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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470847/cryo-electron-tomography-analyses-of-terminal-organelle-mutants-suggest-the-motility-mechanism-of-mycoplasma-genitalium
#1
Anja Seybert, Luis Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Margot P Scheffer, Maria Lluch-Senar, Ana M Mariscal, Enrique Querol, Franziska Matthaeus, Jaume Piñol, Achilleas S Frangakis
The terminal organelle of Mycoplasma genitalium is responsible for bacterial adhesion, motility and pathogenicity. Localized at the cell tip, it comprises an electron-dense core that is anchored to the cell membrane at its distal end and to the cytoplasm at its proximal end. The surface of the terminal organelle is also covered with adhesion proteins. We performed cellular cryo-electron tomography on deletion mutants of eleven proteins that are implicated in building the terminal organelle, in order to systematically analyse the ultrastructural effects...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467202/primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-with-normal-ultrastructure-three-dimensional-tomography-detects-absence-of-dnah11
#2
Amelia Shoemark, Thomas Burgoyne, Robert Kwan, Mellisa Dixon, Mitali P Patel, Andrew V Rogers, Alexandros Onoufriadis, Juliet Scully, Farheen Daudvohra, Thomas Cullup, Michael R Loebinger, Robert Wilson, Eddie M K Chung, Andrew Bush, Hannah M Mitchison, Claire Hogg
In primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), motile ciliary dysfunction arises from ciliary defects usually confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In 30% of patients, such as those with DNAH11 mutations, apparently normal ultrastructure makes diagnosis difficult. Genetic analysis supports diagnosis, but may not identify definitive causal variants. Electron tomography, an extension of TEM, produces three-dimensional ultrastructural ciliary models with superior resolution to TEM. Our hypothesis is that tomography using existing patient samples will enable visualisation of DNAH11- associated ultrastructural defects...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461614/mitochondria-mediated-disturbance-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-proximal-tubule-epithelial-cells-leads-to-renal-interstitial-fibrosis
#3
W Shen, X-X Jiang, Y-W Li, Q He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of mitochondria-mediated fatty acid metabolism in proximal tubule cells in renal interstitial fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intraperitoneal injection of folate was performed to induce renal interstitial fibrosis in mice. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX4IL) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1) in samples. Electron microscope was used to detect the activity of mitochondria...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459564/-retention-of-patency-capsule-in-a-patient-with-crohn-s-disease
#4
Masaya Iwamuro, Shiho Takashima, Toshihiro Inokuchi, Masahiro Takahara, Seiji Kawano, Sakiko Hiraoka, Yoshitaka Kondo, Takehiro Tanaka, Hiroyuki Okada
A 40-year-old Japanese man with abdominal pain was referred to our hospital. The patient had been diagnosed with Crohn's disease at the age of 21 years and had since then received treatment with mesalazine and had been advocated an elemental diet. About 30 months before his visit to the hospital, he had swallowed a patency capsule, the retention of which in the ileum was subsequently detected on abdominal ultrasonography. The patient was advised to undergo the evaluation of stenosis, but he refused further investigation at that time...
2018: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453324/incidence-and-predictors-of-perioperative-complications-with-transvenous-lead-extractions-real-world-experience-with-national-cardiovascular-data-registry
#5
Nitesh Sood, David T Martin, Rachel Lampert, Jeptha P Curtis, Craig Parzynski, Jude Clancy
BACKGROUND: Transvenous lead extraction is an integral part of management of patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices. Real-world incidence and predictors of perioperative complications in extractions involving implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads have not been described in detail. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry were analyzed. Lead extraction was defined as removal of leads implanted for >1 year...
February 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451135/proximity-coupling-in-superconductor-graphene-heterostructures
#6
Gil-Ho Lee, Hu-Jong Lee
This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales...
February 16, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450105/infection-versus-hematoma-following-surgical-treatment-of-proximal-femoral-fractures-in-geriatric-patients
#7
Franz Müller, Michael Galler, Christina Roll, Bernd Füchtmeier
Introduction: The surgical treatment of proximal femoral fractures predominantly involves geriatric patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, analyses on postoperative infections or hematoma are rare. Methods: Patients requiring surgical revision due to infection (n = 90) or hematoma (n = 77) in the postoperative phase were identified from an electronic database of 2000 consecutive patients surgically treated for proximal femoral fractures between 2006 and 2014...
2018: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448966/exosomes-taken-up-by-neurons-hijack-the-endosomal-pathway-to-spread-to-interconnected-neurons
#8
Juan Carlos Polanco, Chuanzhou Li, Nela Durisic, Robert Sullivan, Jürgen Götz
In Alzheimer disease and related disorders, the microtubule-associated protein tau aggregates and forms cytoplasmic lesions that impair neuronal physiology at many levels. In addition to affecting the host neuron, tau aggregates also spread to neighboring, recipient cells where the misfolded tau aggregates, in a manner similar to prions, actively corrupt the proper folding of soluble tau, and thereby impair cellular functions. One vehicle for the transmission of tau aggregates are secretory nanovesicles known as exosomes...
