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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223890/gold-core-ceria-shell-based-redox-active-nanozyme-mimicking-the-biological-multienzyme-complex-phenomenon
#1
Stuti Bhagat, N V Srikanth Vallabani, Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan, Mark Bowden, Ajay S Karakoti, Sanjay Singh
Catalytically active individual gold (Au) and cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are well known to exhibit specific enzyme-like activities, such as natural catalase, oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase enzymes. These activities have been maneuvered to design several biological applications such as immunoassays, glucose detection, radiation and free radical protection and tissue engineering. In biological systems, multienzyme complexes are involved in catalyzing important reactions of essential metabolic processes such as respiration, biomolecule synthesis, and photosynthesis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219509/optimal-charge-to-spin-conversion-in-graphene-on-transition-metal-dichalcogenides
#2
Manuel Offidani, Mirco Milletarì, Roberto Raimondi, Aires Ferreira
When graphene is placed on a monolayer of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) its band structure develops rich spin textures due to proximity spin-orbital effects with interfacial breaking of inversion symmetry. In this work, we show that the characteristic spin winding of low-energy states in graphene on a TMD monolayer enables current-driven spin polarization, a phenomenon known as the inverse spin galvanic effect (ISGE). By introducing a proper figure of merit, we quantify the efficiency of charge-to-spin conversion and show it is close to unity when the Fermi level approaches the spin minority band...
November 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218877/automated-disease-cohort-selection-using-word-embeddings-from-electronic-health-records
#3
Benjamin S Glicksberg, Riccardo Miotto, Kipp W Johnson, Khader Shameer, Li Li, Rong Chen, Joel T Dudley
Accurate and robust cohort definition is critical to biomedical discovery using Electronic Health Records (EHR). Similar to prospective study designs, high quality EHR-based research requires rigorous selection criteria to designate case/control status particular to each disease. Electronic phenotyping algorithms, which are manually built and validated per disease, have been successful in filling this need. However, these approaches are time-consuming, leading to only a relatively small amount of algorithms for diseases developed...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218633/characterization-of-the-one-electron-oxidized-cu-ii-salen-complexes-with-a-side-chain-aromatic-ring-the-effect-of-the-indole-ring-on-the-cu-ii-phenoxyl-radical-species
#4
Hiromi Oshita, Takayoshi Yoshimura, Seiji Mori, Fumito Tani, Yuichi Shimazaki, Osamu Yamauchi
To gain insights into the role of the proximal indole ring in the redox-active metal center as seen in galactose oxidase, we prepared the Cu(II)-salen-type complexes having a pendent indol-3-ylmethyl (1), methyl (2) or benzyl (3) group substituted on the ethylenediamine moiety and investigated the structures and redox properties by various physicochemical methods and theoretical calculations. Neutral complexes 1, 2, and 3 showed no significant difference in the UV-Vis-NIR and EPR spectra. One-electron oxidation of 1, 2, and 3 by addition of 1 equiv...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216711/electrocatalytic-reduction-of-dioxygen-to-hydrogen-peroxide-by-a-molecular-manganese-complex-with-a-bipyridine-containing-schiff-base-ligand
#5
Shelby Hooe, Arnold L Rheingold, Charles W Machan
The synthesis and electrocatalytic reduction of dioxygen by a molecular manganese (III) complex with a tetradentate dianionic bipyridine-based ligand is reported. Electrochemical characterization suggests that upon reduction to Mn(II), the coordinated phenolate moieties of the ligand are protonated with a Nernstian dependence on the added proton source, allowing protons and electrons to be incorporated into the overall complex with retention of a vacant axial coordination site. The resultant species is competent for the reduction of dioxygen to H2O2 with 81±4% Faradaic efficiency...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210434/nano-confinement-driven-enhanced-magnetic-relaxivity-of-spions-for-targeted-tumor-bioimaging
#6
Tuyen Duong Thanh Nguyen, Arunkumar Pitchaimani, Colin Ferrel, Ravindra Thakkar, Santosh Aryal
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are highly biocompatible and have a versatile synthetic technique based on coprecipitation, reduction-precipitation, and hydrothermal methods, where Fe3+ and Fe2+ react in aqueous solutions; both these ions are present in our body and have clear metabolic pathways; therefore, they have attracted extensive research interest and development in the field of diagnostic imaging and therapy. However, most SPION-based clinical diagnostic contrast agents are discontinued due to severe pain, low transverse magnetic relaxivity range of 80-180 mM-1 s-1, shorter circulation half-life, and lack of disease specificity...
