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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053311/inducing-and-manipulating-heteroelectronic-states-in-a-single-mos_-2-thin-flake
#1
Q H Chen, J M Lu, L Liang, O Zheliuk, A Ali, P Sheng, J T Ye
By dual gating a few-layer MoS_{2} flake, we induce spatially separated electronic states showing superconductivity and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations. While the highly confined superconductivity forms at the K/K^{'} valleys of the topmost layer, the SdH oscillations are contributed by the electrons residing in the Q/Q^{'} valleys of the rest of the bottom layers, which is confirmed by the extracted Landau level degeneracy of 3, electron effective mass of 0.6m_{e}, and carrier density of 5×10^{12}  cm^{-2}...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053300/proximity-effects-in-bilayer-graphene-on-monolayer-wse_-2-field-effect-spin-valley-locking-spin-orbit-valve-and-spin-transistor
#2
Martin Gmitra, Jaroslav Fabian
Proximity orbital and spin-orbit effects of bilayer graphene on monolayer WSe_{2} are investigated from first principles. We find that the built-in electric field induces an orbital band gap of about 10 meV in bilayer graphene. Remarkably, the proximity spin-orbit splitting for holes is 2 orders of magnitude-the spin-orbit splitting of the valence band at K is about 2 meV-more than for electrons. Effectively, holes experience spin valley locking due to the strong proximity of the lower graphene layer to WSe_{2}...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044851/a-bifunctional-fluorogenic-rhodamine-probe-for-proximity-induced-bioorthogonal-chemistry
#3
Philipp Werther, Jasper S Möhler, Richard Wombacher
Bioorthogonal reactions have emerged as a versatile tool in life sciences. The inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction (DAinv) stands out due to the availability of reactants with very fast kinetics. However, highly reactive dienophiles suffer the disadvantage of being less stable and prone to side reactions. Here, we evaluate the extent of acceleration of rather unreactive but highly stable dienophiles by DNA-templated proximity. To this end, we developed a modular synthetic route for a novel bifunctional fluorogenic tetrazine rhodamine probe that we used to determine the reaction kinetics of various dienophiles in a fluorescence assay...
October 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044420/characterization-of-a-novel-role-for-the-dynamin-mechanoenzymes-in-the-regulation-of-human-sperm-acrosomal-exocytosis
#4
Wei Zhou, Amanda L Anderson, Adrian P Turner, Geoffry N De Iuliis, Adam McCluskey, Eileen A McLaughlin, Brett Nixon
STUDY QUESTION: Does dynamin regulate human sperm acrosomal exocytosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our studies of dynamin localization and function have implicated this family of mechanoenzymes in the regulation of progesterone-induced acrosomal exocytosis in human spermatozoa. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Completion of an acrosome reaction is a prerequisite for successful fertilization in all studied mammalian species. It follows that failure to complete this unique exocytotic event represents a common aetiology in the defective spermatozoa of male infertility patients that have failed IVF in a clinical setting...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044174/phase-driven-charge-manipulation-in-hybrid-single-electron-transistor
#5
Emanuele Enrico, Elia Strambini, Francesco Giazotto
Phase-tunable hybrid devices, built upon nanostructures combining normal metal and superconductors, have been the subject of intense studies due to their numerous combinations of different charge and heat transport configurations. They exhibit solid applications in quantum metrology and coherent caloritronics. Here we propose and realize a new kind of hybrid device with potential application in single charge manipulation and quantized current generation. We show that by tuning superconductivity on two proximized nanowires, coupled via a Coulombic normal-metal island, we are able to control its charge state configuration...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040269/elevated-blood-pressure-and-risk-of-mitral-regurgitation-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-5-5-million-united-kingdom-adults
#6
Kazem Rahimi, Hamid Mohseni, Catherine M Otto, Nathalie Conrad, Jenny Tran, Milad Nazarzadeh, Mark Woodward, Terence Dwyer, Stephen MacMahon
BACKGROUND: Mitral regurgitation in people without prior cardiac disease is considered a degenerative disease with no established risk factors for its prevention. We aimed to test the hypothesis that elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) across its usual spectrum is associated with higher risk of mitral regurgitation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used linked electronic health records from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2015...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038454/importance-of-interlayer-h-bonding-structure-to-the-stability-of-layered-minerals
#7
Michele Conroy, Jennifer A Soltis, Rick S Wittman, Frances N Smith, Sayandev Chatterjee, Xin Zhang, Eugene S Ilton, Edgar C Buck
Layered (oxy) hydroxide minerals often possess out-of-plane hydrogen atoms that form hydrogen bonding networks which stabilize the layered structure. However, less is known about how the ordering of these bonds affects the structural stability and solubility of these minerals. Here, we report a new strategy that uses the focused electron beam to probe the effect of differences in hydrogen bonding networks on mineral solubility. In this regard, the dissolution behavior of boehmite (γ-AlOOH) and gibbsite (γ-Al(OH)3) were compared and contrasted in real time via liquid cell electron microscopy...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035031/proximity-effect-induced-spin-injection-in-phosphorene-on-magnetic-insulator
#8
Haoqi Chen, Bin Li, Jinlong Yang
Black phosphorus is a promising candidate for future nano-electronics with moderate electronic band gap and high carrier mobility. Introducing the magnetism into black phosphorus will widely expand its application scope and may present a bright prospect in spintronic nano-devices. Here we report our first-principles calculations of spin-polarized electronic structure of monolayer black phosphorus (phosphorene) adsorbed on a magnetic europium oxide (EuO) substrate. Effective spin injection into the phosphorene is realized by means of interaction with the nearby EuO(111) surface, i...