February 15, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445145/canagliflozin-mediated-dual-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-glutamate-dehydrogenase-and-complex-i-an-off-target-adverse-effect
#9
Philipp F Secker, Sascha Beneke, Nadja Schlichenmaier, Johannes Delp, Simon Gutbier, Marcel Leist, Daniel R Dietrich
Recent FDA Drug Safety Communications report an increased risk for acute kidney injury in patients treated with the gliflozin class of sodium/glucose co-transport inhibitors indicated for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To identify a potential rationale for the latter, we used an in vitro human renal proximal tubule epithelial cell model system (RPTEC/TERT1), physiologically representing human renal proximal tubule function. A targeted metabolomics approach, contrasting gliflozins to inhibitors of central carbon metabolism and mitochondrial function, revealed a double mode of action for canagliflozin, but not for its analogs dapagliflozin and empagliflozin...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441828/fluoride-associated-ultrastructural-changes-and-apoptosis-in-human-renal-tubule-a-pilot-study
#10
J A Quadri, S Sarwar, A Sinha, M Kalaivani, A K Dinda, A Bagga, T S Roy, T K Das, A Shariff
The susceptibility of the kidneys to fluoride toxicity can largely be attributed to its anatomy and function. As the filtrate moves along the complex tubular structure of each nephron, it is concentrated in the proximal and distal tubules and collecting duct. It has been frequently observed that the children suffering from renal impairments also have some symptoms of dental and skeletal fluorosis. The findings suggest that fluoride somehow interferes with renal anatomy and physiology, which may lead to renal pathogenesis...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439196/reduced-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-microvascular-perfusion-predicts-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-and-vasospasm-after-aneurysm-rupture
#11
Jeremy J Heit, Max Wintermark, Blake W Martin, Guangming Zhu, Michael P Marks, Greg Zaharchuk, Robert L Dodd, Huy M Do, Gary K Steinberg, Maarten G Lansberg, Gregory W Albers, Christian Federau
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Proximal artery vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after cerebral aneurysm rupture result in reduced cerebral perfusion and microperfusion and significant morbidity and mortality. Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance imaging extracts microvascular perfusion information from a multi-b value diffusion-weighted sequence. We determined whether decreased IVIM perfusion may identify patients with proximal artery vasospasm and DCI. METHODS: We performed a pilot retrospective cohort study of patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms...
February 9, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428569/a-continuum-of-mineralization-from-human-renal-pyramid-to-stones-on-stems
#12
Benjamin A Sherer, Ling Chen, Misun Kang, Alex R Shimotake, Scott V Wiener, Tom Chi, Marshall L Stoller, Sunita P Ho
The development of new modalities for kidney stone prevention rests upon understanding the progression of mineralization within the renal pyramid. The progression from small foci of mineralization within the renal pyramid to larger interstitial plaques that ultimately lead to the formation of clinically detectable calcium-based stones on calcium phosphate stems will be presented through correlative microscopy approach. High resolution X-ray computed tomography (micro-XCT), electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) compositional analyses of interstitial plaques, stems, and attached stones were performed...
February 8, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419351/ultrastructure-of-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-and-peritumoral-tissue-in-untreated-patients
#13
Hector L Osorio, Hector J Finol, L Roschman Gonzalez, Carlos E Sardiñas
In this study, we describe, compare, and discuss several subcellular alterations found in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma and peritumoral tissue using transmission electron microscopy, morphometry, and statistical analysis. Tissue samples from anterior resections were collected from patients diagnosed with Colorectal Adenocarcinoma in the University Hospital of Caracas. Samples were processed according to the typical protocol for their observation through transmission electron microscopy. The resulting images were analyzed using specialized software for the collection of morphometric data...
February 8, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419284/dna-s-encounter-with-ultraviolet-light-an-instinct-for-self-preservation
#14
Adam Barlev, Dipankar Sen
Photochemical modification is the major class of environmental damage suffered by DNA, the genetic material of all free-living organisms. Photolyases are enzymes that carry out direct photochemical repair (photoreactivation) of covalent pyrimidine dimers formed in DNA from exposure to ultraviolet light. The discovery of catalytic RNAs in the 1980s led to the "RNA world hypothesis", which posits that early in evolution RNA or a similar polymer served both genetic and catalytic functions. Intrigued by the RNA world hypothesis, we set out to test whether a catalytic RNA (or a surrogate, a catalytic DNA) with photolyase activity could be contemplated...
