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Allison K Masters, Darren J Berger, Wendy A Ware, Natalie R Langenfeld, Johann F Coetzee, Jonathan P M Mochel, Jessica L Ward
OBJECTIVE To investigate mechanisms by which anti-inflammatory doses of orally administered intermediate-acting glucocorticoids (prednisone) could predispose dogs to progression of heart disease or congestive heart failure. ANIMALS 11 client-owned dogs with allergic dermatitis and 11 matched healthy control dogs. PROCEDURES Clinicopathologic, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic variables were measured. Dogs with allergic dermatitis then received prednisone (1 mg/kg, PO) once daily for 14 consecutive days beginning on day 0 (baseline), followed by a tapering and washout period; control dogs received no treatment...
April 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Marina L Leis, Danica Lucyshyn, Bianca S Bauer, Bruce H Grahn, Lynne S Sandmeyer
This study reviewed clinical data from dogs diagnosed with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) in western Canada. Medical records from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 2002 to 2016 showed that 93 cases of SARDS were diagnosed based on presentation for sudden blindness and a bilaterally extinguished electroretinogram. The most common pure breeds were the miniature schnauzer, dachshund, and pug. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.1 years and males and females were equally affected...
November 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Gianluca Villa, Stefano Romagnoli, Aashish Sharma, Claudio Ronco
Fabry's disease (FD) is a severe congenital metabolic disorder characterized by the deficient activity of lysosomal exoglycohydrolase alpha-galactosidase, characterized by glycosphingolipid deposition in several cells, such as capillary endothelial cells, renal, cardiac, and nerve cells. As a systemic disease leading to a contemporaneous myocardial and renal dysfunction, FD might be an example of cardiorenal syndrome type 5 (CRS-5). Kidney damage is commonly characterized by proteinuria, isosthenuria and altered tubular function when occurs at the second-third decade, azotemia and end-stage renal disease in third-fifth decade...
March 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Tara Bellis, Meredith Daly, Benjamin Davidson
OBJECTIVE: To describe a clinical case of transient central diabetes insipidus (CDI) occurring post cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) in a dog. CASE SUMMARY: An 8-week-old dog presented for intensive care after successful resuscitation following CPA. The patient exhibited neurologic deficits at initial presentation and over the following days developed marked polyuria, isosthenuria, and low urine osmolality. Treatment with synthetic vasopressin resulted in a reduction in urine output, increase in urine specific gravity (>50%), and increase in urine osmolality, suggesting a diagnosis of partial CDI...
November 2015: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Aashish Sharma, Marco Sartori, Jose J Zaragoza, Gianluca Villa, Renhua Lu, Elena Faggiana, Alessandra Brocca, Luca Di Lullo, Sandro Feriozzi, Claudio Ronco
Cardiorenal syndrome type 5 (CRS-5) includes conditions where there is a simultaneous involvement of the heart and kidney from a systemic disorder. This is a bilateral organ cross talk. Fabry's disease (FD) is a devastating progressive inborn error of metabolism with lysosomal glycosphingolipid deposition in variety of cell types, capillary endothelial cells, renal, cardiac and nerve cells. Basic effect is absent or deficient activity of lysosomal exoglycohydrolase a-galactosidase A. Renal involvement consists of proteinuria, isosthenuria, altered tubular function, presenting in second or third decade leading to azotemia and end-stage renal disease in third to fifth decade mainly due to irreversible changes to glomerular, tubular and vascular structures, especially highlighted by podocytes foot process effacement...
November 2015: Heart Failure Reviews
Daniel G Bichet, Abdulah El Tarazi, Jessica Matar, Yoann Lussier, Marie-Françoise Arthus, Michèle Lonergan, Detlef Bockenhauer, Pierre Bissonnette
It is clinically useful to distinguish between two types of hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): a 'pure' type characterized by loss of water only and a complex type characterized by loss of water and ions. Patients with congenital NDI bearing mutations in the vasopressin 2 receptor gene, AVPR2, or in the aquaporin-2 gene, AQP2, have a pure NDI phenotype with loss of water but normal conservation of sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium. Patients with hereditary hypokalemic salt-losing tubulopathies have a complex phenotype with loss of water and ions...
June 2012: Clinical Kidney Journal
Jair Munoz Mendoza, Vasil Peev, Mario A Ponce, David B Thomas, Ali Nayer
INTRODUCTION: Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a systemic form of amyloidosis secondary to chronic infections and inflammatory disorders. An acute-phase protein produced by the liver, serum amyloid A (SAA) is the precursor of AA amyloid fibrils. AA amyloid deposition occurs predominantly in the kidneys, spleen, adrenal glands, liver and gastrointestinal tract. The manifestations of AA amyloidosis involving the kidneys include proteinuria, tubular dysfunction and progressive loss of renal function...
2014: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Elise E B LaDouceur, Barbara Davis, Flo Tseng
This retrospective study summarizes 11 cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from eight zoologic institutions across the United States and Canada. Ten bears were female, one was male, and the mean age at the time of death was 24 yr old. The most common clinical signs were lethargy, inappetence, and polyuria-polydipsia. Biochemical findings included azotemia, anemia, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. Histologic examination commonly showed glomerulonephropathies and interstitial fibrosis...
March 2014: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
M Defontis, N Bauer, K Failing, A Moritz
Two dipsticks developed for human use were evaluated for routine urinalysis and for detection of proteinuria in dogs (n=101), cats (n=50) and cattle (n=100). The aims were to determine their diagnostic usefulness in dogs, cats and cattle and to compare automated versus visual methods of reading. Results obtained with automated reading correlated better with reference methods than visual reading. Correlation with the reference methods was good to excellent for automated estimation of creatinine (dog: r(s)=0...