October 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032475/robot-assisted-and-conventional-freehand-pedicle-screw-placement-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
REVIEW
Shutao Gao, Zhengtao Lv, Huang Fang
PURPOSE: Several studies have revealed that robot-assisted technique might improve the pedicle screw insertion accuracy, but owing to the limited sample sizes in the individual study reported up to now, whether or not robot-assisted technique is superior to conventional freehand technique is indefinite. Thus, we performed this systematic review and meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials to assess which approach is better. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science, CNKI and WanFang were systematically searched to identify potentially eligible articles...
October 14, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026155/trk-fused-gene-tfg-regulates-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-mass-and-insulin-secretory-activity
#10
Takeshi Yamamotoya, Yusuke Nakatsu, Akifumi Kushiyama, Yasuka Matsunaga, Koji Ueda, Yuki Inoue, Masa-Ki Inoue, Hideyuki Sakoda, Midori Fujishiro, Hiraku Ono, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Hisamitsu Ishihara, Tomoichiro Asano
The Trk-fused gene (TFG) is reportedly involved in the process of COPII-mediated vesicle transport and missense mutations in TFG cause several neurodegenerative diseases including hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P). The high coincidence ratio between HMSN-P and diabetes mellitus suggests TFG to have an important role(s) in glucose homeostasis. To examine this possibility, β-cell specific TFG knockout mice (βTFG KO) were generated. Interestingly, βTFG KO displayed marked glucose intolerance with reduced insulin secretion...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022842/the-effect-of-strontium-loaded-rough-titanium-surface-on-early-osseointegration
#11
Jiang Huanhuan, Hao Pengjie, Xu Sheng, Wang Binchen, Shu Li
It is not clear whether surface bioactive chemistry plays an important role in the early osseointegration of micro-structured titanium implants that have the same surface topography at the micrometer and submicrometer scales. In this study, magnetron sputtering methodology was employed for the preparation of Sr coating on sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium implant without changing the surface characteristics. The study of the surface morphology of the coating was carried out with the use of scanning electron microscopy, and the chemical composition of the surface was examined by X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021629/electrical-magnetochiral-effect-induced-by-chiral-spin-fluctuations
#12
T Yokouchi, N Kanazawa, A Kikkawa, D Morikawa, K Shibata, T Arima, Y Taguchi, F Kagawa, Y Tokura
Chirality of matter can produce unique responses in optics, electricity and magnetism. In particular, magnetic crystals transmit their handedness to the magnetism via antisymmetric exchange interaction of relativistic origin, producing helical spin orders as well as their fluctuations. Here we report for a chiral magnet MnSi that chiral spin fluctuations manifest themselves in the electrical magnetochiral effect, i.e. the nonreciprocal and nonlinear response characterized by the electrical resistance depending on inner product of current and magnetic field...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993719/the-prevalence-and-marketing-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-proximity-to-at-risk-youths-an-investigation-of-point-of-sale-practices-near-alternative-high-schools
#13
Stephen Miller, James Pike, Jared Chapman, Bin Xie, Brian N Hilton, Susan L Ames, Alan W Stacy
This study examines the point-of-sale marketing practices used to promote electronic cigarettes at stores near schools that serve at-risk youth. One hundred stores selling tobacco products within a half mile of alternative high schools in Southern California were assessed for this study. Seventy percent of stores in the sample sold electronic cigarettes. Convenience stores heavily frequented by youth had the highest number of interior ads for e-cigarettes and were the most likely to employ in-store product placement strategies...
2017: Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990665/transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-tens-for-fibromyalgia-in-adults
#14
REVIEW
Mark I Johnson, Leica S Claydon, G Peter Herbison, Gareth Jones, Carole A Paley
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is characterised by persistent, widespread pain; sleep problems; and fatigue. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is the delivery of pulsed electrical currents across the intact surface of the skin to stimulate peripheral nerves and is used extensively to manage painful conditions. TENS is inexpensive, safe, and can be self-administered. TENS reduces pain during movement in some people so it may be a useful adjunct to assist participation in exercise and activities of daily living...
