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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775787/genomic-insights-of-reduced-teicoplanin-susceptible-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-case-of-necrotizing-fasciitis
#1
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Boopalan Ramaswamy, Rajinikanth Janakiraman, Runal John Steve, Balaji Veeraraghavan
OBJECTIVE: Glycopeptides are being increasingly used to multi-resistant MRSA infections. We report MRSA with low level teicoplanin resistance recovered from a patient treated with teicoplanin for fatal necrotizing fasciitis. PATIENT AND METHODS: MRSA recovered from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis was treated with teicoplanin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for vancomycin and teicoplanin was determined using E-test. Reduced glycopeptide susceptibility was screened using GRD E-test and population analysis profile (PAP) method...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775242/mutations-in-mars-identified-in-a-specific-type-of-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-alter-methionyl-trna-synthetase-activity
#2
Martine Comisso, Alice Hadchouel, Jacques de Blic, Marc Mirande
Biallelic missense mutations in MARS are responsible for rare but severe cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) prevalent on the island of La Réunion. MARS encodes cytosolic methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS), an essential translation factor. The multisystemic effects observed in patients with this form of PAP is consistent with a loss-of-function defect in an ubiquitously expressed enzyme. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in MARS related PAP are currently unknown. In this work, we analyzed the effect of the PAP related mutations in MARS on the thermal stability and on the catalytic parameters of the MetRS mutants, relative to wild-type...
May 18, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773301/pap-tests-in-the-diagnosis-of-cervical-cancer-help-or-hinder
#3
Lauren Philp, Nathaniel Jembere, Li Wang, Julia Gao, Bryan Maguire, Rachel Kupets
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of pap tests on the time to diagnosis of cervical cancer. METHODS: In this population-based retrospective cohort study, Ontario women ≥21 years diagnosed with cervical cancer between 2011 and 2014 were identified and database data collected. The presence or absence of a pap test 0-2 years preceding cancer diagnosis was identified. Descriptive and modelling analyses were performed to determine the effect of pap results on cancer diagnosis...
May 15, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772783/atpap2-a-unique-member-of-the-pap-family-functions-in-the-plasma-membrane
#4
Qingqing Sun, Jinyu Li, Wenzhen Cheng, Huihong Guo, Xiaomin Liu, Hongbo Gao
Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play various physiological roles in plants. AtPAP2 was previously shown to localize to both chloroplasts and mitochondria and to modulate carbon metabolism in Arabidopsis . Over-expression of AtPAP2 resulted in faster growth and increased biomass in several plant species, indicating its great potential for crop improvement of phosphate use and yield. Here, we studied the localization of AtPAP2 by transient expression in tobacco leaves. The results showed AtPAP2 was localized to the plasma membrane through the secretory pathway, which is different from previous studies...
May 17, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769580/kv1-3-activity-perturbs-the-homeostatic-properties-of-astrocytes-in-glioma
#5
Alfonso Grimaldi, Giuseppina D'Alessandro, Maria Amalia Di Castro, Clotilde Lauro, Vikrant Singh, Francesca Pagani, Luigi Sforna, Francesca Grassi, Silvia Di Angelantonio, Luigi Catacuzzeno, Heike Wulff, Cristina Limatola, Myriam Catalano
Glial cells actively maintain the homeostasis of brain parenchyma, regulating neuronal excitability and preserving the physiological composition of the extracellular milieu. Under pathological conditions, some functions of glial cells could be compromised, exacerbating the neurotoxic processes. We investigated if the homeostatic activities of astrocytes and microglia could be modulated by the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.3. To this end we used in vitro and in vivo systems to model cell-to-cell interactions in tumoral conditions, using a specific inhibitor of Kv1...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769381/tosr-mediated-regulation-of-adhesins-and-biofilm-formation-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#6
Courtney L Luterbach, Valerie S Forsyth, Michael D Engstrom, Harry L T Mobley
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains utilize a variety of adherence factors that assist in colonization of the host urinary tract. TosA (<u>t</u>ype <u>o</u>ne <u>s</u>ecretion <u>A</u>) is a nonfimbrial adhesin that is predominately expressed during murine urinary tract infection (UTI), binds to kidney epithelial cells, and promotes survival during invasive infections. The tosRCBDAEF operon encodes the secretory machinery necessary for TosA localization to the E...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768212/mtor-senses-environmental-cues-to-shape-the-fibroblast-like-synoviocyte-response-to-inflammation
#7
Thomas Karonitsch, Richard K Kandasamy, Felix Kartnig, Barbara Herdy, Karolina Dalwigk, Birgit Niederreiter, Johannes Holinka, Florian Sevelda, Reinhard Windhager, Martin Bilban, Thomas Weichhart, Marcus Säemann, Thomas Pap, Günter Steiner, Josef S Smolen, Hans P Kiener, Giulio Superti-Furga
Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic master regulators, including mTOR, regulate adaptive and innate immune responses. Resident mesenchymal tissue components are increasingly recognized as key effector cells in inflammation. Whether mTOR also controls the inflammatory response in fibroblasts is insufficiently studied. Here, we show that TNF signaling co-opts the mTOR pathway to shift synovial fibroblast (FLS) inflammation toward an IFN response. mTOR pathway activation is associated with decreased NF-κB-mediated gene expression (e...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764919/insights-into-steroid-sulfation-and-desulfation-pathways
#8
Paul A Foster, Jonathan Wolf Mueller
