeon survey, and pretest patient pilot test to build a set of discrete choice experiments. Patients with PIP joint osteoarthritis were identified using a single university electronic medical record and were recruited via electronic message or postcard...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Stefan Imseng, Christopher Hs Aylett, Timm Maier
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related protein kinases (PIKKs) are key to the regulation of a variety of eukaryotic cellular processes including DNA repair and growth regulation. While these massive proteins had long resisted structural analysis, recent advances in electron cryo-microscopy have now facilitated structural analysis of the major examples of PIKKs, including mTOR, DNA-PK, ATM, ATR and TRAPP/Tra1. In these PIKKs, the carboxy-terminal kinase domains and their proximal regions are structurally conserved...
April 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Yue Li, Xiaojing Li, Yang Sun, Xiaodong Zhao, Yongtao Li
The microbial fuel cell (MFC) that uses a solid electrode as the inexhaustible electron acceptor is an innovative remediation technology that simultaneously generates bioelectricity. Chlorinated pollutants are better metabolized by reductive dechlorination in proximity to the cathode. Here, the removal efficiency of the herbicide metolachlor (ML) increased by 262 and 176% in soil MFCs that were spiked with 10 (C10) and 20 mg/kg (C20) of ML, respectively, relative to the non-electrode controls. The bioelectricity output of the C10 and C20 increased by over two- and eightfold, respectively, compared to that of the non-ML control, with maximum current densities of 49...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lishan Liu, Indra Dev Sahu, Lauren Bottorf, Robert M McCarrick, Gary A Lorigan
An Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) approach was recently developed in the Lorigan lab to probe local secondary structures of membrane proteins and peptides. This ESEEM method detects dipolar couplings between 2H-labeled nuclei on the side chains of an amino acid (Leu or Val) and a strategically placed nitroxide spin-label in the proximity up to 8 Å. ESEEM spectra patterns for different samples correlate directly to the periodic structural feature of different secondary structures. Since this pattern can be affected by the side chain length and flexibility of the 2H-labeled amino acid used in the experiment, it is important to examine several different hydrophobic amino acids (d3 Ala, d8 Val, d8 Phe) utilizing this ESEEM approach...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Gaël Ensergueix, Alexandre Karras
Ifosfamide is a cytotoxic drug usually used in malignant sarcomas. The nephrotoxicity of this agent has been described essentially among children, revealed by renal failure and proximal tubulopathy. We recently conducted a retrospective multicentre study, describing 34 adult patients admitted for ifosfamide nephrotoxicity. More than 80% of them presented with renal failure, diagnosed up to 48 months after ifosfamide administration. A Fanconi syndrome with hypophosphoremia, hypokaliemia, glucosuria and low-molecular weight proteinuria, was present in two third of all cases...
April 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Audrey J Gaskins, Jaime E Hart, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Jorge E Chavarro, Francine Laden, Brent A Coull, Jennifer B Ford, Irene Souter, Russ Hauser
BACKGROUND: Emerging data from animal and human studies suggest that traffic-related air pollution adversely affects early pregnancy outcomes; however evidence is limited. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether residential proximity to major roadways and traffic, as proxies for traffic-related air pollution, are associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. METHODS: This analysis included 423 women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study, a prospective cohort study, who underwent 726 IVF cycles (2004-2017)...
March 29, 2018: Environment International
Guanglei Wang, Hongya Xu, Ying-Cheng Lai
We present a novel class of nonlinear dynamical systems-a hybrid of relativistic quantum and classical systems and demonstrate that multistability is ubiquitous. A representative setting is coupled systems of a topological insulator and an insulating ferromagnet, where the former possesses an insulating bulk with topologically protected, dissipationless, and conducting surface electronic states governed by the relativistic quantum Dirac Hamiltonian and the latter is described by the nonlinear classical evolution of its magnetization vector...
March 2018: Chaos
Chunlai Zuo, Zhiyan Fu, Edward C Lee, Llewellyn Foulke, Gloria Q Young, David Cubero Rego, Hwajeong Lee
Microscopic ileitis has been infrequently reported in the literature with the few reported cases usually associated with concurrent microscopic colitis. Having encountered a case of collagenous ileitis involving the diverted distal limb of a loop ileostomy and sparing the proximal limb, we examined additional cases of loop ileostomy, end ileostomy, colostomy, and the accompanying diverted colorectal segment for features of microscopic ileitis and colitis. A total of 101 cases of diverted and non-diverted enteric segments were examined from 37 loop ileostomies, 16 end ileostomies and 12 colostomies status post Hartmann's procedure...
March 26, 2018: Human Pathology
Guangxu Lan, Yuan-Yuan Zhu, Samuel S Veroneau, Ziwan Xu, Daniel Micheroni, Wenbin Lin
We report the design of two new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), Ru-TBP and Ru-TBP-Zn, based on Ru2 secondary building units (SBUs) and porphyrin-derived tetracarboxylate ligands. The proximity of Ru2 SBUs to porphyrin ligands (~1.1 nm) facilitates multi-electron transfer from excited porphyrins to Ru2 SBUs to enable efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in neutral water. Photophysical and electrochemical studies revealed oxidative quenching of excited porphyrin by Ru2 SBUs as the initial step of the HER process and the energetics of key intermediates in the catalytic cycle...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xiaoxuan Ma, Jun Hu
Search for ultrathin magnetic film with large perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy (PMA) has been inspired for years by the continuous miniaturization of magnetic units in spintronics devices. The common magnetic materials used in research and applications are based on Fe because the pure Fe metal is the best yet simple magnetic material from nature. Through systematic first-principles calculations, we explored the possibility to produce large PMA with ultrathin Fe on non-noble and non-magnetic Pb(001) substrate...
March 26, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kalaivanan Kalpana, Emayavaramban Priyadarshini, S Sreeja, Kalivarathan Jagan, Carani Venkatraman Anuradha
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a dynamic organelle, plays an essential role in organizing the signaling pathways involved in cellular adaptation, resilience, and survival. Impairment in the functions of ER occurs in a variety of nutritive disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here, we hypothesize that (scopoletin) SPL, a coumarin, has the potential to alleviate ER stress induced in vitro and in vivo models by lipotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, the ability of SPL to restore the levels of proteins of ER stress was analyzed...
March 25, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
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