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Ernest G Heimsath, Yang-In Yim, Mirna Mustapha, John A Hammer, Richard E Cheney
Myosin-X (Myo10) is an unconventional myosin best known for its striking localization to the tips of filopodia. Despite the broad expression of Myo10 in vertebrate tissues, its functions at the organismal level remain largely unknown. We report here the generation of KO-first (Myo10 tm1a/tm1a ), floxed (Myo10 tm1c/tm1c ), and KO mice (Myo10 tm1d/tm1d ). Complete knockout of Myo10 is semi-lethal, with over half of homozygous KO embryos exhibiting exencephaly, a severe defect in neural tube closure. All Myo10 KO mice that survive birth exhibit a white belly spot, all have persistent fetal vasculature in the eye, and ~50% have webbed digits...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Raphael Schiffmann, Caren Swift, Nathan McNeill, Elfrida R Benjamin, Jeffrey P Castelli, Jay Barth, Lawrence Sweetman, Xuan Wang, Xiaoyang Wu
PurposeTo test the hypothesis that undiagnosed patients with Fabry disease exist among patients affected by common heart disease.MethodsGlobotriaosylceramide in random whole urine using tandem mass spectroscopy, α-galactosidase A activity in dried blood spots, and next-generation sequencing of pooled or individual genomic DNA samples supplemented by Sanger sequencing.ResultsWe tested 2,256 consecutive patients: 852 women (median age 65 years (19-95)) and 1,404 men (median age 65 years (21-92)). The primary diagnoses were coronary artery disease (n = 994), arrhythmia (n = 607), cardiomyopathy (n = 138), and valvular disease (n = 568)...
October 26, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
David G Glass, Niall McAlinden, Owain R Millington, Amanda J Wright
T-cells and antigen presenting cells are an essential part of the adaptive immune response system and how they interact is crucial in how the body effectively fights infection or responds to vaccines. Much of the experimental work studying interaction forces between cells has looked at the average properties of bulk samples of cells or applied microscopy to image the dynamic contact between these cells. In this paper we present a novel optical trapping technique for interrogating the force of this interaction and measuring relative interaction forces at the single-cell level...
2017: PloS One
Ankur Singh, Gaurav Pradhan, Rajniti Prasad, Om Prakash Mishra, Seema Kapoor
Forty cases with disproportionate short stature (median age 3.1 y; 24 males) from genetic clinic of Lok Nayak Hospital, Delhi were assessed in this study. Achondroplasia was the commonest (n=9) skeletal dysplasia; conclusive diagnosis was not possible in six children. Molecular confirmation of clinicoradiological phenotype was done in 18 of 40 cases. Genetic study of all achondroplasia cases revealed c. 1138 G>A, p. Gly380Arg mutation in hot spot.
November 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
Irene Latorre, Sonia Mínguez, José-Manuel Carrascosa, Juan Naves, Raquel Villar-Hernández, Beatriz Muriel, Cristina Prat, Esther García-García, Irma Casas, Eugeni Domènech, Carlos Ferrándiz, Lourdes Mateo, Jose Domínguez
BACKGROUND: Clinical accuracy of IGRAs remains unclear on patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). Here, we assess the impact of immunosuppressants and IMIDs on QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFN-G-IT) and T-SPOT.TB accuracy. METHODS: Patients with IMIDs who required latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening were enrolled and classified into: (i) 50 patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, (ii) 50 patients with psoriasis and (iii) 30 patients with Crohn's disease...
2017: PloS One
N N Petrishchev, D U Semenov, A U Tsibin, G U Yukina, A E Berkovich, A A Bursian, A B Belyankin, K U Senchik
The purpose. In the study we investigated the impact of the partial blood flow shutdown on structural changes in the rabbit vena cava posterior wall after exposure to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Methods. Ultrasound Exposure: frequency of 1.65 MHz, the ultrasound intensity in the focus of 13.6 kW/cm2, the area of the focal spot 1 mm2, continuous ultrasound, exposure for 3 seconds. Results. Immediately after HIFU exposure all layers of the vein wall showed characteristic signs of thermal damage...