June 2013: Research in Veterinary Science
Csaba P Kovesdy
Both hypo- and hypernatremia are common conditions, especially in hospitalized patients and in patients with various comorbid conditions such as congestive heart failure or liver cirrhosis. Abnormal serum sodium levels have been associated with increased mortality in numerous observational studies. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) represent a group with a high prevalence of comorbid conditions that could predispose to dysnatremias. In addition, the failing kidney is also characterized by a gradual development of hyposthenuria, and even isosthenuria, which results in further predisposition to the development of hypo- and hypernatremia in those with advancing stages of CKD...
March 2012: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Thomas K Graves
Although veterinary clinicians commonly rely on panels of laboratory tests with individual results flagged when abnormal, care should be taken in interpreting normal test results as well. There are several examples of this in evaluating patients with endocrine disease. The finding of a normal leukogram (absence of a stress leukogram) can be indicative of adrenal insufficiency in dogs, and this disorder can be especially elusive when there are no overt indicators of mineralocorticoid deficiency. Cats with hyperthyroidism can have normal serum thyroid hormone concentrations, normal hematocrits, and normal serum concentrations of creatinine despite the presence of disease that affects these parameters...
May 2011: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Jochen K Lennerz, David C Spence, Samy S Iskandar, Louis P Dehner, Helen Liapis
CONTEXT: Glomerular cysts, defined as Bowman space dilatation greater than 2 to 3 times normal size, are found in disorders of diverse etiology and with a spectrum of clinical manifestations. The term glomerulocystic kidney (GCK) refers to a kidney with greater than 5% cystic glomeruli. Although usually a disease of the young, GCK also occurs in adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the recent molecular genetics of GCK, review our files, revisit the literature, and perform in silico experiments...
April 2010: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Andrea B Spevakow, Belle Marie D Nibblett, Anthony P Carr, Kathleen A Linn
A chronic, partial mesenteric volvulus was found on laparotomy of an adult Bernese mountain dog with a 4-month history of intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. The dog had elevated cholestatic and hepatocellular leakage enzymes, increased bile acids, azotemia, isosthenuria, and a hypokalemic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis. The dog recovered fully following reduction of the volvulus.
January 2010: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Chelsea D Tripp, Jeffrey N Bryan, Tamara B Wills
An 11-year-old male castrated Australian Shepherd was presented with a history of lethargy, panting, and weight loss for 1 month. Physical examination revealed a moderately enlarged spleen. Laboratory abnormalities included thrombocytopenia and marked hypercalcemia, with hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and a monoclonal spike in the beta-globulin region on serum protein electrophoresis. Serum total calcium concentration was markedly increased (16.5 mg/dL, reference interval 8.9-11.4 mg/dL) but ionized calcium concentration (1...
March 2009: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Nathan L Bailiff, Jodi L Westropp, Richard W Nelson, Jane E Sykes, Sean D Owens, Philip H Kass
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that diseases that promote isosthenuria predispose to urinary tract infections because of a lack of the common bacteriostatic properties present in concentrated urine. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinicopathologic risk factors for positive urine culture outcome in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes mellitus (DM), uncontrolled hyperthyroidism (HT), or lower urinary tract disease (LUTD). METHODS: For this retrospective study, medical records of all cats in which a urinalysis and aerobic bacterial urine culture were performed between January 1995 and December 2002 were reviewed...
September 2008: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
M L Chandler, C Elwood, K F Murphy, I Gajanayake, H M Syme
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to review and characterise the clinical presentation of young boxer dogs with chronic kidney disease referred to the authors' institutions. METHODS: Records were collected retrospectively from 37 boxer dogs, less than five years of age, which had presented with azotaemia, inappropriately low urine concentrating ability, and ultrasound or radiographic evidence of abnormal kidneys. RESULTS: Clinicopathological findings included azotaemia, hyperphosphataemia, anaemia, isosthenuria and proteinuria...
December 2007: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Jeffrey N Bryan, Carolyn J Henry, Susan E Turnquist, Jeff W Tyler, Julius M Liptak, Scott A Rizzo, Gabriella Sfiligoi, Steven J Steinberg, Annette N Smith, Tarraca Jackson
BACKGROUND: Primary renal tumors are diagnosed uncommonly in dogs. HYPOTHESIS: Signs and survival will differ among different categories of primary renal tumors. ANIMALS: Data were collected from the medical records of 82 dogs with primary renal tumors diagnosed by examination of tissue obtained by ultrasound-guided biopsy, needle aspiration, surgery, or at postmortem examination. METHODS: This was a multi-institutional, retrospective study...
September 2006: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Marie K Holowaychuk
A 1-year-old guinea pig presented with anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss, 1 week after ingesting a peace lily leaf. Laboratory findings were suggestive of renal failure and included elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine with concurrent isosthenuria. The guinea pig was euthanized 1 month later due to worsening clinical signs.
August 2006: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Paola Cavana, Valentina Vittone, Maria T Capucchio, Anna M Farca
This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma. A 17-year-old male Persian cat was presented for evaluation of a ventral cervical mass. The cat was inappetent and showed weight loss, polydipsia and vomiting. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed moderate hypercalcaemia, a mild increase of creatinine, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis showed a mixed tubular proteinuric pattern, in accordance with histological examination that revealed interstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis...
October 2006: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
B R Jones, J M Jones, W Chen, J Cayzer
Chronic renal failure was diagnosed in three young Old English Sheepdogs. Clinical signs were characterised by ill-thrift, polydipsia, polyuria, nervous signs and behavioural changes. Laboratory findings showed azotaemia, non-regenerative anaemia, hyperphosphataemia and isosthenuria. The kidneys were characterised histologically by interstitial fibrosis, and thickening and calcification of the tubular and glomerular basement membrane. A familial incidence could not be confirmed in these cases.
September 1990: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
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