December 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207315/8-oxoguanine-dna-glycosylase-ogg1-controls-hepatic-gluconeogenesis
#7
Katja Scheffler, Lyudmila Rachek, Panpan You, Alexander D Rowe, Wei Wang, Anna Kuśnierczyk, Lene Kittelsen, Magnar Bjørås, Lars Eide
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) resides in close proximity to metabolic reactions, and is maintained by the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (Ogg1) and other members of the base excision repair pathway. Here, we tested the hypothesis that changes in liver metabolism as under fasting/feeding conditions would be sensed by liver mtDNA, and that Ogg1 deficient mice might unravel a metabolic phenotype. Wild type (WT) and ogg1-/- mice were either fed ad libitum or subjected to fasting for 24h, and the corresponding effects on liver gene expression, DNA damage, as well as serum values were analyzed...
November 28, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204655/blood-pressure-trajectories-in-the-20-years-before-death
#8
João Delgado, Kirsty Bowman, Alessandro Ble, Jane Masoli, Yang Han, William Henley, Scott Welsh, George A Kuchel, Luigi Ferrucci, David Melzer
Importance: There is mixed evidence that blood pressure (BP) stabilizes or decreases in later life. It is also unclear whether BP trajectories reflect advancing age, proximity to end of life, or selective survival of persons free from hypertension. Objective: To estimate individual patient BP for each of the 20 years before death and identify potential mechanisms that may explain trajectories. Design, Study, and Participants: We analyzed population-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink primary care and linked hospitalization electronic medical records from the United Kingdom, using retrospective cohort approaches with generalized linear mixed-effects modeling...
December 4, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196989/mixed-approach-retrospective-analyses-of-suicide-and-suicidal-ideation-for-brand-compared-with-generic-central-nervous-system-drugs
#9
Ning Cheng, Md Motiur Rahman, Yasser Alatawi, Jingjing Qian, Peggy L Peissig, Richard L Berg, C David Page, Richard A Hansen
INTRODUCTION: Several different types of drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) have previously been associated with an increased risk of suicide and suicidal ideation (broadly referred to as suicide). However, a differential association between brand and generic CNS drugs and suicide has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: This study compares suicide adverse event rates for brand versus generic CNS drugs using multiple sources of data. METHODS: Selected examples of CNS drugs (sertraline, gabapentin, zolpidem, and methylphenidate) were evaluated via the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) for a hypothesis-generating study, and then via administrative claims and electronic health record (EHR) data for a more rigorous retrospective cohort study...
December 2, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191022/phonon-driven-oscillatory-plasmonic-excitonic-nanomaterials
#10
Matthew S Kirschner, Wendu Ding, Yuxiu Li, Craig Chapman, Aiwen Lei, Xiao-Min Lin, Lin X Chen, George C Schatz, Richard D Schaller
We demonstrate that coherent acoustic phonons derived from plasmonic nanoparticles can modulate electronic interactions with proximal excitonic molecular species. A series of gold bipyramids with systematically varied aspect ratios and corresponding localized surface plasmon resonance energies, functionalized with a J-aggregated thiacarbocyanine dye molecule, produce two hybridized states that exhibit clear anti-crossing behavior with a Rabi splitting energy of 120 meV. In metal nanoparticles, photoexcitation generates coherent acoustic phonons that cause oscillations in the plasmon resonance energy...