April 2017: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
Olatunji Abubakar Jimoh, Emmanuel Olabisi Ewuola
Background: Rabbit breeding with high performance imported ones would be of benefit for genetic diversity and improvement of performance in domestic rabbit breeds. The rearing of more productive rabbit breeds could be pathway to improve the productivity and reduce the production cost. Maternal nutritional status exert a great influence on reproductive functions of does, which may expand from conception, through gestation and parturition and development of kits to puberty. Methods: Four breeds of rabbit were evaluated for their parturition, weaning and pubertal differences among the rabbit population in Ibadan, Nigeria...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Pengsong Li, Xiaofen Fu, Lei Zhang, Zhiyu Zhang, Jihong Li, Shizhong Li
Background: High temperature inhibits cell growth and ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a complex phenotype, thermotolerance usually involves synergistic actions of many genes, thereby being difficult to engineer. The overexpression of either endogenous or exogenous stress-related transcription factor genes in yeasts was found to be able to improve relevant stress tolerance of the hosts. Results: To increase ethanol yield of high-temperature fermentation, we constructed a series of strains of S...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Monpichar Srisa-Art, Katherine E Boehle, Brian J Geiss, Charles S Henry
Salmonella causes over a million foodborne illnesses per year in the United States resulting in more hospitalizations and deaths than any other foodborne bacteria pathogen. To help prevent outbreaks a rapid, portable, sensitive, and reliable method for onsite detection of bacteria that can be used in different sample matrices would be beneficial. Herein, we present a colorimetric paper-based analytical device (PAD) combined with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for detecting Salmonella typhimurium. IMS anti-Salmonella coated magnetic beads was applied to capture and separate bacteria from the sample matrix and preconcentrated it into small volumes before testing on paper...
December 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Rebecca L Cordell, Thalassa S E Valkenburg, Hitesh C Pandya, Daniel B Hawcutt, Malcolm G Semple, Paul S Monks
OBJECTIVES: A novel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been developed to quantify salbutamol in micro-volumes (10 µL) of blood. A potential application is paediatric therapeutic dose monitoring (TDM) in acute severe asthma. METHODS: At presentation, the children receive multiple doses of salbutamol (inhaled, nebulised and occasionally intravenous) but it is difficult to distinguish children who do not respond to treatment because of inadequate concentrations from those with toxicity, as symptoms are similar...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Rebecca T Young, Anna Lartey, Harriet Okronipa, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Mamane Zeilani, Kathryn G Dewey
There is little information on whether prenatal multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements containing iodine affect women's iodine status. In the International Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements DYAD-Ghana trial, we aimed to assess women's urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L) during pregnancy, as one of the planned secondary outcomes. Women (n = 1,320) <20 weeks of gestation were randomized to consume 60 mg iron and 400 μg folic acid per day (iron and folic acid [IFA]); 18 vitamins and minerals including 250 μg iodine per day (MMN); or 20 g/day of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with the same and additional 4 vitamins and minerals as the MMN (LNS)...
December 6, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Nathan Hoag, Janet R Keast, Helen E O'Connell
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists in the literature regarding the presence or absence of an anatomic "G-spot." However, few studies have examined the detailed topographic or histologic anatomy of the putative G-spot location. AIM: To determine the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall and present detailed, systematic, accessible findings from female cadaveric dissections to provide anatomic clarity with respect to this location. METHODS: Systematic anatomic dissections were performed on 13 female cadavers (32-97 years old, 8 fixed and 5 fresh) to characterize the gross anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall...
December 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Daniel Hasche, Sonja Stephan, Ilona Braspenning-Wesch, Julita Mikulec, Martina Niebler, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Christa Flechtenmacher, Baki Akgül, Frank Rösl, Sabrina E Vinzón
Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are considered as cofactors for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) development, especially in association with UVB. Extensively studied transgenic mouse models failed to mimic all aspects of virus-host interactions starting from primary infection to the appearance of a tumor. Using the natural model Mastomys coucha, which reflects the human situation in many aspects, we provide the first evidence that only UVB and Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus (MnPV) infection strongly promote NMSC formation...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Nigel R Farrow, Martin Donnelley, Patricia Cmielewski, Eugene Roscioli, Nathan Rout-Pitt, Chantelle McIntyre, Ivan Bertoncello, David Parsons
RATIONALE: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease is an ideal candidate for a genetic therapy. We have previously shown that pre-conditioning with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) prior to lentiviral (LV) vector delivery results in long-term in vivo gene expression in the airway epithelium of CF mice. We hypothesise that this outcome is largely due to transduction of airway basal cells that in turn pass the transgene onto their progeny. OBJECTIVES: The aim of these studies was to confirm if the in vivo delivery of a HIV-1 VSV-G pseudotyped LV vector following LPC airway conditioning results in transduction of mouse airway basal cells in situ and if the transgene is passed onto their progeny...
