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Self determination theory

Andrei Kolesnikov, Nikolaj Georgi, Yury A Budkov, Jens Möllmer, Jorg Hofmann, Juergen Adolphs, Roger Gläser
We present a new model of adsorption-induced deformation of mesoporous solids. The model is based on a simplified version of Local Density Functional Theory in the framework of solvation free energy. Instead of density, which is treated as constant here, we used the film thickness and pore radius as order parameters. This allows us to obtain a self-consistent system of equations describing simultaneously the processes of gas adsorption and adsorbent deformation, as well as conditions for capillary condensation and evaporation...
May 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ángel Megías, David González-Cutre, Vicente J Beltrán-Carrillo, José M Gomis-Díaz, Eduardo Cervelló, Kimberley J Bartholomew
Guided by self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the previous experiences of living with morbid obesity of 10 postbariatric patients enrolled in a physical activity programme. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and diarized observations. A thematic analysis revealed that participants suffered from health and mobility troubles in their daily life and experienced stigmatization and discrimination in most areas of their social functioning. Participants described how these experiences resulted in the thwarting of their basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness...
May 23, 2018: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
Bahram Mohebbi, Azar Tol, Roya Sadeghi, Mehdi Yaseri, Negar Akbari Somar, Feleke Doyore Agide
Background: Misuse of antibiotics can be described as a failure to complete treatment, skipping of the doses and reuse of leftover medicines and overuse of antibiotics. Health education interventions are expected to enhance awareness and general belief on rational antibiotics use. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the efficacy of social cognitive theory (SCT)-based self-care intervention for rational antibiotic use. Methods: This randomized trial was conducted in a sample of 260 adults...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Victor Swift, Jordan B Peterson
Although performance feedback is widely employed as a means to improve motivation, the efficacy and reliability of performance feedback is often obscured by individual differences and situational variables. The joint role of these moderating variables remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigate how the motivational impact of feedback is moderated by personality and task-difficulty. Utilizing three samples (total N = 916), we explore how Big Five personality traits moderate the motivational impact of false positive and negative feedback on playful, neutral, and frustrating puzzle tasks, respectively...
2018: PloS One
V V Belyi
A self-consistent kinetic theory of Thomson scattering of an electromagnetic field by a non-uniform plasma is derived. We draw the readers' attention to the inconsistency in recent results on the Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous plasma, which leads to violation of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem. We show, that not only the imaginary part, but also the derivatives of the real part of the dielectric susceptibility determine the amplitude and the width of the Thomson scattering spectral lines. As a result of inhomogeneity, these properties become asymmetric with respect to inversion of the sign of the frequency...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sibylle Nideröst, Daniel Gredig, Benedikt Hassler, Franziska Uggowitzer, Patrick Weber
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the intention to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) when available and to identify predictors of the intention to use PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Switzerland. The theoretical model drew on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology and considered additional variables related specifically to PrEP, HIV protection and the resources of MSM. Subject and methods: For data collection, we used an anonymous, standardized self-administered online questionnaire...
2018: Journal of Public Health
José de Jager, Roos van Greevenbroek, Annet Nugter, Jim van Os
This qualitative study aims to explore the difficulties people with a psychotic disorder have in sexual expression, and associated determinants. Twenty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed using the Grounded Theory method. Almost all participants experienced unfulfilled needs in sexual expression. These unfulfilled needs were associated with a range of factors, including antipsychotic medication, psychotic symptoms, sexual abuse, social skills and stigma, all of which may converge on a pathway involving (sexual) self-esteem...
May 18, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
P Sprenger, M A Hoefer, G A El
A notion of hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling is introduced in which a dark soliton is incident upon an evolving, broad potential barrier that arises from an appropriate variation of the input signal. The barriers considered include smooth rarefaction waves and highly oscillatory dispersive shock waves. Both the soliton and the barrier satisfy the same one-dimensional defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, which admits a convenient dispersive hydrodynamic interpretation. Under the scale separation assumption of nonlinear wave (Whitham) modulation theory, the highly nontrivial nonlinear interaction between the soliton and the evolving hydrodynamic barrier is described in terms of self-similar, simple wave solutions to an asymptotic reduction of the Whitham-NLS partial differential equations...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Mingming Zhou, Chester Chun Seng Kam
In this study, we sought to extend the research on self-determination, future orientation, and personal identity construction by integrating the theories on self-determination and future orientation to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the relations between personal identity and the following individual characteristics: Hope, optimism, awareness of self, and perceived choice. 191 university students in China responded surveys in hardcopies on an individual basis. Our SEM results revealed that proximal future orientation influenced the mechanisms through which distal psychological traits affected identity construction...
