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Volunteer visit

Carmen Schuhmann, Esther Kuis, Anne Goossensen
Research suggests that prison visitation by volunteers may significantly reduce the risk of recidivism. Community volunteers offer sustained, prosocial support to inmates which may account for these beneficial effects. However, the question of how inmates themselves evaluate volunteer visitation has hardly been studied. This study explores how inmates of Dutch prisons who receive one-on-one volunteer visits experience and value these visits. To that end, semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 inmates across six penitentiaries...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Jacques Rottembourg, Guy Rostoker
Generic immunosuppressive drugs are available in Europe Canada and the United States. Between countries, there are large differences in penetration of generic drugs in general, and for immunosuppressive drugs in particular. The registration for generic immunosuppressive drugs are slightly different, but the criteria for registration of narrow therapeutic index drugs and bioequivalence studies, performed only in healthy volunteers, will remain in the medical landscape. About 50 studies compare the clinical efficacy and bioequivalence of the generic immunosuppressive drugs in patients with solid organ transplants...
March 16, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Adanna Uloaku Nwameme, Philip Teg-Nefaah Tabong, Philip Baba Adongo
BACKGROUND: Three-quarters of sub-Saharan Africa's urban population currently live under slum conditions making them susceptible to ill health and diseases. Ghana characterizes the situation in many developing countries where the urban poor have become a group much afflicted by complex health problems associated with their living conditions, and the intra-city inequity between them and the more privileged urban dwellers with respect to health care accessibility. Adopting Ghana's rural Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) programme in urban areas is challenging due to the differences in social networks and health challenges thus making modifications necessary...
March 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Anna R Schoenbrunner, Kristen D Kelley, Taylor Buckstaff, Joyce K McIntyre, Alicia Sigler, Amanda A Gosman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mexican cleft surgeons provide multidisciplinary comprehensive cleft lip and palate care to children in Mexico. Many Mexican cleft surgeons have extensive experience with foreign, visiting surgeons. The purpose of this study was to characterize Mexican cleft surgeons' domestic and volunteer practice and to learn more about Mexican cleft surgeons' experience with visiting surgeons. METHODS: A cross-sectional validated e-mail survey tool was sent to Mexican cleft surgeons through 2 Mexican plastic surgery societies and the Asociación Mexicana de Labio y Paladar Hendido y Anomalías Craneofaciales, the national cleft palate society that includes plastic and maxillofacial surgeons who specialize in cleft surgery...
March 16, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Doug Oliver, Lisa Dolovich, Larkin Lamarche, Jessica Gaber, Ernie Avilla, Mehreen Bhamani, David Price
Primary care providers are critical in providing and optimizing health care to an aging population. This paper describes the volunteer component of a program (Health TAPESTRY) which aims to encourage the delivery of effective primary health care in novel and proactive ways. As part of the program, volunteers visited older adults in their homes and entered information regarding health risks, needs, and goals into an electronic application on a tablet computer. A total of 657 home visits were conducted by 98 volunteers, with 22...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Jody C Gan
Service learning experiences abroad provide an excellent opportunity for seasoned health educators to share their skills with underresourced communities in other parts of the world while enriching their own professional development. Health educators have not traditionally participated in short-term medical service trips, which have become a popular humanitarian effort, yet their contributions can expand the scope of these efforts. With our responsibilities often focused on assessing needs, planning, implementing, and evaluation, seasoned health educators can provide guidance for new initiatives and share health promotion materials and other resources with communities in other parts of the world...
March 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Z L Rai, H E Fowles, C Wright, H Joseph, A H Morice
INTRODUCTION: Citric acid has been used for over six decades to induce cough; however the mechanism of its pro-tussive effect is still not fully understood. We assessed the response to inhalation of citric acid at varying levels of acidity to determine if the pH of the solution plays a role in the induction of cough. Data was collected from both healthy volunteers and patients with chronic cough. METHODS: 20 chronic cough patients and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent three cough challenges on separate days...