November 27, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
Francesca Fiorini, Niek Schreuder, Frank Van den Heuvel
PURPOSE: Cyclotron-based pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton machines represent nowadays the majority and most affordable choice for proton therapy facilities, however their representation in Monte Carlo (MC) codes is more complex than passively scattered proton system or synchrotron based PBS machines. This is because degraders are used to decrease the energy from the cyclotron maximum energy to the desired energy, resulting in a unique spot size, divergence and energy spread depending on the amount of degradation...
November 27, 2017: Medical Physics
Francesca Benetello, Stefania Squizzato, Mauro Masiol, Md Badiuzzaman Khan, Flavia Visin, Gianni Formenton, Bruno Pavoni
The Po Valley is one of the most important hot spots in Europe for air pollution. Morphological features and anthropogenic pressures lead to frequent breaching of air quality standards and to high-pollution episodes in an ~46 × 103-km2-wide alluvial lowland. Therefore, it is increasingly important to study the air quality in a wide geographical scale to better implement possible and successful mitigation measures. The Veneto region lies in the eastern part of the Po Valley and the elemental composition of PM has been mainly studied in the Venice area, whereas scarce data are available for the remaining territory of the region...
November 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ninna W Berg, Matthew R Evans, John Sedivy, Robert Testman, Kimon Acedo, Domenic Paone, David Long, Thomas G Osimitz
Non-pathogenic Bacillus species used in cleaning products produce the appropriate enzymes to degrade stains and soils. However, there is little scientific data regarding the human exposure by inhalation of Bacillus spores during or after use of microbial-based cleaning products. Herein, air samples were collected at various locations in a ventilated, carpeted, residential room to determine the air concentration of viable bacteria and spores during and after the application of microbial-based carpet cleaning products containing Bacillus spores...
November 21, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Miki Hosaka, Ryusuke Inoue, Michihiro Satoh, Daisuke Watabe, Tomohiro Hanazawa, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Kei Asayama, Taku Obara, Yutaka Imai
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of irbesartan alone and combined with amlodipine, efonidipine, or trichlormethiazide on blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin (UA) excretion in hypertensive patients with microalbuminuria (30≤UA/creatinine (Cr) ratio [UACR] <300 mg/g Cr) and upper-normal microalbuminuria (10≤UACR<30 mg/g Cr). This randomized controlled trial enrolled 175 newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive patients (home systolic blood pressure [SBP]≥135 mmHg; 10≤UACR<300 mg/g Cr of casual spot urine at the first visit to clinic)...
November 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Ruanne V Barnabas, Paul Revill, Nicholas Tan, Andrew Phillips
INTRODUCTION: Routine viral load monitoring for HIV-1 management of persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to identify treatment failure. However, viral load testing represents a substantial cost in resource constrained health care systems. The central challenge is whether and how viral load monitoring may be delivered such that it maximizes health gains across the population for the costs incurred. We hypothesized that key features of program design and delivery costs drive the cost-effectiveness of viral load monitoring within programs...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Markus Santhosh Braun, Erjia Wang, Stefan Zimmermann, Sébastien Boutin, Michael Wink
Two new species of Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the uropygial glands of wild woodpeckers (Dendrocopos major) originating from different locations in Germany. A polyphasic approach confirmed the affiliation of the isolates to the genus Kocuria. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed high degree of similarity to Kocuria koreensis DSM 23367(T) (99.0% for both isolates). However, low ANIb values of <80% unequivocally separated the new species from K. koreensis. This finding was further corroborated by DNA fingerprinting and analysis of polar lipid profiles...
November 15, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
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