December 1, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190677/cortical-actin-nodes-their-dynamics-and-recruitment-of-podosomal-proteins-as-revealed-by-super-resolution-and-single-molecule-microscopy
#11
Yuki M Shirai, Taka A Tsunoyama, Nao Hiramoto-Yamaki, Koichiro M Hirosawa, Akihiro C E Shibata, Kenichi Kondo, Atsushi Tsurumune, Fumiyoshi Ishidate, Akihiro Kusumi, Takahiro K Fujiwara
Electron tomography of the plasma membrane (PM) identified several layers of cortical actin meshwork running parallel to the PM cytoplasmic surface throughout the PM. Here, cortical actin structures and dynamics were examined in living cells, using super-resolution microscopy, with (x,y)- and z-resolutions of ~140 and ~400 nm, respectively, and single-molecule imaging. The super-resolution microscopy identified sub-micron-sized actin clusters that appeared identical by both phalloidin post-fixation staining and Lifeact-mGFP expression followed by fixation, and therefore, these actin clusters were named "actin-pl-clusters"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182690/improving-the-mass-transport-of-copper-complex-redox-mediators-in-dye-sensitized-solar-cells-by-reducing-the-inter-electrode-distance
#12
Rodrigo García-Rodríguez, Roger Jiang, Esdras J Canto-Aguilar, Gerko Oskam, Gerrit Boschloo
In this work, we study the influence of the distance between electrodes on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 using the organic dye LEG4 and a Cu(dmp)2 redox couple (dmp = dimethyl phenantroline). The solar cells are characterized by a large open circuit voltage of up to 1.03 V, and an efficiency of 8.2% has been achieved for a 5.3 μm thick TiO2 film using an epoxy resin-based sealed cell configuration with a minimal separation between electrodes. Transient short-circuit photocurrent measurements up to an intensity of 3 Suns show a significant decay in photocurrent after an initial peak current upon switching on the light for larger distance, resulting in a lower steady state photocurrent...
November 28, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182649/men-s-perspectives-of-prostate-cancer-screening-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-studies
#13
Laura J James, Germaine Wong, Jonathan C Craig, Camilla S Hanson, Angela Ju, Kirsten Howard, Tim Usherwood, Howard Lau, Allison Tong
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer in men. Screening for prostate cancer is widely accepted; however concerns regarding the harms outweighing the benefits of screening exist. Although patient's play a pivotal role in the decision making process, men may not be aware of the controversies regarding prostate cancer screening. Therefore we aimed to describe men's attitudes, beliefs and experiences of prostate cancer screening. METHODS: Systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies on men's perspectives of prostate cancer screening...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182521/extraction-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-chitin-and-chitosan-isolated-from-house-cricket
#14
Busayo Emmanuel Ibitoye, Lokman Hakim Idris, Mohd Hezmee Mohd Noor, Goh Yong Meng, Md Zuki Abu Bakar, Akib Adekunle Jimoh
Chitin ranks next to cellulose as the most important bio-polysaccharide which is majorly extracted from crustaceous shell. However, emergence of new areas of application of chitin and its derivatives have been on the increase and there is a growing demand for new chitin sources. In this study therefore, attempt was made to extract chitin from house cricket (Brachytrupes portentosus) by chemical method. The physicochemical properties of chitin and chitosan extracted from crickets were compared with the commercial chitin and chitosan extracted from shrimp, in term of proximate analysis, particularly, of their ash and moisture contents...
November 28, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181802/study-and-understanding-behavior-of-alginate-inulin-synbiotics-beads-for-protection-and-delivery-of-antimicrobial-producing-probiotics-in-colonic-simulated-conditions
#15
Abdelbasset Atia, Ahmed Gomaa, Benoit Fernandez, Muriel Subirade, Ismail Fliss
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), using antibiotics as growth promoters for livestock-particularly swine-is the principal cause of antibiotic resistance. It is therefore clear that finding an alternative to antibiotics becomes an emergency. Hundreds of recent studies have appointed probiotics as potential candidates to replace or to be used in combination with antibiotics. However, bringing probiotics alive to the colon-their site of action-remains a big challenge because of different physiological barriers encountered in proximal gastrointestinal tract (GIT) such as acidic pH and bile salts that may affect the viability of probiotic cultures...