March 6, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Brian Yu, Adedayo Adedoyin, Ellie Hershberger, Luzelena Caro, Alan Xiao, Elizabeth G Rhee, Jennifer A Huntington
Ceftolozane/tazobactam is an antibacterial approved at 1.5 g (1g/0.5 g) every 8 hours (q8h); higher doses may provide additional benefits in difficult-to-treat infections. We conducted a phase I trial in healthy adults evaluating safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of 3 g (2 g/1 g) ceftolozane/tazobactam administered q8h for 10 days. Sixteen participants were randomized (2:1:1) to 3 g ceftolozane/tazobactam, 1.5 g ceftolozane/tazobactam, or placebo. Participants underwent regular safety and plasma drug level assessments, with a follow-up safety visit 7 days after completion...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Kazuki Hirata, Taku Ogawa, Hiroyuki Fujikura, Yoshihiko Ogawa, Nobuyasu Hirai, Tomoko Nakagawa-Onishi, Kenji Uno, Masahiro Takeyama, Kei Kasahara, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama, Mitsuru Konishi, Keiichi Mikasa
Few studies have analyzed the characteristics of patients who develop physical disorders after overseas travel. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 183 patients who visited Nara Medical University Hospital from 2008 to 2016 because of physical problems after traveling abroad. The main travel destinations were Southeast Asia (n = 100), Africa (n = 27), and South Asia (n = 23). The main reasons for the travel were leisure (n = 96), business (n = 51), and volunteer work (n = 19). The most common final diagnosis was gastrointestinal disease (n = 72), followed by febrile disease (n = 59) and respiratory disease (n = 19)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
JaBaris D Swain, Colleen Sinnott, Suellen Breakey, Rian Hasson Charles, Gita Mody, Napthal Nyirimanzi, Ceeya Patton-Bolman, Patricia Come, Gapira Ganza, Emmanuel Rusingiza, Nathan Ruhamya, Joseph Mucumbitsi, Jorge Borges, Martin Zammert, Jochen D Muehlschlegel, Robert Oakes, Bruce Leavitt, R Morton Bolman
OBJECTIVE: Despite its near complete eradication in resource-rich countries, rheumatic heart disease remains the most common acquired cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa. With a ratio of physicians/population of 1 per 10,500, including only 4 cardiologists for a population of 11.4 million, Rwanda represents a resource-limited setting lacking the local capacity to detect and treat early cases of strep throat and perform lifesaving operations for advanced rheumatic heart disease...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Eileen A Hebets, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Pawl Tisdale, Trish Wonch Hill
Increased integration and synergy between formal and informal learning environments is proposed to provide multiple benefits to science learners. In an effort to better bridge these two learning contexts, we developed an educational model that employs the charismatic nature of arachnids to engage the public of all ages in science learning; learning that aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas associated with Biodiversity and Evolution). We created, implemented, and evaluated a family-focused, interactive science event- Eight-Legged Encounters (ELE )-which encompasses more than twenty modular activities...
February 26, 2018: Insects
Ella Ottrey, Claire Palermo, Catherine E Huggins, Judi Porter
AIMS: To explore multiple perspectives and experiences of volunteer and visitor involvement and interactions at hospital mealtimes. In addition, to understand how the volunteer and visitor role at mealtimes is perceived within the hospital system. BACKGROUND: Mealtime assistance can improve patients' food intake and mealtime experience. Barriers to providing mealtime assistance include time pressures, staff availability and inadequate communication. Volunteers and visitors can encourage and assist patients at mealtimes...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shiri Sherf-Dagan, Galia Berman, Muriel Webb, Asnat Raziel, Andrei Keidar, David Goitein, Nasser Sakran, Eti Zwang, Itzhak Shapira, David Zeltser, Shlomo Berliner, Ori Rogowski, Oren Shibolet, Shira Zelber-Sagi
BACKGROUND: Impaired sympathetic/parasympathetic response, expressed by elevated Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and inflammation. However, the association between morbid obesity and AChE and the changes in cholinergic tone following bariatric laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) surgery-induced weight reduction were never analyzed. METHODS: Two studies are presented; the first (the "apparently healthy cohort") was a cross-sectional study and the second (the "LSG cohort") was a prospective-cohort study with 12 months of follow-up...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Gulali Aktas, Mustafa Sit, Oguz Dikbas, Hayri Erkol, Rabia Altinordu, Edip Erkus, Haluk Savli
OBJECTIVE: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a novel marker of inflammation, in patients with HT and to compare these values with those from healthy subjects. METHOD: A total of 154 participants were included in the study, 90 HT patients and 64 healthy volunteers. Retrospectively, demographic and laboratory data of the subjects were obtained from our institution's database...