February 8, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417322/sagittal-imbalance-treated-with-l5-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy-with-short-lumbar-fusion-from-l4-to-sacrum-using-four-screws-into-l4-for-enhanced-fixation-two-additional-vertebral-screws-a-technical-note
#15
Kuenzang Wangdi, Bungo Otsuki, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Shimei Tanida, Kazutaka Masamoto, Shuichi Matsuda
PURPOSE: To report on suggested technique with four screws in a single vertebra (two pedicle screws and two direct vertebral body screws) for enhanced fixation with just one level cranially to a pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO). METHODS: A 60-year-old woman underwent L4/5 fusion surgery for degenerative spondylolisthesis. Two years later, she was unable to stand upright even for a short time because of lumbar kyphosis caused by subsidence of the fusion cage and of Baastrup syndrome in the upper lumbar spine [sagittal vertical axis (SVA) of 114 mm, pelvic incidence of 75°, and lumbar lordosis (LL) of 41°]...
February 7, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416113/cryo-electron-tomography-reveals-that-dynactin-recruits-a-team-of-dyneins-for-processive-motility
#16
Danielle A Grotjahn, Saikat Chowdhury, Yiru Xu, Richard J McKenney, Trina A Schroer, Gabriel C Lander
Cytoplasmic dynein is a protein complex that transports molecular cargo along microtubules (MTs), playing a key role in the intracellular trafficking network. Vertebrate dynein's movement becomes strikingly enhanced upon interacting with dynactin and a cargo adaptor such as BicaudalD2. However, the mechanisms responsible for increased transport activity are not well understood, largely owing to limited structural information. We used cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to visualize the 3D structure of the MT-bound dynein-dynactin complex from Mus musculus and show that the dynactin-cargo adaptor complex binds two dimeric dyneins...
February 7, 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413112/expression-and-immunolocalization-of-metallothioneins-mt1-mt2-and-mt3-in-rat-nephron
#17
Ivan Sabolić, Mario Škarica, Marija Ljubojević, Davorka Breljak, Carol M Herak-Kramberger, Vladiana Crljen, Nikola Ljubešić
Rodent kidneys exhibit three isoforms of metallothioneins (MTs), MT1, MT2 and MT3, with poorly characterized localization along the nephron. Here we studied in adult male Wistar rats the renal expression of MTs mRNA by end-point RT-PCR and MT proteins by immunochemical methods The expression pattern of MT1 mRNA was cortex (CO)>outer stripe (OS)=inner stripe (IS)=inner medulla (IM), of MT2 mRNA was IM>CO>IS=OS, and of MT3 mRNA was IM>CO=OS=IM. MT1/2-antibody stained with heterogeneous intensity the cell cytoplasm and nuclei in proximal tubule (PT) and thin ascending limb, whereas MT3-antibody stained weakly the cell cytoplasm in various cortical tubules and strongly the nuclei in all nephron segments...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412124/sodium-glucoser-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-glucose-lowering-against-other-hypoglycemic-agents
#18
Konstantinos Avranas, Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Georgios Lales, Alexandos Manafis, Anastasia Skalkou, Lars Kihm
BACKGROUND: The treatment of diabetes remains over the decades challenging, even after the introduction of numerous novel drugs of different classes. Most patients with type 2 diabetes necessitate the combination of multiple agents and eventually use of insulin. The newest, and possibly with the most pleiotropic actions after metformin are the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i). This class has a unique mechanism inhibiting the glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the kidney...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410281/minimizing-microbial-contamination-risk-simultaneously-from-multiple-hospital-washbasins-by-automated-cleaning-and-disinfection-of-u-bends-with-electrochemically-activated-solutions
#19
E C Deasy, E M Moloney, M A Boyle, J S Swan, D A Geoghegan, G I Brennan, T E Fleming, M J O'Donnell, D C Coleman
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of infection associated with microbial biofilm in hospital hand washbasin U-bends are increasingly being reported. In a previous study the efficacy of a prototype automated U-bend decontamination method was demonstrated for a single non-hospital pattern washbasin. It used two electrochemically-activated solutions generated from brine; a catholyte with detergent properties and anolyte with disinfectant properties. AIM: To develop and test a large-scale automated ECA-treatment system to simultaneously decontaminate 10 hospital pattern washbasin U-bends in a busy hospital clinic...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407906/theoretical-studies-of-the-second-step-of-the-nitric-oxide-synthase-reaction-electron-tunneling-prevents-uncoupling
#20
Igor Shamovsky, Graham Belfield, Richard Lewis, Frank Narjes, Lena Ripa, Christian Tyrchan, Lisa Öberg, Peter Sjö
Nitric oxide (NO·) is a messenger molecule with diverse physiological roles including host defense, neurotransmission and vascular function. The synthesis of NO· from l-arginine is catalyzed by NO-synthases and occurs in two steps through the intermediary Nω-hydroxy-l-arginine (NHA). In both steps the P450-like reaction cycle is coupled with the redox cycle of the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B). The mechanism of the second step is studied by Density Functional Theory calculations to ascertain the canonical sequence of proton and electron transfer (PT and ET) events...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
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