October 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987855/comparison-of-quality-metrics-for-pediatric-shunt-surgery-and-proposal-of-the-negative-shunt-revision-rate
#15
Thomas Beez, Hans-Jakob Steiger
OBJECTIVE: Shunt surgery is common in pediatric neurosurgery and is associated with relevant complication rates. We sought to compare previously published metrics in a single data set and propose the Negative Shunt Revision Rate (NSRR) as a new quality metric, defined as the proportion of shunt explorations revealing a properly working system. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of our shunt surgery activity in 2015 was performed. Demographic, clinical and radiological variables were extracted from electronic medical notes...
October 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985947/induction-of-the-chromosomal-translocation-t-14-18-by-targeting-the-bcl-2-locus-with-specific-binding-i-125-labeled-triplex-forming-oligonucleotides
#16
Volker Dahmen, Sabine Schmitz, Ralf Kriehuber
Triplex-Forming oligonucleotides (TFO) bind sequence-specific to the DNA double helix in-vitro and in-vivo and are a promising tool to manipulate genes or gene regulatory elements. TFO as a carrier molecule for short-range particle emitter such as Auger-Electron-Emitters (AEE) bear the potential to introduce radiation-induced site-specific complex DNA lesions, which are known to induce chromosomal translocations. We studied gene expression, translocation frequency and protein expression in SCL-II cells after transfection with the AEE Iodine-125 (I-125) labeled TFO-BCL2 targeting the human BCL2 gene...
November 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985459/regioisomeric-non-fullerene-acceptors-containing-fluorobenzo-c-1-2-5-thiadiazole-unit-for-polymer-solar-cells
#17
Wenkai Zhong, Baobing Fan, Jing Cui, Lei Ying, Feng Liu, Junbiao Peng, Fei Huang, Yong Cao, Guillermo C Bazan
We designed and synthesized two isomeric nonfullerene acceptors, IFBR-p and IFBR-d. These molecular semiconductors contain indacenodithiophene (IDT) as the central unit, adjacent asymmetric 5-fluorobenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole units, and are flanked with rhodanine as the peripheral units. The orientation of the two fluorine atoms (proximal, p, or distal, d), relative to IDT impacts most severely the film morphologies when blended with the electron-donating polymer PTzBI. Polymer solar cells based on PTzBI:IFBR-p give rise to a power conversion efficiency (7...
October 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984310/towards-phase-coherent-caloritronics-in-superconducting-circuits
#18
Antonio Fornieri, Francesco Giazotto
The emerging field of phase-coherent caloritronics (from the Latin word calor, heat) is based on the possibility of controlling heat currents by using the phase difference of the superconducting order parameter. The goal is to design and implement thermal devices that can control energy transfer with a degree of accuracy approaching that reached for charge transport by contemporary electronic components. This can be done by making use of the macroscopic quantum coherence intrinsic to superconducting condensates, which manifests itself through the Josephson effect and the proximity effect...
October 6, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982481/the-role-of-computed-tomography-scans-in-diaphyseal-femur-fractures-following-gunshot-injuries-a-survey-of-orthopaedic-traumatologists
#19
John S Hwang, Peter D Gibson, Kenneth L Koury, Nicholas Stekas, Michael S Sirkin, Mark C Reilly, Mark R Adams
The objective of this study was to analyze if the addition of CT changed the management of femoral shaft fractures caused by gunshot wounds when compared to those managed with plain radiography alone. METHODS: A multiple-choice, single-answer electronic survey was created to compare utility of advanced imaging when treating femur fractures resulting from gunshot injury. A total of ten femoral shaft fracture cause by gunshot injuries were selected for an online survey to be administered to orthopeaedic traumatologists...
September 28, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978534/nmr-spectroscopy-and-electron-microscopy-identification-of-metabolic-and-ultrastructural-changes-to-the-kidney-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#20
Tafadzwa Chihanga, Qing Ma, Jenna D Nicholson, Hannah N Ruby, Richard E Edelmann, Prasad Devarajan, Michael A Kennedy
Cellular, molecular, and ultrastructural nephron changes associated with ischemia reperfusion injury-induced acute kidney injury (IRI-AKI) are not completely understood. Here, a multidisciplinary study was used to identify nephron changes in a mouse model of IRI-AKI. Histological analyses indicated distended Bowman's glomerular spaces and proximal and distal tubules. Increased filtrate volume in nephrons was caused by reduced water reabsorption by severely damaged proximal tubule brush borders and blocked flow of filtrate into collecting tubules by mucoprotein casts in distal tubules...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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