Sulfation and desulfation pathways represent highly dynamic ways of shuttling, repressing and re-activating steroid hormones, thus controlling their immense biological potency at the very heart of endocrinology. This theme currently experiences growing research interest from various sides, including, but not limited to, novel insights about PAPS synthase and sulfotransferase function and regulation, novel analytics for steroid conjugate detection and quantification. Within this review, we will also define how sulfation pathways are ripe for drug development strategies, which have translational potential to treat a number of conditions, including chronic inflammatory diseases and steroid-dependent cancers...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764400/low-cost-hpv-testing-and-the-prevalence-of-cervical-infection-in-asymptomatic-populations-in-guatemala
#9
Hong Lou, Eduardo Gharzouzi, Sarita Polo Guerra, Joël Fokom Domgue, Julie Sawitzke, Guillermo Villagran, Lisa Garland, Joseph F Boland, Sarah Wagner, Héctor Rosas, Jami Troxler, Heidi McMillen, Bailey Kessing, Enrique Alvirez, Miriam Castillo, Hesler Morales, Victor Argueta, Andert Rosingh, Femke J H B van Aerde-van Nunen, Griselda Lopez, Herbert M Pinedo, Mark Schiffman, Michael Dean, Roberto Orozco
BACKGROUND: A low cost and accurate method for detecting high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is important to permit HPV testing for cervical cancer prevention. We used a commercially available HPV method (H13, Hybribio) which was documented to function accurately in a reduced volume of cervical specimen to determine the most prevalent HPV types and the distribution of HPV infections in over 1795 cancer-free women in Guatemala undergoing primary screening for cervical cancer by cytology...
May 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764329/preliminary-results-of-the-first-cervical-cancer-screening-programme-in-the-north-eastern-region-of-romania
#10
Ioana Păvăleanu, Dumitru Gafiţanu, Nicolae Ioanid, Mihaela Grigore
Objective Cervical cancer represents a major health problem in Romania. A national population-based cervical cancer screening programme was launched in 2012. The aims of the study were to assess the participation rate and to estimate the prevalence of epithelial cell abnormalities in the first four years of the programme in North Eastern Romania. Methods The participation rate, representing the proportion of eligible women screened in the programme, was evaluated for 2012-2016. The prevalence of cytological abnormalities was estimated by age group and calendar year...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762428/outcomes-of-conservative-management-of-high-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesions-in-young-women
#11
Marette H Lee, Sarah J Finlayson, Ksenia Gukova, Gillian Hanley, Dianne Miller, Leslie Ann Sadownik
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine regression rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 and 3 in women younger than 24 years, followed conservatively for up to 24 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of colposcopy patients in clinic database based on the following: (1) younger than 24 years at first visit; (2) first visit January 1, 2010, to May 31, 2013, and at least 1 follow-up visit after diagnosis; (3) histologic diagnosis of CIN2+; and (4) optimal conservative management (observation for up to 24 months or to 24 years, whichever occurred first)...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762164/cervical-cancer-screening-among-hiv-infected-women-in-an-urban-u-s-safety-net-healthcare-system
#12
Arti Barnes, Andrea C Betts, Eric K Borton, Joanne M Sanders, Sandi L Pruitt, Claudia Werner, Andres Bran, Carolee D Estelle, Bijal A Balasubramanian, Stephen J Inrig, Ethan A Halm, Celette Sugg Skinner, Jasmin A Tiro
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about cervical cancer screening and results patterns among HIV infected (HIV+) women in real-world healthcare settings. We characterized two periods of screening opportunity. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: U.S. safety-net healthcare system in Dallas County, Texas. SUBJECTS: We analyzed data from electronic medical records (EMR) of 1,490 HIV+ women receiving care 2010-2014. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At baseline, we categorized a woman's Pap status 15 months prior to index date as under-screened (vs...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756460/inhaled-fasudil-lacks-pulmonary-selectivity-in-thromboxane-induced-acute-pulmonary-hypertension-in-newborn-lambs
#13
Shawn F L Hanson, Michael H Terry, Dafne T Moretta, Gordon G Power, Sean M Wilson, Farzana Alam, Fakhrul Ahsan, Arlin B Blood, Paresh C Giri
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a potentially deadly disease for infants and adults with few existing medical interventions and no cure. In PH, increased blood pressure in the pulmonary artery eventually leads to heart failure. Fasudil, an antagonist of Rho-kinase, causes vasodilation leading to decreased systemic artery pressure and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). This study compared the effects of fasudil administered as either an intravenous infusion or inhaled aerosol in newborn lambs...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755430/distribution-patterns-of-polyphosphate-metabolism-pathway-and-its-relationships-with-bacterial-durability-and-virulence
#14
Liang Wang, Jiawei Yan, Michael J Wise, Qinghua Liu, James Asenso, Yue Huang, Shiyun Dai, Zhanzhong Liu, Yan Du, Daoquan Tang
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer of orthophosphate residues. It is reported to be present in all life forms. Experimental studies showed that polyP plays important roles in bacterial durability and virulence. Here we investigated the relationships of polyP with bacterial durability and virulence theoretically. Bacterial lifestyle, environmental persistence, virulence factors (VFs), and species evolution are all included in the analysis. The presence of seven genes involved in polyP metabolism ( ppk1 , ppk2 , pap , surE , gppA , ppnK , and ppgK ) and 2595 core VFs were verified in 944 bacterial reference proteomes for distribution patterns via HMMER...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752797/region-based-multifocus-image-fusion-for-the-precise-acquisition-of-pap-smear-images
#15
Santiago Tello-Mijares, Jesús Bescós
A multifocus image fusion method to obtain a single focused image from a sequence of microscopic high-magnification Papanicolau source (Pap smear) images is presented. These images, captured each in a different position of the microscope lens, frequently show partially focused cells or parts of cells, which makes them unpractical for the direct application of image analysis techniques. The proposed method obtains a focused image with a high preservation of original pixels information while achieving a negligible visibility of the fusion artifacts...
