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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750508/in-vitro-evidence-of-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-obesity-effects-of-medium-chain-fatty-acid-diacylglycerols
#1
Seungmin Yu, Jong Hun Choi, Hun Jung Kim, Soo Hyun Park, Gwang-Woong Go, Wooki Kim
Dietary approaches using structured lipids, including medium-chain fatty acids and diacylglycerols, have been adopted for the prevention of obesity-induced chronic inflammation. In an extension to previous studies, medium-chain fatty acid-diacylglycerol enriched dietary oil (MCDG) was prepared by interesterification of canola oil and medium-chain fatty acid-triacylglycerols. The consequent MCDG product was applied to RAW264.7 macrophages followed by the assessment of multiple inflammatory responses. Compared to conventionally used canola and olive oil controls, MCDG suppressed macrophage phagocytosis as assessed by the uptake of microsphere beads...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750498/emerging-clinical-issues-and-multivariate-analyses-in-pet-investigations
#2
Javier Arbizu, Alessandro Giuliani, Jaime G Perez-Larraya, Mario Riverol, Cathrine Jonsson, Berta García-García, Maribel Morales, Laura Imaz, Marco Pagani
PET using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET) has been gradually introduced in the diagnostic clinical criteria of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, an increasing amount of literature have shown that the information provided by FDG-PET enhances the sensitivity of standard imaging biomarkers in less frequent disorders in which an early differential diagnosis can be of paramount relevance for patient management and outcome. Therefore emerging uses of FDG-PET may be important in prion diseases, autoimmune encephalitis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
July 27, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750496/tau-imaging-with-pet-an-overview-of-challenges-current-progress-and-future-applications
#3
Joanne S Robertson, Christopher C Rowe, Victor L Villemagne
Folded and misfolded tau is common to many neurodegenerative conditions, collectively termed 'tauopathies'. In recent years, many efforts have contributed toward development of tau imaging agents to allow measurement of tau deposits in vivo using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The particularities of tau present some unique challenges for the development of tau imaging tracers. Most notably, these pertain to the predominantly intracellular nature of tau aggregations, the existence of six isoforms, multiple post-translational modification, and that tau is usually surrounded by larger concentrations of A plaques...
July 27, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750488/serum-microrna-levels-as-a-noninvasive-diagnostic-biomarker-for-the-early-diagnosis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-related-liver-fibrosis
#4
Suxia Bao, Jianming Zheng, Ning Li, Chong Huang, Mingquan Chen, Qi Cheng, Kangkang Yu, Shengshen Chen, Mengqi Zhu, Guangfeng Shi
Background/Aims: To investigate the role of selected serum microRNA (miRNA) levels as potential noninvasive biomarkers for differentiating S0-S2 (early fibrosis) from S3-S4 (late fibrosis) in patients with a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: One hundred twenty-three treatment-naive patients with a chronic HBV infection who underwent a liver biopsy were enrolled in this study. The levels of selected miRNAs were measured using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay...
July 28, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750470/clot-waveform-analysis-using-cs-2000i%C3%A2-distinguishes-between-very-low-and-absent-levels-of-factor-viii-activity-in-patients-with-severe-haemophilia-a
#5
T Matsumoto, K Nogami, Y Tabuchi, K Yada, K Ogiwara, H Kurono, N Arai, M Shima
INTRODUCTION: A recently developed method to assess comprehensive coagulation function, clot waveform analysis (CWA), accurately detect low levels (<1 IU/dL) of factor VIII activity (FVIII:C) in haemophilia A patients (HA-pts). Improvements are needed, however, to differentiate patients with very low from absent levels of FVIII:C. AIM: We attempted to optimize CWA using the coagulation analyser CS-2000i™ to distinguish between very low levels and absent FVIII:C in severe HA-pts...
July 27, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750446/-modern-endoscopic-imaging-tools-for-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-urinary-bladder
#6
M C Kriegmair, M Ritter, M S Michel, C Bolenz
Cystoscopy is the gold standard for the initial diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma in the urinary bladder (UCB). White light exhibits significant limitations in its ability to detect flat lesions or carcinoma in situ. Photodynamic Diagnosis (PDD) and Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) are established techniques which may improve the detection rates of UCB and reduce the risk of recurrence. Multiple novel tools have been developed in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic procedures, including Digital Contrast Enhancement Technology, Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (CLE) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)...
