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Sharon O'Neill, Magalie Mathis, Lidija Kovacic, Suisheng Zhang, Juergen Reinhardt, Dimitri Scholz, Ulrich Schopfer, Rochdi Bouhelal, Ulla G Knaus
Protein-protein interactions critically regulate many biological systems, but quantifying functional assembly of multi-pass membrane complexes in their native context is still challenging. Here, we combined modeling-assisted protein modification and information from human disease variants with a minimal-size fusion tag, split-luciferase-based approach to probe assembly of the NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-p22phox enzyme, an integral membrane complex with unresolved structure, which is required for electron transfer and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Wei Sheng, Hesen Wu, Weihong Ji, Zhi Li, Fangyu Chu, Shuo Wang
A visual immunoaffinity test column (IATC) assay was developed to detect fumonisins in cereal samples for spot tests without the need for special instruments. The developed IATC assay had equivalent recognition capability for fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), fumonisin B₂ (FB₂), or fumonisin B₃ (FB₃), and exhibited no cross-reactivity with aflatoxin B₁, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, or the T-2 toxin. The sample pretreatment was accomplished more rapidly and with greater ease, the entire assay procedure was completed in approximately 10 min, including sample pretreatment and testing...
April 19, 2018: Toxins
Jesús Delgado-De la Mora, Jesús David Licona-Enríquez, Marcia Leyva-Gastélum, David Delgado-De la Mora, Adela Rascón-Alcantar, Gerardo Álvarez-Hernández
INTRODUCTION: Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a highly lethal infectious disease, particularly if specific treatment with doxycycline is given belatedly. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical profile of fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases in hospitalized patients in the state of Sonora, México. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on a series of 47 deaths caused by Rickettsia rickettsii from 2013 to 2016. The diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was confirmed in a single blood sample by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or by a four-fold increase in immunoglobulin G measured in paired samples analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Doekele G Stavenga, Hein L Leertouwer, Andrej Meglič, Kazimir Drašlar, Martin F Wehling, Primož Pirih, Gregor Belušič
The palm borer moth Paysandisia archon (Castniidae; giant butterfly-moths) has brown dorsal forewings and strikingly orange-coloured dorsal hindwings with white spots surrounded by black margins. Here, we have studied the structure and pigments of the wing scales in the various coloured wing areas, applying light and electron microscopy and (micro)spectrophotometry, and we analysed the spatial reflection properties with imaging scatterometry. The scales in the white spots are unpigmented, those in the black and brown wing areas contain various amounts of melanin, and the orange wing scales contain a blue-absorbing ommochrome pigment...
2018: PeerJ
Romy M Heilmann, Aurélien Grellet, Niels Grützner, Shannon M Cranford, Jan S Suchodolski, Sylvie Chastant-Maillard, Jörg M Steiner
BACKGROUND: Previous data suggest that fecal S100A12 has clinical utility as a biomarker of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation (idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease) in both people and dogs, but the effect of gastrointestinal pathogens on fecal S100A12 concentrations is largely unknown. The role of S100A12 in parasite and viral infections is also difficult to study in traditional animal models due to the lack of S100A12 expression in rodents. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate fecal S100A12 concentrations in a cohort of puppies with intestinal parasites (Cystoisospora spp...
April 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Gregory J G Simpson, Vanessa Quan, John Frean, Darryn L Knobel, Jennifer Rossouw, Jacqueline Weyer, Tanguy Marcotty, Jacques Godfroid, Lucille H Blumberg
A lack of surveillance and diagnostics for zoonotic diseases in rural human clinics limits clinical awareness of these diseases. We assessed the prevalence of nine zoonotic pathogens in a pastoral, low-income, HIV-endemic community bordering wildlife reserves in South Africa. Two groups of participants were included: malaria-negative acute febrile illness (AFI) patients, called febrilers, at three clinics (n = 74) and second, farmers, herders, and veterinary staff found at five government cattle dip-tanks, called dip-tanksters (n = 64)...