December 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Lindsay M Wodinski, Heather M Mattson McCrady, Christie M Oswald, Nicole J M Lyste, Karen L L Forbes
This paper presents family bedside orientations, an innovative bedside peer support model for families of paediatric patients piloted in one unit at the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta. The model invites family members of former patients back to the hospital as volunteer peer mentors responsible for meeting one-on-one with current inpatient families to provide a listening presence, discuss patient safety practices and encourage families to participate in their child's care. Using qualitative and quantitative data collection methods, the model was evaluated over 1 year (December 2014 to December 2015)...
October 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Charlotte Andriessen, Pia Christensen, Lone Vestergaard Nielsen, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup, Thomas Meinert Larsen, J Alfredo Martinez, Wim H M Saris, Marleen A van Baak, Angeliki Papadaki, Marie Kunesova, Susan Jebb, John Blundell, Clare Lawton, Anne Raben
People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy, overweight and obese volunteers. A subgroup of adult participants (n = 123) from the Diet Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (subgroup A) was recruited from across six European countries. Participants lost ≥8% of initial body weight during an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD)...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
Marsha Kaitz, Miriam Chriki, Naomi Tessler, Judith Levy
We assessed mothers' self-reported gains from a postpartum home-visiting (HV) project in which home visitors are volunteer mothers from the community. Hypotheses were that gains are positively related to (a) mothers' felt-closeness with their home visitor, (b) mothers' level of sociodemographic risk, and (c) the home visitors' preproject training in support services for families or children (Professionalism). One hundred sixty-four clients returned written evaluations of the HV project. Items assessing gains were reduced to two factors: Improved Well-Being ("Self") and Improved Infant Care ("Infant")...
February 20, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
Meenakshi Wadhwani, Praveen Vashist, Suraj Senjam Singh, Noopur Gupta, Pallavi Shukla, Amit Bhardwaj, Vivek Gupta
OBJECTIVES: To develop and implement a community-based program for screening of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in urban populations of Delhi. METHODS: Known diabetics (KDs) aged 40 years and older were identified through house-to-house surveys, volunteers and publicity. All KDs were referred to DR screening camps organised locally where procedures included brief medical history, ocular examination, and non-mydriatic fundus photography using portable handheld camera. Fundal images were graded on the spot by trained optometrists for diabetic retinopathy (DR)...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
P C Shen, Y Zhang, Y Liu, J Jiang, J J Xu, H L Lin, D Xu
Objective: To evaluate the accommodative response of patients with intermittent exotropia (IXT) objectively, and study the changes of accommodative response of intermittent exotropia patients when maintaining binocular fusion. Methods: The prospective cohort study was used in this study. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with basic intermittent exotropia who visited the eye hospital of Wenzhou Medical University during October 2016 through January 2017 together with 24 normal volunteers were included, the 48 participants aged from 10 to 27 years old...
January 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Amanda McArthur
Using conversation analysis and a dataset of 171 video recordings of US primary care encounters (2003-2005), this paper examines patients' unsolicited pain informings - e.g. "that hurts" - during the physical examination phase of acute care visits. I argue that when patients experience pain in a physical exam but have not been asked a question like "does that hurt?", they face an interactional dilemma. Having presented their health problem to a doctor, they have tacitly set in motion epistemic and interactional asymmetries through which the doctor investigates the problem on their behalf...
January 16, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
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