August 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750410/loss-of-the-protein-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-during-kidney-injury-promotes-renal-tubulointerstitial-fibrosis
#7
Xiangning Yuan, Jin Zhang, Feifei Xie, Wenqing Tan, Shuting Wang, Ling Huang, Lijian Tao, Qiqi Xing, Qiongjing Yuan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the common pathway of progressive chronic kidney disease. Inflammation has been widely accepted as the major driving force of TIF. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway. CBS is considered to play protective role in liver and pulmonary fibrosis, but its role in TIF remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential role and mechanism of CBS in renal inflammation and TIF...
July 27, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750386/tumors-of-uncertain-differentiation
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Monographs in Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750347/global-synchronization-in-finite-time-for-fractional-order-neural-networks-with-discontinuous-activations-and-time-delays
#9
Xiao Peng, Huaiqin Wu, Ka Song, Jiaxin Shi
This paper is concerned with the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization and the synchronization in finite time for fractional-order neural networks (FNNs) with discontinuous activations and time delays. Firstly, the properties with respect to Mittag-Leffler convergence and convergence in finite time, which play a critical role in the investigation of the global synchronization of FNNs, are developed, respectively. Secondly, the novel state-feedback controller, which includes time delays and discontinuous factors, is designed to realize the synchronization goal...
July 10, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750339/differential-neuronal-and-glial-behavior-on-flat-and-micro-patterned-chitosan-films
#10
Marta Mattotti, Zaida Alvarez, Luis Delgado, Miguel A Mateos-Timoneda, Conrado Aparicio, Josep A Planell, Soledad Alcántara, Elisabeth Engel
Chitosan is a biodegradable natural polysaccharide that has been widely studied for regenerative purposes in the central nervous system. In this study we assessed the in vitro glial and neuronal cells response to chitosan either flat or patterned with grooves in the micrometric range. Chitosan demonstrated to be a good substrate for the attachment and growth of both neurons and glial cells. Chitosan micropatterns promoted glial cell maturation, suggesting astroglial activation. Nevertheless, those mature/reactive glial cells were permissive for axonal growth...
July 19, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750323/differential-use-of-3-cites-by-the-subgenomic-rna-of-pea-enation-mosaic-virus-2
#11
Feng Gao, Anne E Simon
The genomic RNA (gRNA) of Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2) is the template for p33 and -1 frameshift product p94. The PEMV2 subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) encodes two overlapping ORFs, p26 and p27, which are required for movement and stability of the gRNA. Efficient translation of p33 requires two of three 3' proximal cap-independent translation enhancers (3'CITEs): the kl-TSS, which binds ribosomes and engages in a long-distance interaction with the 5'end; and the adjacent eIF4E-binding PTE. Unlike the gRNA, all three 3'CITEs were required for efficient translation of the sgRNA, which included the ribosome-binding 3'TSS...
July 24, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750307/resilient-protein-co-expression-network-in-male-orbitofrontal-cortex-layer-2-3-during-human-aging
#12
Mohan Pabba, Enzo Scifo, Fenika Kapadia, Yuliya S Nikolova, Tianzhou Ma, Naguib Mechawar, George C Tseng, Etienne Sibille
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is vulnerable to normal and pathologic aging. Currently, layer resolution large-scale proteomic studies describing "normal" age-related alterations at OFC are not available. Here, we performed a large-scale exploratory high-throughput mass spectrometry-based protein analysis on OFC layer 2/3 from 15 "young" (15-43 years) and 18 "old" (62-88 years) human male subjects. We detected 4193 proteins and identified 127 differentially expressed (DE) proteins (p-value ≤0.05; effect size >20%), including 65 up- and 62 downregulated proteins (e...
July 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750298/global-gene-expression-changes-of-amniotic-fluid-cell-free-rna-according-to-fetal-development
#13
Ji Hyon Jang, Yong Wook Jung, Sung Han Shim, Yun Jeong Sin, Kyoung Jin Lee, Sung Shin Shim, Eun Hee Ahn, Dong Hyun Cha
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of in utero fetal development on the cell-free transcriptome of amniotic fluid by analyzing global gene expression in the amniotic fluid supernatant obtained at different gestational ages from euploid fetuses STUDY DESIGN: Thirteen amniotic fluid samples were obtained from five individuals at 28 gestational weeks and eight individuals at full term pregnancy. Transcriptome data previously analyzed by our group from 14 euploid mid-trimester amniotic fluid samples were used for comparative analysis...
July 15, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750292/cortisol-boosts-risky-decision-making-behavior-in-men-but-not-in-women
#14
Lisa Marieke Kluen, Agorastos Agorastos, Klaus Wiedemann, Lars Schwabe
Acute stress may escalate risky decision-making in men, while there is no such effect in women. Although first evidence links these gender-specific effects of stress to stress-induced changes in cortisol, whether elevated cortisol is indeed sufficient to boost risk-taking, whether a potential cortisol effect depends on simultaneous noradrenergic activation, and whether cortisol and noradrenergic activation exert distinct effects on risk-taking in men and women is unknown. In this experiment, we therefore set out to elucidate the impact of cortisol and noradrenergic stimulation on risky decision-making in men and women...