April 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Y Merid, Y Woldeamanuel, M Abebe, D G Datiko, T Hailu, G Habtamu, G Assefa, R R Kempker, H M Blumberg, A Aseffa
SETTING: Hawassa Prison, Southern Region of Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) using active case finding among prisoners. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, prisoners were screened for TB using a symptom screen. Those with cough of 2 weeks had spot and morning sputum samples collected for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and molecular diagnostic testing (Xpert® MTB/RIF). RESULTS: Among 2068 prisoners, 372 (18%) had a positive cough screen...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Katherine S Wetzel, Yanjie Yi, Anjana Yadav, Anya M Bauer, Ezekiel A Bello, Dino C Romero, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Beatrice H Hahn, Mirko Paiardini, Guido Silvestri, Martine Peeters, Ronald G Collman
Pandemic HIV-1 originated from the cross-species transmission of SIVcpz, which infects chimpanzees, while SIVcpz itself emerged following the cross-species transmission and recombination of monkey SIVs, with env contributed by the SIVgsn/mus/mon lineage that infects greater spot-nosed, mustached and mona monkeys. SIVcpz and HIV-1 are pathogenic in their respective hosts, while the phenotype of their SIVgsn/mus/mon ancestors is unknown. However, two well-studied SIV infected natural hosts, sooty mangabeys (SMs) and African green monkeys (AGMs), typically remain healthy despite high viral loads; these species express low levels of the canonical coreceptor CCR5, and recent work shows that CXCR6 is a major coreceptor for SIV in these hosts...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Daisman P B Aji, G P Johari
The effect of structural relaxation on electrical resistivity, ρglass , of strain-free Zr46.75 Ti8.25 Cu7.5 Ni10 Be27.5 bulk metallic glass was studied during isothermal aging at several temperatures, Ta s. Since cooling of a liquid metal increases its resistivity ρliq , one expects ρglass to increase on aging toward ρliq at T = Ta . Instead, ρglass decreased non-exponentially with the aging time. The activation energy of aging kinetics is 189 kJ mol-1 , which is higher than the activation energy of the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Pouya Jelvehgaran, Daniel Martijn de Bruin, F Javier Salguero, Gerben Roelof Borst, Ji-Ying Song, Ton G van Leeuwen, Johannes F de Boer, Tanja Alderliesten, Marcel van Herk
Lung cancer survival is poor, and radiation therapy patients often suffer serious treatment side effects. The esophagus is particularly sensitive leading to acute radiation-induced esophageal damage (ARIED). We investigated the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for minimally invasive imaging of the esophagus with high resolution (10  μm) to detect ARIED in mice. Thirty mice underwent cone-beam computed tomography imaging for initial setup assessment and dose planning followed by a single-dose delivery of 4...
April 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Priyanka Khandelwal, Shweta Birla, Divya Bhatia, Mamta Puraswani, Himanshi Saini, Aditi Sinha, Pankaj Hari, Arundhati Sharma, Arvind Bagga
Background: Mutations in the CD46 gene account for an important proportion of patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) who characteristically show multiple relapses, no response to plasma exchange and low recurrence risk in allograft. We screened for mutations in CD46 in patients with and without circulating anti-factor H (FH) antibodies-associated aHUS. Methods: We estimated CD46 surface expression by flow cytometry and sequenced the CD46 gene in 23 and 56 patients with and without circulating anti-FH antibodies, respectively...