May 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749646/left-and-right-ventricular-morphology-and-function-in-athletes-with-elevated-pulmonary-systolic-arterial-pressure
#16
Oana Mirea, Oana M Corîci, Octavian Istrătoaie, Ionuț Donoiu, Maria Iancău, Constantin Militaru
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and potential impact of elevated pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) on left and right cardiac morphology and function in young elite athletes. METHODS: In total, 85 professional athletes (40 endurance, 20 strength, and 25 mixed training, mean age 17.8 ± 4.0) and 50 sedentary controls (mean age 18.6 ± 3.3) underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination. Two-dimensional measurements of the right (RV) and left ventricle (LV) were obtained...
May 11, 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747993/long-term-effect-of-b-cells-depletion-alone-as-rescue-therapy-for-severe-thrombocytopenia-in-primary-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#17
Savino Sciascia, Massimo Radin, Irene Cecchi, Elena Rubini, Mario Bazzan, Dario Roccatello
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the long-term effect of B-cell depletion therapy with Rituximab (RTX) alone as rescue therapy in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) patients with severe thrombocytopenia. METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved data from patients who met the following inclusion criteria: (a) persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) positivity and fulfilled the Sydney criteria for PAPS (b) presented with severe thrombocytopenia (platelets <50,000/mm3 ) (c) were treated with RTX as a rescue therapy (d) had at least 1 year of follow-up after B-cells depletion therapy...
April 11, 2018: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746625/extended-human-papillomavirus-genotype-distribution-and-cervical-cytology-results-in-a-large-cohort-of-chinese-women-with-invasive-cervical-cancers-and-high-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesions
#18
Wei Jiang, R Marshall Austin, Lei Li, Kaixuan Yang, Chengquan Zhao
Objectives: To study the human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution of cervical cancer (CxCa) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) in China and to evaluate cotesting of HPV and cytology in CxCa screening. Methods: Patients with histopathologic CxCa and CIN 2/3 diagnoses reported between January 2012 and June 2016 and extended HPV genotype testing in the prior 6 months were documented in the institute. Available prior Papanicolaou (Pap) test results were also documented...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746569/5000-years-of-dietary-variations-of-prehistoric-farmers-in-the-great-hungarian-plain
#19
Beatriz Gamarra, Rachel Howcroft, Ashley McCall, János Dani, Zsigmond Hajdú, Emese Gyöngyvér Nagy, László D Szabó, László Domboróczki, Ildikó Pap, Pál Raczky, Antónia Marcsik, Zsuzsanna K Zoffmann, Tamás Hajdu, Robin N M Feeney, Ron Pinhasi
The development of farming was a catalyst for the evolution of the human diet from the varied subsistence practices of hunter-gatherers to the more globalised food economy we depend upon today. Although there has been considerable research into the dietary changes associated with the initial spread of farming, less attention has been given to how dietary choices continued to develop during subsequent millennia. A paleogenomic time transect for 5 millennia of human occupation in the Great Hungarian Plain spanning from the advent of the Neolithic to the Iron Age, showed major genomic turnovers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745561/-image-segmentation-and-classification-of-cytological-cells-based-on-multi-features-clustering-and-chain-splitting-model
#20
Pin Wang, Qianqian Liu, Lirui Wang, Yongming Li, Shujun Liu, Fang Yan
The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is very important. The main method of diagnosis is based on pathological analysis of microscopic image of Pap smear slide. The accurate segmentation and classification of images are two important phases of the analysis. In this paper, we proposed a new automatic segmentation and classification method for microscopic images of pancreas. For the segmentation phase, firstly multi-features Mean-shift clustering algorithm (MFMS) was applied to localize regions of nuclei. Then, chain splitting model (CSM) containing flexible mathematical morphology and curvature scale space corner detection method was applied to split overlapped cells for better accuracy and robustness...
August 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
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