July 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750279/tnf-receptor-superfamily-agonists-as-molecular-adjuvants-for-cancer-vaccines
#15
REVIEW
Timothy Nj Bullock
Cancer vaccines have offered unrequited hope as a mechanism for rapidly and potently eliciting a patient's immune system to counter tumors. Initial results from preclinical mouse models have not translated to substantial benefit to patients, suggesting that either the targets or the vaccination approach were inadequate. Recent innovations in antigen identification have spiked renewed interest vaccination technologies. This has coincided with a detailed molecular understanding of the coordinated steps in postactivation support of T cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, leading to the development of novel targets and combinations that are substantially more effective than first and second generation cancer vaccines in preclinical models...
July 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750269/a-comparative-analysis-of-ante-and-postnatal-clinical-characteristics-of-extremely-premature-neonates-suffering-from-refractory-and-non-refractory-hypotension-is-early-clinical-differentiation-possible
#16
Rita P Verma, Shaeequa Dasnadi, Yuan Zhao, Hegang H Chen
BACKGROUND: About 25% of hypotensive ELBW infants are refractory to intravascular volume expansion and inotropic drugs (VI) and require hydrocortisone (HC). Such neonates suffer from complications of prolonged hypotension and extended therapy with VI. ELBW infants with refractory hypotension (RH) are clinically and biochemically indistinguishable from those who respond to VI. OBJECTIVE: Early identification and differentiation of ELBW infants susceptible to steroid dependent hypotension from those who respond to inotropic medications...
July 24, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750257/the-endodermis-a-tightly-controlled-barrier-for-nutrients
#17
REVIEW
Verónica G Doblas, Niko Geldner, Marie Barberon
Plant roots acquire nutrients from the soil and transport them upwards to the aerial parts. To reach the central vasculature of the root, water and nutrients radially cross all external cell layers. The endodermis surrounds the vascular tissues and forms diffusion barriers. It thereby compartmentalizes the root and allows control of nutrient transport from the soil to the vasculature, as well as preventing backflow of nutrients from the stele. To achieve this role, endodermal cells undergo two specialized differentiations states consisting of deposition of two impermeable polymers in the cell wall: lignin, forming the Casparian strips, and suberin lamellae...
July 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750175/kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-infection-promotes-differentiation-and-polarization-of-monocytes-into-tumor-associated-macrophages
#18
Natarajan Bhaskaran, Santosh K Ghosh, Xiaolan Yu, Sanhai Qin, Aaron Weinberg, Pushpa Pandiyan, Fengchun Ye
Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) promote angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis, and suppression of anti-tumor immunity. These myeloid cells originate from monocytes, which differentiate into TAMs upon exposure to the local tumor microenvironment. We previously reported that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) infection of endothelial cells induces the cytokine angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) to promote migration of monocytes into tumors. Here we report that KSHV infection of endothelial cells induces additional cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and interleukin-13 (IL-13) that drive monocytes to differentiate and polarize into TAMs...
July 27, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750148/analytic-variability-in-the-enumeration-of-neutrophil-subpopulations-in-canine-blood
#19
Saverio Paltrinieri, Elisa Talon
BACKGROUND: Conventional differential leukocyte counts do not enumerate hyposegmented neutrophils (Hypo-PMN), ie, immature neutrophils that already lost the band morphology but are not yet completely segmented. They may be early indicators of acute inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the analytic variability of counts of segmented neutrophils (Seg-PMN), band neutrophils (Band), hyposegmented neutrophils (Hypo-PMN), non-Bands (Hypo-PMN + Seg-PMN), and Young-PMN (Bands + Hypo-PMN) assess if Hypo- or Young-PMN identify inflammation better than Bands...
July 27, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750098/the-unique-n-terminal-sequence-of-the-bkca-channel-%C3%AE-subunit-determines-its-modulation-by-%C3%AE-subunits
#20
Ramón A Lorca, Xiaofeng Ma, Sarah K England
Large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels are essential regulators of membrane excitability in a wide variety of cells and tissues. An important mechanism of modulation of BKCa channel activity is its association with auxiliary subunits. In smooth muscle cells, the most predominant regulatory subunit of BKCa channels is the β1-subunit. We have previously described that BKCa channels with distinctive N-terminal ends (starting with the amino acid sequence MDAL, MSSN or MANG) are differentially modulated by the β1-subunit, but not by the β2...
2017: PloS One
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