May 17, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Yongliang Shi, Boao Song, Reza Shahbazian-Yassar, Jin Zhao, Wissam A Saidi
In nanometer clusters (NCs) each atom counts. It is the specific arrangement of these atoms that determines the unique size-dependent functionalities of the NCs and hence their applications. Here we employ a self-consistent, combined theoretical and experimental approach to determine atom-by-atom the structures of supported Pt NCs on MoS2. The atomic structures are predicted using a genetic algorithm utilizing atomistic force fields and density functional theory, which are then validated using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Daniel Fraiman
The Bak-Sneppen (BS) model is a very simple model that exhibits all the richness of self-organized criticality theory. At the thermodynamic limit, the BS model converges to a situation where all particles have a fitness that is uniformly distributed between a critical value p_{c} and 1. The p_{c} value is unknown, as are the variables that influence and determine this value. Here we study the BS model in the case in which the lowest fitness particle interacts with an arbitrary even number of m nearest neighbors...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Isaac R Bruss, Sharon C Glotzer
Self-propelled particles phase-separate into coexisting dense and dilute regions above a critical density. The statistical nature of their stochastic motion lends itself to various theories that predict the onset of phase separation. However, these theories are ill-equipped to describe such behavior when noise becomes negligible. To overcome this limitation, we present a predictive model that relies on two density-dependent timescales: τ_{F}, the mean time particles spend between collisions; and τ_{C}, the mean lifetime of a collision...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Raquael J Joiner, Cindy S Bergeman, Lijuan Wang
Recent research investigating the course of affective development across the adult life span has incorporated both cross-sectional and longitudinal data in analyses to understand the aging-affect relationship. Most of these studies, however, have not provided an empirical test to determine whether the cross-sectional and longitudinal data can be combined to infer developmental processes. Utilizing an age heterogeneous sample followed over a 10-year span (N = 1,019, Mage = 54.14 ± 13.06), the present study used an accelerated longitudinal design to investigate whether cross-sectional age differences could be found in longitudinal aging trajectories of positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and their confluence (i...
May 2018: Psychology and Aging
Julia Lohmann, Adamson S Muula, Nathalie Houlfort, Manuela De Allegri
"Intrinsic motivation crowding out", the erosion of high-quality, sustainable motivation through the introduction of financial incentives, is one of the most frequently discussed but yet little researched potential unfavorable consequence of Performance-based Financing (PBF). We used the opportunity of the introduction of PBF in Malawi to investigate whether and how PBF affected intrinsic motivation, using a mixed-methods research design theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). The quantitative component served to estimate the impact of PBF on intrinsic motivation, relying on a controlled pre- and post-test design, with data collected from health workers in 23 intervention and 10 comparison facilities before (March/April 2013; n = 70) and approximately two years after (June/July 2015; n = 71) the start of the intervention...
April 30, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Jianhuai Chen, Yun Chen, Qingqiang Gao, Guotao Chen, Yutian Dai, Zhijian Yao, Qing Lu
Background: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex and amygdala play an important role in sexual arousal (SA). However, little is known about the interactions between the prefrontal and cortex amygdala, which mediate the cognitive regulation of emotion and SA. Objective: We seek to determine whether nocturnal erection of psychogenic erectile dysfunction (pED) patients are normal and whether there are changes of topological organization in the prefrontal-amygdala pathway of brain network in pED...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Artur L Gower, Michael J A Smith, William J Parnell, I David Abrahams
We formally deduce closed-form expressions for the transmitted effective wavenumber of a material comprising multiple types of inclusions or particles (multi-species), dispersed in a uniform background medium. The expressions, derived here for the first time, are valid for moderate volume fractions and without restriction on the frequency. We show that the multi-species effective wavenumber is not a straightforward extension of expressions for a single species. Comparisons are drawn with state-of-the-art models in acoustics by presenting numerical results for a concrete and a water-oil emulsion in two dimensions...
April 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Nachoum Reut, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon
OBJECTIVES: Maternal postpartum depression symptoms (PDS) are linked with negative personal, family, and child developmental outcomes. However, paternal PDS, let alone dyadic process, are understudied. Grounded in the Self-Determination Theory of motivation, this longitudinal study examined whether mothers' and fathers' type of prenatal motivation to have a child predicted depression symptoms 3-6 months after birth. METHOD: The data (N = 90 heterosexual couples) were analyzed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Robert H Bradley
Context helps determine what individuals experience in the settings they inhabit. Context also helps determine the likelihood that those experiences will promote adaptive development. Theory suggests likely interplay between various aspects of home context and development of ideas about self that influence patterns of development for children. This study addressed relations between two aspects of home life (companionship and investment, modeling and encouragement) and three types of self-efficacy beliefs (enlisting social resources, independent learning, self-regulatory behavior) considered important for long-term adaptive functioning...
May 7, 2018: Family Process
Teresa A Lillis, John Burns, Frances Aranda, Yanina A Purim-Shem-Tov, Stephen Bruehl, Jean C Beckham, Stevan E Hobfoll
BACKGROUND: Given high levels of traumatic stress for low-income, inner-city women, investigating the link between PTSD and pain is especially important. PURPOSE: Using the Conservation of Resources (COR) Theory, we investigated direct and indirect relationships of PTSD symptoms, vulnerability factors (i.e., resource loss, depressive symptoms and social undermining), and resilience factors (i.e., optimism, engagement, and social support) to acute pain reports in a sample of low-income, inner-city women...
May 4, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Arun K Manna, Sivan Refaely-Abramson, Anthony Martin Reilly, Alexandre Tkatchenko, Jeffrey B Neaton, Leeor Kronik
We show that fundamental gaps and optical spectra of molecular solids can be predicted quantitatively and non-empirically within the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), using the recently-developed optimally-tuned screened range-separated hybrid (OTSRSH) approach. In this scheme, the electronic structure of the gas-phase molecule is determined by optimal tuning of the range-separation parameter in a range-separated hybrid functional. Screening and polarization in the solid-state are taken into account by adding long-range dielectric screening to the functional form, with the modified functional used to perform self-consistent periodic-boundary calculations for the crystalline solid...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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