April 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Michał Rurek, Magdalena Czołpińska, Tomasz Andrzej Pawłowski, Aleksandra Maria Staszak, Witold Nowak, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Tomasz Spiżewski
Mitochondrial responses under drought within Brassica genus are poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to investigate mitochondrial biogenesis of three cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ) cultivars with varying drought tolerance. Diverse quantitative changes (decreases in abundance mostly) in the mitochondrial proteome were assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Respiratory (e.g., complex II, IV (CII, CIV) and ATP synthase subunits), transporter (including diverse porin isoforms) and matrix multifunctional proteins (e...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
A L Silva, E Detmann, J Dijkstra, A M Pedroso, L H P Silva, A F Machado, F C Sousa, G B Dos Santos, M I Marcondes
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different amounts of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on intake, N balance, performance, mammary gland development, carcass traits, and hormonal status of Holstein heifers at different physiological stages (PS). Sixteen prepubertal (PRE) heifers (initial BW = 106 ± 7.6 kg; age = 4.3 ± 0.46 mo) and 16 pubertal (PUB) heifers (initial BW = 224 ± 7.9 kg; age = 12.6 ± 0.45 mo) were used in an experiment over a period of 84 d. Four diets with increasing RUP contents (38, 44, 51, and 57% of dietary crude protein) and heifers at 2 PS (PRE or PUB) were used in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
A Martínez-Caballero, B Moreno, C González, G Martínez, M Adames, J V Pachar, J B Varela-Petrucelli, J Martínez-Mandiche, J A Suárez, L Domínguez, Y Zaldívar, S Bermúdez
The clinical and pathologic characterisation of two fatal cases of tick-borne rickettsiosis in rural (El Valle) and urban (City of Panama) Panama are described. Clinical and autopsy findings were non-specific, but the molecular analysis was used to identify Rickettsia rickettsii in both cases. No ticks were collected in El Valle, while in the urban case, R. rickettsii was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., representing the first molecular finding in this tick in Panama and Central America.
April 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Hoichi Amano, Seiji Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Terawaki, Makoto Ogura, Yoshindo Kawaguchi, Takashi Yokoo
It is important to grasp a patient's daily sodium intake in the management of chronic kidney disease, as sodium intake is widely recommended at 6 g/day or less. There are multiple equations widely known for estimating the daily sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these are aimed at healthy people. There are few reports that validate equations in patients with chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the amount of measured daily sodium excretion from a sample collected for 24-h urine (24HU) is equal to that of using an equation from a spot urine sample (SU) in patients with chronic kidney disease...
November 2018: Renal Failure
Steven Gardner, George Cline, Nixon Mwebi, James Rayburn
Arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) are two contaminants that are detected in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Using the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, to assess impacts from these contaminants may be advantageous as adults live and breed in such environments. Adult amphibians typically exhibit elevated tissue concentrations of contaminants present in their environment, while larval stages were found to exhibit increased sensitivity to pollutants. From January through March of 2015, during the spring breeding season, 5 adults and approximately 32 egg masses were collected from a local breeding site...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Lisa Boureau, Andrea Constantinof, Vasilis G Moisiadis, Stephen G Matthews, Moshe Szyf
AIM: To determine the state of methylation of DNA molecules in the guinea pig hippocampus that are associated with either poised or active enhancers. METHODS: We used sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation-bisulfite-sequencing with an antibody to H3K4me1 to map the state of methylation of DNA that is found within enhancers. Actively transcribing transcription start sites were mapped by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing with an antibody to RNApolII-PS5. Total DNA methylation was mapped using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing...
April 4, 2018: Epigenomics
He Jin, Rong Wang, Zhaohui Liu, Qiang Jia, Yanchuan Wu, Zhiwei Zhao, Yulan Wang, Xu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer-associated neuronal thread protein (AD7c-NTP) has been found to be a candidate biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of urine collected time, different preservatives addition, and storage condition on the measurement of urine AD7c-NTP by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). METHODS: Three hundred urine samples were collected from 20 participants at three time points on five consecutive days...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Súsanna A Crooks, Sára Bech, Jónrit Halling, Debes H Christiansen, Beate Ritz, Maria Skaalum Petersen
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and energy production have been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several agents are under investigation for potential neuroprotective effects including acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether low carnitine levels and mutations in the SLC22A5 gene encoding the carnitine transporter are associates with PD risk in the Faroe Islands where the prevalence of both PD and carnitine transporter deficiency (CTD) is high...
March 31, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Kim I Mortensen, Chiara Tassone, Nicky Ehrlich, Thomas L Andresen, Henrik Flyvbjerg
Nano-size lipid vesicles are used extensively at the interface between nanotechnology and biology, e.g. as containers for chemical reactions at minute concentrations and vehicles for targeted delivery of pharmaceuticals. Typically, vesicle samples are heterogeneous as regards vesicle size and structural properties. Consequently, vesicles must be characterized individually to ensure correct interpretation of experimental results. Here we do that using dual-color fluorescence labeling of vesicles-of their lipid bilayers and lumens, respectively...
April 3, 2018: Nano Letters
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