November 27, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181294/electron-beam-induced-deposition-of-silacyclohexane-and-dichlorosilacyclohexane-the-role-of-dissociative-ionization-and-dissociative-electron-attachment-in-the-deposition-process
#16
Ragesh Kumar T P, Sangeetha Hari, Krishna K Damodaran, Oddur Ingólfsson, Cornelis W Hagen
We present first experiments on electron beam induced deposition of silacyclohexane (SCH) and dichlorosilacyclohexane (DCSCH) under a focused high-energy electron beam (FEBID). We compare the deposition dynamics observed when growing pillars of high aspect ratio from these compounds and we compare the proximity effect observed for these compounds. The two precursors show similar behaviour with regards to fragmentation through dissociative ionization in the gas phase under single-collision conditions. However, while DCSCH shows appreciable cross sections with regards to dissociative electron attachment, SCH is inert with respect to this process...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179007/electron-microscopy-observations-on-testis-and-spermatozoa-of-leptodactylus-chaquensis-anura-leptodactylidae
#17
Lucrecia Iruzubieta Villagra, Inés Ramos, Susana Cisint, Claudia A Crespo, Silvia N Fernández
Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the fine structure of the testis and spermatozoa of toad Leptodactylus chaquensis. Our observations indicate that germinal compartment contains Sertoli (SC) and germ cells. The tight junctions and desmosomes among SC indicate the existence of an hematotesticular barrier in charge of maintaining the differences in the composition of the germinal and interstitial compartments. During spermatogenesis, SC acts as a structural support for germ cells...
November 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178055/solid-state-treatment-of-castor-cake-employing-the-enzymatic-cocktail-produced-from-pleurotus-djamor-fungi
#18
Manuel Sánchez-Cantú, Liliana Ortiz-Moreno, María E Ramos-Cassellis, Marco Marín-Castro, C De la Cerna-Hernández
In this work, the enzymatic cocktail produced by Pleurotus djamor fungi extracted at pH of 4.8 and 5.3 was employed for castor cake solid-state treatment. Proximal, X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis of the pristine castor cake were carried out. First, Pleurotus djamor stain was inoculated in castor cake for the enzymatic production and the enzymatic activity was determined. The maximum enzymatic activity was identified at days 14 (65.9 UI/gss) and 11 (140.3 UI/gss) for the enzymatic cocktail obtained at pH 5...
November 25, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177881/ultrastructure-of-rat-kidneys-after-intravenous-administration-of-modified-magnetite-nanoparticles
#19
I V Mil'to, I V Sukhodolo, V V Ivanova, M S Yusubov
The ultrastructure of nephrocytes of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules, podocytes, mesangial cells, and macrophages of the interstitial connective tissue was studied after single intravenous administration of magnetite nanoparticles modified with chitosan (magnetic nanospheres) or lipids (magnetic liposomes). Transmission electron microscopy showed ultrastructural features of absorption of magnetite nanoparticles. The shape, size, and number of vesicles containing nanoparticles in nephrocytes of convoluted tubules and macrophages after administration of the suspensions of magnetic nanospheres and magnetic liposomes were described...
November 27, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177408/organizing-and-implementing-a-multidisciplinary-fast-track-oncology-clinic
#20
Y L Basta, K M A J Tytgat, H H Greuter, J H G Klinkenbijl, P Fockens, J Strikwerda
Quality problem: Patients with gastrointestinal malignancies often need multiple appointments with different medical specialists, causing waiting times to accrue. Initial assessment: In our hospital, care is organized in a sequential manner, causing long waiting times. To reduce this, a fast track outpatient clinic (FTC) was implemented. Choice of solution: The FTC was organized within the hospital's existing structure. Patient centered care was achieved by ensuring that the medical specialists visit the patient, implementing nurse coordinators and considering patient wishes and co-morbidities when formulating a treatment plan...
November 21, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
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